Xylene Hazards in Your Home, Testing, Air Purification, and Health Information


Xylene is a toxic solvent and Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) found in many common household products such as paints, laquers, adhesives, rust preventers, thinners, gasoline, and permanent magic markers. This guide includes FAQs, Public Health Statement, Material Safety Data, and Toxicology Information for Xylene.


In case of emergencies involving Xylene contact your local emergency services or The National Poison Control Center (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States.

Inside a blood vessel may be Xylene molecules which can be carcinogenic, neurotoxic, and may also cause developmental abnormalities.




The above national hotline number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will provide further information about what to do in case of Xylene exposure. All local poison control centers in the U.S. use this national number. You should call if you have any questions about Xylene poisoning or Xylene poison prevention. It does NOT need to be an emergency. You can call for any reason, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Also, in case of suspected poisoning, take the container with you to the hospital, if possible. For more information, contact the American Association of Poison Control Centers - www.aapcc.org.





The Best Chemical Air Purifier for Xylene Removal, Odor Control, and Particle Filtration:
IQAir GC Multigas Air Purifier


The best air purifier for controlling Xylene fumes that may be continuously reintroduced into rooms from source materials such as paint, secondhand cigarette smoke, and adhesives s one that has a high amount of special chemical gas filtering media such as Activated Carbon Potassium Permanganate filtration such as what is found in professional gas mask cartridges.


Since tiny gas molecules such as Xylene and Formaldehyde will pass right through HEPA filters, air cleaners for Xylene removal must contain advanced gas filters besides just efficient air purifier HEPA filters which catch the tiniest of particulates, but not gases.


With this in mind, the best of breed air purifier for Xylene removal from indoor air is IQAir GC Chemisorber Multigas or VOC. It is proven to be one of the most effective air cleaners on the market today and will likely clean your air of both solids and gases such as Xylene and Formaldehyde with the highest efficiency compared to other air purifiers.


IQ Air GC Chemisorber contains an impressive 12 pounds of the advanced Carbon-Potassium Permanganate filter media and has a very sophisticated gas filtration cartridge system plus highly efficient HEPA filtration for the removal of the tiniest of solid particulates as well.


IQAir GC Multigas Air Purifier: Powerfully Efficient Air Cleaning of Solids and Gases


  1. Chemical Vapors Such as from Xylene and Formaldehyde Are Destroyed Via Oxidation Inside Active Alumina Pellet Filter Media

  2. Micro-charged Filtration Technology With Charged Fiber Structure for Particle Elimination

  3. Ultra-small Nano-particle Filtration of Solid Indoor Air Pollutants Such as Viruses, Smoke, and Microorganisms

  4. Advanced Activated Carbon Cartridge Filtration for Adsorption of Odors and Volatile Organic Compounds

  5. Efficiently filters out mold spores, pet dander, wildfire / cooking / cigarette smoke, pollen, most odors, chemical molecules such as Benzene, and most general indoor air pollutants.

  6. The IQ Air GC MultiGas is a Top Rated Air Purifier for Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS).











Xylene and Hazardous Waste Sites

This public health statement tells you about xylene and the effects of exposure to it.

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identifies the most serious hazardous waste sites in the nation. These sites are then placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) and are targeted for long-term federal clean-up activities.

Xylene has been found in at least 844 of the 1,662 current or former NPL sites. Although the total number of NPL sites evaluated for this substance is not known, the possibility exists that the number of sites at which xylene is found may increase in the future as more sites are evaluated. This information is important because these sites may be sources of exposure and exposure to this substance may harm you.

When a substance is released either from a large area, such as an industrial plant, or from a container, such as a drum or bottle, it enters the environment. Such a release does not always lead to exposure. You can be exposed to a substance only when you come in contact with it. You may be exposed by breathing, eating, or drinking the substance, or by skin contact.

If you are exposed to xylene, many factors will determine whether you will be harmed. These factors include the dose (how much), the duration (how long), and how you come in contact with it. You must also consider any other chemicals you are exposed to and your age, sex, diet, family traits, lifestyle, and state of health.


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Xylene FAQs

Xylene FAQs and Public Health Information



1.1 What is xylene?

In this report, the terms xylene, xylenes, and total xylenes will be used interchangeably. There are three forms of xylene in which the methyl groups vary on the benzene ring: meta-xylene, ortho-xylene, and para-xylene (m-, o-, and p-xylene). These different forms are referred to as isomers. Drawings of the three different isomers are shown in Chapter 4. The term total xylenes refers to all three isomers of xylene (m-, o-, and p-xylene). Mixed xylene is a mixture of the three isomers and usually also contains 6-15% ethylbenzene. Xylene is also known as xylol or dimethylbenzene. Xylene is primarily a synthetic chemical. Chemical industries produce xylene from petroleum. Xylene also occurs naturally in petroleum and coal tar and is formed during forest fires, to a small extent. It is a colorless, flammable liquid with a sweet odor.

Xylene is one of the top 30 chemicals produced in the United States in terms of volume. It is primarily used as a solvent (a liquid that can dissolve other substances) in the printing, rubber, and leather industries. Along with other solvents, xylene is also widely used as a cleaning agent, a thinner for paint, and in varnishes. Xylene is used, to a lesser extent, as a material in the chemical, plastics, and synthetic fiber industries and as an ingredient in the coating of fabrics and papers. Isomers of xylene are used in the manufacture of certain polymers (chemical compounds), such as plastics. Xylene is found in small amounts in airplane fuel and gasoline.

Xylene evaporates and burns easily. Xylene does not mix well with water; however, it does mix with alcohol and many other chemicals. Most people begin to smell xylene in air at 0.08-3.7 parts of xylene per million parts of air (ppm) and in water at 0.53-1.1 ppm.




If you are concerned about Xylene fumes, toxic black mold, toxins from cigarette smoke, or if you would like to know which of over 400 volatile organic compounds like Xylene may be contaminating your indoor air, I recommend you easily and accurately test your indoor air using a high quality indoor air quality test kit



1.2 What happens to xylene when it enters the environment?

Xylene is a liquid, and it can leak into soil, surface water (creeks, streams, rivers), or groundwater. Xylene can enter the environment when it is made, packaged, shipped, or used. Most xylene that is accidentally released evaporates into the air, although some is released into rivers or lakes. Xylene can also enter soil, water, or air in large amounts after an accidental spill or as a result of an environmental leak during storage or burial at a waste site.

Since xylene evaporates easily, most xylene that gets into soil and water (if not trapped underground) is expected to go into the air where it is broken down by sunlight into other less harmful chemicals within a couple of days. For this reason, xylene is rarely found in high concentrations in topsoil or surface water (river, creeks) unless there has been a recent spill or continuing source of contamination.

Any xylene that does not evaporate quickly from soil or water is broken down by small organisms. Only very small amounts are taken up by plants, fish, and birds.

Xylene below the soil surface may travel down through the soil and enter underground water (groundwater). Xylene may remain in groundwater for several months before it is finally broken down by small organisms. If a large amount of xylene enters soil from an accidental spill, a hazardous waste site, or a landfill, it may travel through the soil and contaminate drinking water wells.


1.3 How might I be exposed to xylene?

Xylene is primarily released from industrial sources, in automobile exhaust, and during its use as a solvent. Hazardous waste disposal sites and spills of xylene into the environment are also possible sources of exposure. You are most likely to be exposed to xylene by breathing it in contaminated air. Typical levels of xylene measured in outdoor air in the United States range from 1 to 30 parts of xylene per billion parts of air (a part per billion [ppb] is one thousandth of a part per million [ppm]; one ppm equals 1,000 ppb). Typical levels of xylene measured in indoor air range from 1 to 10 ppb.

Xylene is sometimes released into water and soil as a result of the use, storage, and transport of petroleum products. Little information exists about the amount of xylene in surface water and soil. However, levels of xylene in contaminated groundwater have been reported to be as high as 10,000 ppb.

You may be exposed to xylene by drinking or eating xylene-contaminated water or food. Xylene is not commonly found in drinking water. When it is, the levels of xylene are typically below 2 ppb. Xylene has been found in many types of foods at levels ranging from 1 to 100 ppb.

You may also come in contact with xylene from a variety of consumer products, including gasoline, paint, varnish, shellac, rust preventives, and cigarette smoke. Breathing vapors from these types of products can expose you to xylene. In some cases, indoor levels of xylene can be higher than outdoor levels, especially in buildings with poor ventilation. Skin contact with products containing xylene, such as solvents, lacquers, paint thinners and removers, and pesticides may also expose you to xylene.

Besides painters and paint industry workers, others who may be exposed to xylene include biomedical laboratory workers, distillers of xylene, wood processing plant workers, plastic composite manufacturing, semiconductor manufacturing industry, automobile garage workers, metal workers, petrochemical manufacturing, and furniture refinishers. Intalagio printing and Silk-Screen Printing are also activities that may result in Xylene exposure. Workers who routinely come in contact with xylene-containing solvents in the workplace are the population most likely to be exposed to high levels of xylene.

List of Household Products Containing Xylene

The below list of household products containing Xylene includes: Brand / Category / Form / and Percent Xylene. Other synonyms and keywords which may indicate the presence of Xylene as an ingredient of common household products are as follows: Xylenes (mixture of 1,3,4-xylene, 1,3,5-xylene, and 1,3,6-xylene); Benzene, dimethyl; Dimethylbenzene; Violet 3; Xylene, mixed isomers, pure; Xylenes (mixed)

  • Number 7 Tar And Bug Remover Auto products liquid 18% Xylene
  • STP Carburetor Spray Cleaner Auto products aerosol <6% Xylene
  • STP Fuel Injector/Carburetor Cleaner Auto products liquid 1-2% Xylene
  • Gumout Professional Brake Parts Cleaner Auto products aerosol 10-20% Xylene
  • STP Octane Performance Booster Auto products liquid 1-2% Xylene
  • STP Super Concentrated Fuel Injector Cleaner Auto products liquid 1-2% Xylene
  • Westleys Rubberized Undercoating Auto products aerosol <5% Xylene
  • Champion Sprayon Brake Parts Cleaner Auto products aerosol <1% Xylene
  • Champion Sprayon Flush Off Degreaser Auto products aerosol 1 - 5% Xylene
  • Sprayway Automotive Carburetor and Choke Cleaner No. 720 Auto products aerosol 15-25% Xylene
  • Gumout Professional Non Chlorinated Brake Parts Cleaner-09/06/2002 Auto Products aerosol 10-20% Xylene
  • Dupli-Color Engine Enamel with Ceramic, Ford Red Auto products aerosol 19% Xylene
  • Dupli-Color Engine Enamel with Ceramic, GM Blue Auto products aerosol 16% Xylene
  • Dupli-Color High Heat Paint with Ceramic, White Auto products aerosol 11% Xylene
  • Dupli-Color High Heat Paint with Ceramic, Red Auto products aerosol 9% Xylene
  • Dupli-Color High Heat Paint with Ceramic, Blue Auto products aerosol 11% Xylene
  • Dupli-Color Hot Tires, Red Auto products liquid 3% Xylene
  • Pyroil Carb and Choke Cleaner Auto products liquid 20-30% Xylene
  • Meguiars Fine Cut Cleaner Auto products liquid 2-7% Xylene
  • Meguiars Body Scrub-Auto Auto products liquid 2-7% Xylene
  • Carb Medic Carburetor Choke and Valve Cleaner Auto products liquid 40-50% Xylene
  • Trouble Free Choke and Carb Cleaner Auto products liquid% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Metallic, Brilliant Metal Finish, Matte Aluminum Auto products aerosol 1.0% Xylene
  • Mercury Marine Touch-Up Paint, Clear Coat, Aerosol Auto products liquid 13% Xylene
  • Mercury Marine Touch-Up Paint, Force Graphite Gray, Aerosol Auto products liquid 11% Xylene
  • Mercury Marine Touch-Up Paint, Mariner Nickel Gray, Aerosol Auto products liquid 12% Xylene
  • Mercury Marine Touch-Up Paint, Phantom Black, Aerosol Auto products liquid 13% Xylene
  • Gumout Tune Up Spray Auto products pump spray 70-80% Xylene
  • STP Carburetor Spray Cleaner-01/11/1999 Auto products aerosol 30-40% Xylene
  • STP Gas Treatment Auto products liquid 1-2% Xylene
  • Gumout Air Intake and Throttle Body Cleaner Auto products aerosol 70-80% Xylene
  • STP Octane Performance Booster-11/13/1998 Auto products liquid 1-3% Xylene
  • Westleys Citrus Tar and Bug Remover Auto products aerosol 1-10% Xylene
  • Champion Carburetor Cleaner Auto products aerosol 5 - 10% Xylene
  • Carb Medic Carburetor Choke and Valve Cleaner-08/01/2002 Auto products liquid 10-20% Xylene
  • Dupli-Color Engine Enamel with Ceramic, Ford Dark Blue Auto products aerosol 16% Xylene
  • Dupli-Color High Heat Paint with Ceramic, Black Auto products aerosol 5% Xylene
  • Dupli-Color High Heat Paint with Ceramic, Aluminum Auto products aerosol 5% Xylene
  • Dupli-Color High Heat Paint with Ceramic, Orange Auto products aerosol 10% Xylene
  • Dupli-Color Hot Tires, White Auto products liquid 2% Xylene
  • Dupli-Color Hot Tires, Yellow Auto products liquid 3% Xylene
  • Meguiars Deep Crystal Paint Cleaner Auto products liquid 2-7% Xylene
  • Techron Pro Gard Clean Up Auto products liquid <3.0% Xylene
  • Slick 50 Fuel System Formula Auto products liquid <5% Xylene
  • Dupli Color Engine Paints Auto products aerosol 0-25% Xylene
  • Carb Medic Carb/Choke/Valve Cleaner Auto products aerosol 40-50% Xylene
  • Mercury Marine Premium Plus 2-Cycle TC-W3 Outboard Oil Auto products liquid 0.02-0.04% Xylene
  • Mercury Marine Touch-Up Paint, Force Damascus Steel Gray, Aerosol Auto products liquid 11% Xylene
  • Mercury Marine Touch-Up Paint, Mariner Light Gray, Bottle Auto products liquid 30% Xylene
  • Mercury Marine Touch-Up Paint, Mariner Silver, Aerosol Auto products liquid 12% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Stops Rust Protective Enamel Spray 7738 Hunter Green Hobby/Craft aerosol 10% Xylene
  • Radio Shack PlastiDip Spray, Black Hobby/Craft aerosol 16% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Stops Rust Protective Enamel Spray 7754 Anodized Bronze Hobby/Craft aerosol 20% Xylene
  • Radio Shack PlastiDip Spray, Green Hobby/Craft aerosol 16% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Stops Rust Protective Enamel Spray 7762 Sunrise Red Hobby/Craft aerosol 15% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Stops Rust Protective Enamel Spray 7768 Burgundy Hobby/Craft aerosol 15% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Stops Rust Protective Enamel Spray 7771 Sand Hobby/Craft aerosol 15% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Stops Rust Protective Enamel Spray 7798 Semi Gloss Black Hobby/Craft aerosol 10% Xylene
  • Radio Shack PlastiDip Spray, Yellow Hobby/Craft aerosol 16% Xylene
  • Decorating Magic Prof Spray Glue Hobby/Craft aerosol 1-5% Xylene
  • Rust Curb Fast Dry Gloss Black Hobby/Craft aerosol <1% Xylene
  • Santa Snow Frost Hobby/Craft aerosol 1-5% Xylene
  • SprayPAK Enamel Paint-Flat Black Hobby/Craft aerosol 1 - 5% Xylene
  • Rust Curb Fast Dry Brown Hobby/Craft aerosol <1% Xylene
  • Rust Curb Fast Dry Colonial White Hobby/Craft aerosol <1% Xylene
  • Rust Curb Fast Dry Forest Green Hobby/Craft aerosol <1% Xylene
  • Rust Curb Fast Dry Royal Blue Hobby/Craft aerosol <1% Xylene
  • SprayPAK Enamel-Off White Hobby/Craft aerosol <1% Xylene
  • Aleenes Platinum Bond Glass & Bead Slick Surfaces Adhesive Hobby/Craft viscous liquid 11.0% Xylene
  • Rust Curb Fast Dry Almond Hobby/Craft aerosol <1% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Textured Aerosol 7220 Black Hobby/Craft aerosol 20% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Textured Aerosol 7222 Forest Green Hobby/Craft aerosol 20% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Textured Aerosol 7224 Nickel Hobby/Craft aerosol 20% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Textured Aerosol 7226 Bronze Hobby/Craft aerosol 25% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Textured Aerosol 7228 Sage Hobby/Craft aerosol 25% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Hammered Finish Aerosol 7211 Deep Green Hobby/Craft aerosol 10% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Hammered Finish Aerosol 7213 Silver Hobby/Craft aerosol 10% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Hammered Finish Aerosol 7215 Black Hobby/Craft aerosol 10% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Hammered Finish Aerosol 7217 Bright Red Hobby/Craft aerosol 10% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Hammered Finish Aerosol 7219 Verde Green Hobby/Craft aerosol 10% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Stops Rust Protective Enamel Spray 7721 Fresh Blue Hobby/Craft aerosol 15% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Stops Rust Protective Enamel Spray 7723 Navy Hobby/Craft aerosol 20% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Stops Rust Protective Enamel Spray 7727 Royal Blue Hobby/Craft aerosol 15% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Stops Rust Protective Enamel Spray 7731 Grass Green Hobby/Craft aerosol 15% Xylene
  • Radio Shack PlastiDip Spray, Clear Hobby/Craft aerosol 16% Xylene
  • Radio Shack PlastiDip Spray, White Hobby/Craft aerosol 16% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Stops Rust Protective Enamel Spray 7747 Sunburst Yellow Hobby/Craft aerosol 15% Xylene
  • Radio Shack PlastiDip Spray, Blue Hobby/Craft aerosol 16% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Stops Rust Protective Enamel Spray 7755 Light Olive Green Hobby/Craft aerosol 15% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Stops Rust Protective Enamel Spray 7765 Regal Red Hobby/Craft aerosol 20% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Stops Rust Protective Enamel Spray 7770 Almond Hobby/Craft aerosol 15% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Stops Rust Protective Enamel Spray 7797 Semi Gloss White Hobby/Craft aerosol 20% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Stops Rust Protective Enamel Spray 7763 Carnival Red Hobby/Craft aerosol 10% Xylene
  • Radio Shack PlastiDip Spray, Red Hobby/Craft aerosol 16% Xylene
  • ColorSpray Matte Finish Hobby/Craft aerosol 10 - 15% Xylene
  • Rust Curb Fast Dry Flat Black Hobby/Craft aerosol 1 - 5% Xylene
  • ProsALL Progalv Hobby/Craft aerosol 1 - 5% Xylene
  • SprayPAK Enamel-Clear Hobby/Craft aerosol <= 1% Xylene
  • SprayPAK Enamel-Gloss Black Hobby/Craft aerosol <= 1% Xylene
  • Rust Curb Fast Dry Bright Red Hobby/Craft aerosol <1% Xylene
  • Rust Curb Fast Dry Burgundy Hobby/Craft aerosol <1% Xylene
  • Rust Curb Fast Dry Flat White Hobby/Craft aerosol <1% Xylene
  • Rust Curb Fast Dry Gray Hobby/Craft aerosol <1% Xylene
  • Rust Curb Fast Dry Yellow Hobby/Craft aerosol <1% Xylene
  • SprayPAK Enamel-Mocca Brown Hobby/Craft aerosol <1% Xylene
  • Duncan Bright Gold Overglaze Hobby/Craft liquid% Xylene
  • Champion Sprayon Primers-Grey Hobby/Craft aerosol <1% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Textured Aerosol 7221 Dark Pewter Hobby/Craft aerosol 20% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Textured Aerosol 7223 Sandstone Hobby/Craft aerosol 20% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Textured Aerosol 7225 White Hobby/Craft aerosol 20% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Textured Aerosol 7227 Rust Hobby/Craft aerosol 25% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Hammered Finish Aerosol 7210 Gold Hobby/Craft aerosol 10% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Hammered Finish Aerosol 7212 Light Blue Hobby/Craft aerosol 10% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Hammered Finish Aerosol 7214 Gray Hobby/Craft aerosol 10% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Hammered Finish Aerosol 7216 Deep Blue Hobby/Craft aerosol 10% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Hammered Finish Aerosol 7218 Dark Bronze Hobby/Craft aerosol 10% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Stops Rust Protective Enamel Spray 7701 Crystal Clear Hobby/Craft aerosol 15% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Stops Rust Protective Enamel Spray 7722 Harbor Blue Hobby/Craft aerosol 15% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Stops Rust Protective Enamel Spray 7724 Sail Blue Hobby/Craft aerosol 20% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Stops Rust Protective Enamel Spray 7729 Teal Gloss Hobby/Craft aerosol 15% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Stops Rust Protective Enamel Spray 7733 Dark Hunter Green Hobby/Craft aerosol 15% Xylene
  • Valspar One & Only Multi Purpose Gray Metal Primer Home inside aerosol <10% Xylene
  • Krylon Indoor/Outdoor Epoxy Enamel, Flat Black Home inside aerosol 21% Xylene
  • Krylon Indoor/Outdoor Epoxy Enamel, High Gloss Black Home inside aerosol 25% Xylene
  • Krylon Indoor/Outdoor Epoxy Enamel, High Gloss Hunter Green Home inside aerosol 25% Xylene
  • Valspar One & Only Multi Purpose Gloss Enamel, Almond Home inside aerosol <10% Xylene
  • Krylon Industrial Maintenance Metallic Paint, Dull Aluminum Home inside aerosol 4% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint Chrome Home inside aerosol 4% Xylene
  • Olympic Interior Oil Based Polyurethane, Semi Gloss Finish Home inside aerosol <20% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Flat Paint, Flat White Home inside aerosol 11% Xylene
  • Krylon Indust. Maintenance/Touch Up Spray, Glossy White Home inside aerosol 7% Xylene
  • Kiwi Outdoor Wet Pruf Home inside aerosol% Xylene
  • SprayPAK Vandal Mark Remover Home inside aerosol 1 - 5% Xylene
  • Blair No Odor Spray Fix Home inside aerosol 5-10% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Textured Spray Paint, White Home inside aerosol 20.0% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Specialty Appliance Epoxy Ultra Hard Enamel, White Home inside aerosol 15.0% Xylene
  • Painters Touch by Rust Oleum Sandable Primer, Red Primer Home inside aerosol 20.0% Xylene
  • American Accents by Rust Oleum, Clear Top Coat Home inside aerosol 10.0% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Painters Touch Specialty, Fluorescent Green Home inside aerosol 10.0% Xylene
  • Krylon Industrial Maintenance Metallic Paint, Bright Gold Home inside aerosol 15% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, Copper Metallic Home inside aerosol 20% Xylene
  • Krylon Indust. Maintenance/Touch Up Spray, Antique White Home inside aerosol 7% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Epoxy Enamel, Gloss Almond Home inside aerosol 22% Xylene
  • Krylon Indust. Maintenance/Touch Up Spray, Navajo White Home inside aerosol 7% Xylene
  • Krylon Indust. Maintenance/Touch Up Spray, Stone Gray Home inside aerosol 10% Xylene
  • Krylon Indust. Maintenance/Touch Up Spray, Oyster Gray Home inside aerosol 8% Xylene
  • Krylon Indust. Maintenance/Touch Up Spray, Semi Flat Black Home inside aerosol 9% Xylene
  • Krylon Indoor/Outdoor Epoxy Enamel, Flat White Home inside aerosol 17% Xylene
  • Krylon Indust. Maintenance/Touch Up Spray, Sun Yellow Home inside aerosol 8% Xylene
  • Krylon Indoor/Outdoor Epoxy Enamel, High Gloss White Home inside aerosol 21% Xylene
  • Krylon Indoor/Outdoor Epoxy Enamel, High Gloss Cherry Red Home inside aerosol 25% Xylene
  • Valspar One & Only Interior/Exterior Multi Purpose Flat Black Finish Home inside aerosol <10% Xylene
  • Krylon Industrial Maintenance Metallic Paint, Bright Silver Home inside aerosol 4% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Satin 2 Home inside aerosol 8-11% Xylene
  • Olympic Interior Oil Based Polyurethane, Gloss Finish Home inside aerosol <20% Xylene
  • One Step Fine Wood Floor Care Wax Home inside liquid 1-3% Xylene
  • Howard Restor-A-Finish Home inside liquid 2.48% Xylene
  • Blair Matte Spray Fix Home inside aerosol 5-10% Xylene
  • Guardsman AFTA Spot Remover Home inside liquid 10-25% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Stops Rust, Crystal Clear Spray Home inside aerosol 15.0% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Specialty High Heat Resistant, White Home inside aerosol 20.0% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Hammered Unique Hammered Finish, Light Blue Home inside aerosol 10.0% Xylene
  • Painters Touch by Rust Oleum Multi Purpose Paint, Matte Clear Home inside aerosol 10.0% Xylene
  • Americas Finest by Rust Oleum, Fast Dry All Purpose Int./Ext, Flat White Home inside aerosol 25.0% Xylene
  • American Accents by Rust Oleum, The Tapestry Color Collection, Nutmeg Home inside aerosol 15.0% Xylene
  • Krylon Industrial Maintenance Metallic Paint, Gold Home inside aerosol 15% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, Brass Metallic Home inside aerosol 15% Xylene
  • Krylon Indust. Maintenance/Touch Up Spray, Ivory Home inside aerosol 9% Xylene
  • Krylon Indust. Maintenance/Touch Up Spray, Semi Gloss White Home inside aerosol 10% Xylene
  • Krylon Indust. Maintenance/Touch Up Spray, Glossy Black Home inside aerosol 8% Xylene
  • Krylon Indust. Maintenance/Touch Up Spray, Pewter Gray Home inside aerosol 8% Xylene
  • Krylon Indust. Maintenance/Touch Up Spray, Smoke Gray Home inside aerosol 10% Xylene
  • Krylon Indust. Maintenance/Touch Up Spray, Black Lacquer Home inside aerosol 7% Xylene
  • Glidden Ultra Hide Alkyd Semi Gloss Interior, White Tint Base Home maintenance liquid 0.1-1.0% Xylene
  • Glidden Ultra Hide Alkyd Semi Gloss Interior, Deep Tint Base Home maintenance liquid 0.1-1.0% Xylene
  • Goof Off Home maintenance liquid 90-95% Xylene
  • OSI Pro Series Formula # 38 Drywall & Metal Framing Adhesive Home maintenance cartridge 5-10% Xylene
  • Krylon Satin Finish Varnish 7002 Home maintenance liquid 15% Xylene
  • PL 200 Construction Adhesive Home maintenance cartridge 2.0% Xylene
  • OSI Pro Series RS 225 Roof Coating Home maintenance liquid 5-10% Xylene
  • OSI Pro Series PR 255 Polyurethane Sealant-10/22/2002 Home maintenance cartridge <5% Xylene
  • Champion Cold Galvanize Home maintenance aerosol 1-5% Xylene
  • Quikrete Polyurethane Construction Adhesive No. 9902-10 Home maintenance paste 3-7% Xylene
  • Sherwin-Williams Wood Classics FastDry Sanding Sealer, Clear Home maintenance liquid 7% Xylene
  • Sherwin-Williams Zinc Clad 5 Organic Zinc Rich Primer Home maintenance liquid 3% Xylene
  • Sherwin-Williams Setfast Acrylic Modified Alkyd Zone Marking Paint, White Home maintenance liquid 5% Xylene
  • Sherwin-Williams SherCrete SW-1 One Part Polyurethane Sealant White Home maintenance paste 3% Xylene
  • Diamond Vogel High Solids Miracle Glaze Urethane Home maintenance liquid 20-50% Xylene
  • Diamond Vogel Old Masters Quick Dry Varnish Satin Home maintenance liquid 1-5% Xylene
  • SprayPAK Enamel-Flat White Home maintenance aerosol <1% Xylene
  • Tam-Pro Q-10 Flashing Cement Home maintenance paste% Xylene
  • Tam-Pro Q-20 Premium SBS Flashing Cement Home maintenance paste% Xylene
  • Tam-Pro 814 Low VOC Asphalt Primer Home maintenance liquid <1% Xylene
  • Tam-Pro 813 Asphalt Primer Home maintenance liquid <1% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, 1502 Flat White Home maintenance aerosol 7% Xylene
  • Tam-Pro 829 Fibered Roof Coating Home maintenance paste <1% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, 1504 Ivory Home maintenance aerosol 9% Xylene
  • Tam-Pro Q-5 Heavy-Bodied Flashing Cement Home maintenance paste <1% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, 1508 Semi Gloss White Home maintenance aerosol 10% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, 1601 Glossy Black Home maintenance aerosol 9% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, 1605 Stone Gray Home maintenance aerosol 10% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, 1607-Oyster Gray Home maintenance aerosol 8% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, 1613-Semi Flat Black Home maintenance aerosol 9% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, 1808-Maize Home maintenance aerosol 8% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, 1901-Regal Blue Home maintenance aerosol 8% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, 1907 Navy Blue Home maintenance aerosol 9% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, 1911 Violet Home maintenance aerosol 9% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, 1913 Purple Home maintenance aerosol 8% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, 2001 Hunter Green Home maintenance aerosol 8% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, 2015 Teal Green Home maintenance aerosol 8% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, 2017-Pistachio Home maintenance aerosol 9% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, 2101 Cherry Red Home maintenance aerosol 8% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, 2117 Dusty Pink Home maintenance aerosol 9% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Professional Spray Enamel, Cold Galvanizing Compound Home maintenance aerosol 5.0% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, 2411 Pumpkin Orange Home maintenance aerosol 9% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Professional High Performance Enamel, Gloss White Home maintenance aerosol 20.0% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, 2415 Rose Home maintenance aerosol 9% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, 2504 Beige Home maintenance aerosol 9% Xylene
  • Xylol Klean Strip Cleaner Home maintenance liquid 80-85% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, 2508 Mahogany Home maintenance aerosol 10% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, 3501 Navy Blue Satin Home maintenance aerosol 9% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, 3503 Burgundy Satin Home maintenance aerosol 8% Xylene
  • One Stroke Wood Grain Paint Home maintenance liquid 1-5% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, 3506 Rose Satin Home maintenance aerosol 8% Xylene
  • PL 100 Drywall Adhesive Home maintenance semi-solid <2% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, 3508 Grape Satin Home maintenance aerosol 9% Xylene
  • PL Pro 2000 Adhesive/Sealant-White Home maintenance paste 5-10% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, 3410 Ivory Satin Home maintenance aerosol 8% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, 3512 Sage Satin Home maintenance aerosol 9% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, 3514 Stone Gray Satin Home maintenance aerosol 10% Xylene
  • Krylon Upside Down Marking Paint Home maintenance aerosol 1-53% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Satin Aerosol 7725 Federal Blue Home maintenance aerosol 20% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Enamel Home maintenance aerosol 10-30% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Satin Aerosol 7730 Teal Home maintenance aerosol 20% Xylene
  • Colorworks from Krylon Appliance Epoxy Home maintenance liquid 12-18% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Satin Aerosol 7737 Spruce Green Home maintenance aerosol 20% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Metallic Topcoats Home maintenance aerosol 0-25% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Satin Aerosol 7742 Summer Straw Home maintenance aerosol 20% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Satin Aerosol 7744 Cornmeal Home maintenance aerosol 30% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Gloss Protective Enamel, Antique White Home maintenance aerosol 15.0% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Satin Aerosol 7761 Outdoor Decor Red Primer Home maintenance aerosol 20% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Stops Rust Clean Metal Primer, White Home maintenance aerosol 20.0% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Satin Aerosol 7777 Satin Black Home maintenance aerosol 10% Xylene
  • StoneTech High Gloss Lacquer Home maintenance liquid <14% Xylene
  • Glidden Ultra Hide Alkyd Semi Gloss Interior Wall & Trim Enamel, White Home maintenance liquid 0.1-1.0% Xylene
  • Glidden Ultra Hide Alkyd Semi Gloss Interior, Intermediate Tint Base Home maintenance liquid 0.1-1.0% Xylene
  • Champion Sprayon Epoxy Paint-Almond Home maintenance aerosol 1-5% Xylene
  • PL Brands Nail Pro Construction Adhesive Home maintenance cartridge <2.0% Xylene
  • Ford DK Blue Engine Acrylic Enamel Home maintenance aerosol 14.1% Xylene
  • OSI Pro Series PR 255 Polyurethane Sealant Home maintenance cartridge 5-10% Xylene
  • Polyseamseal Outdoor Clear Sealant Home maintenance cartridge 15-25% Xylene
  • OSI Quickbond Waterproof Tileboard Adhesive Home maintenance mastic <5.0% Xylene
  • OSI Pro Series Extend Heavy Duty Exterior Thermoplastic Sealant Home maintenance cartridge 10-15% Xylene
  • OSI Pro Series Quad Advanced Formula Sealant Home maintenance tube 10-15% Xylene
  • OSI Pro Series RT 600 Roof Tile Adhesive-06/02/2003 Home maintenance cartridge <5% Xylene
  • Behr 601 Clear Lac Semi Gloss Home maintenance liquid 2% Xylene
  • OSI Pro Series Formula # 38 Drywall & Metal Framing Adhesive-10/18/2002 Home maintenance cartridge <2% Xylene
  • Champion Epoxy Gloss White Home maintenance aerosol 1 - 5% Xylene
  • Quikrete Polyurethane Non-Sag Sealant No. 8660-11 Home maintenance paste 1-5% Xylene
  • Quikrete Polyurethane Sealant, Self-Leveling No. 8660-10, 8660-30 Home maintenance paste 1-5% Xylene
  • Sherwin-Williams Wood Classics Fast Dry Oil Varnish, Satin Home maintenance liquefied gas 4% Xylene
  • Sherwin-Williams Wood Classics Interior Wood Oil Stain, Natural Home maintenance liquid 2% Xylene
  • Sherwin-Williams All Surface Enamel Oil Base Primer, White Primer Home maintenance liquid 16% Xylene
  • Sherwin-Williams SherCrete SW-1 One Part Polyurethane Bronze Home maintenance paste 3% Xylene
  • Sherwin-Williams Pro Select Stampede One Part Polyurethane Sealant Home maintenance liquid 3% Xylene
  • Diamond Vogel Old Masters Super Quick Sanding Sealer Home maintenance liquid 1-5% Xylene
  • Tam-Pro M-3 Adhesive Home maintenance paste% Xylene
  • Tam-Pro Q-15 Elastomeric Flashing Cement Home maintenance paste% Xylene
  • Tam-Pro Q-20 Premium SBS Flashing Cement Tube Home maintenance tube% Xylene
  • Tam-Pro 814 Asphalt Primer Home maintenance liquid <1% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, Glossy White Home maintenance aerosol 7% Xylene
  • Tam-Pro 808 Cold-Application Cement Home maintenance paste <1% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, 1503 Antique White Home maintenance aerosol 8% Xylene
  • Tam-Pro 801 Plastic Roof Cement Home maintenance paste <1% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, 1506 Almond Home maintenance aerosol 9% Xylene
  • Tam-Pro 803 Wet or Dry Surface Cement Plastic Roof Cement Home maintenance paste <1% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, 1509 Navajo White Home maintenance aerosol 7% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, 1604 Shadow Gray Home maintenance aerosol 9% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, 1606-Pewter Gray Home maintenance aerosol 10% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, 1608-Smoke Gray Home maintenance aerosol 10% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, 1806-Sun Yellow Home maintenance aerosol 8% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, 1900 Pacific Blue Home maintenance aerosol 9% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, 1905 Colonial Blue Home maintenance aerosol 9% Xylene
  • Titebond 230 Acrylic Wood Flooring Adhesive Home maintenance paste 1.26% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, 1910 True Blue Home maintenance aerosol 8% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, 1912 Grape Home maintenance aerosol 9% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, 1914 Rich Plum Home maintenance aerosol 9% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, 2003 Jade Green Home maintenance aerosol 9% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, 2016 Emerald Green Home maintenance aerosol 8% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, 2018 Light Sage Home maintenance aerosol 9% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, 2108 Banner Red Home maintenance aerosol 9% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, 2118 Burgundy Home maintenance aerosol 8% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Professional Primer, Gray Primer Home maintenance aerosol 15.0% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, 2414 Mauve Home maintenance aerosol 9% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Professional Inverted Marking Paint, Caution Blue Home maintenance aerosol 5.0% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, 2501 Leather Brown Home maintenance aerosol 9% Xylene
  • Klean Strip Deep Down Stain Stripper Home maintenance aerosol <12% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, 2507 Warm Brown Home maintenance aerosol 9% Xylene
  • Zinc It Electric Grade Lubricant Home maintenance aerosol 7.5% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, 3516 Victorian Blue Home maintenance aerosol 7% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, 3502 Hunter Green Satin Home maintenance aerosol 9% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, 3505 Colonial Blue Satin Home maintenance aerosol 8% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, 3507 Banner Red Satin Home maintenance aerosol 9% Xylene
  • PL 185 Wallboard Adhesive Home maintenance semi-solid <5% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, 3509 Jade Satin Home maintenance aerosol 8% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, 3511 Almond Satin Home maintenance aerosol 9% Xylene
  • Krylon Interior/Exterior Paint, 3513 True Blue Satin Home maintenance aerosol 8% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Satin Aerosol 7720 Sage Home maintenance aerosol 20% Xylene
  • Colorworks from Krylon Paint Home maintenance aerosol 2-13% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Satin Aerosol 7728 Navy Blue Home maintenance aerosol 25% Xylene
  • Colorworks from Krylon Lacquer Spray Home maintenance aerosol 0-7% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Satin Aerosol 7732 Hunter Green Home maintenance aerosol 20% Xylene
  • Color All Spray Enamel Home maintenance aerosol 5-18% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Satin Aerosol 7739 Charcoal Green Home maintenance aerosol 20% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Satin Aerosol 7740 Mediterranean Teal Home maintenance aerosol 20% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Satin Aerosol 7760 Heritage Red Home maintenance aerosol 20% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Bright Coat Metallic Finish, Chrome Home maintenance aerosol 15.0% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Satin Aerosol 7767 Redwood Home maintenance aerosol 20% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Premium Satin Aerosol 7791 Satin White Home maintenance aerosol 20% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Painters Touch, Frosted Glass Finish Home maintenance aerosol 10.0% Xylene
  • Champion Sprayon Field Marking & Striping Paint Landscaping/Yard aerosol <1% Xylene
  • Spectracide Pruning Seal-10/23/2000 Landscaping/Yard liquid 3% Xylene
  • Rust Oleum Professional Inverted Striping Paint, Yellow Landscaping/Yard aerosol 10.0% Xylene
  • 40:1 Poulan 2 Cycle Engine Oil with Stabilizer Landscaping/Yard liquid <0.5% Xylene
  • Spectracide Pruning Seal Landscaping/Yard aerosol 3.0% Xylene
  • Lacquer Spraying, Clear, TT-L-58E Personal care/use spray% Xylene
  • Kiwi Outdoor Wet Pruf Paste Personal care/use paste 1-3% Xylene
  • Kiwi Camp Dry Silicone Water Repellent 5.5 oz Personal care/use aerosol 1-2% Xylene
  • Kiwi Camp Dry Heavy Duty Water Repellent Personal care/use aerosol 1-2% Xylene
  • Monsanto Far-Go Herbicide (agricultural) Pesticides liquid <8% Xylene
  • Bonide Fruit Tree Spray Concentrate-01/14/2002 Pesticides liquid% Xylene
  • Hot Shot Indoor Fogger 3 with Odor Neutralizer Pesticides aerosol 4% Xylene
  • Bonide Fung-onil Lawn Disease Control Pesticides liquid% Xylene
  • Diazinon 25E Lawn and Garden Insect Control Pesticides liquid 10% Xylene
  • Diazinon 4 Spray (Industrial) Pesticides liquid% Xylene
  • Spectracide Bug Stop Indoor Fogger 2 Pesticides aerosol 4% Xylene
  • Hot Shot Flea Killer Plus Fogger with Pet Odor Neutralizer Pesticides aerosol 4% Xylene
  • Truban 25EC Fungicide Pesticides liquid <15% Xylene
  • Adams Yard Spray Pet Care liquid 0.3-1.2% Xylene
  • Real Kill Indoor Flea Fogger Pet Care aerosol 4.0% Xylene


1.4 How can xylene enter and leave my body?

Xylene is most likely to enter your body when you breathe xylene vapors. Less often, xylene enters the body through the skin following direct contact. It is rapidly absorbed by your lungs after you breathe air containing it. Exposure to xylene may also take place if you eat or drink xylene-contaminated food or water. The amount of xylene retained ranges from 50 to 75% of the amount of xylene that you inhale. Physical exercise increases the amount of xylene absorbed by the lungs. Absorption of xylene after eating food or drinking water containing it is both rapid and complete. Absorption of xylene through the skin also occurs rapidly following direct contact with xylene. Absorption of xylene vapor through the skin is estimated to be only 12% of the amount absorbed by the lungs. At hazardous waste sites, the most likely ways you can be exposed are: breathing xylene vapors, drinking well water contaminated with xylene, and direct contact of the skin with xylene. Xylene passes into the blood soon after entering the body.

In people and laboratory animals, xylene is broken down into other chemicals especially in the liver. This process changes most of the xylene that is breathed in or swallowed into a different form that is more water soluble and is rapidly removed from the body in urine. Some unchanged xylene also leaves in the breath from the lungs within a few seconds after xylene is absorbed. One of the breakdown products of xylene, methylbenzaldehyde, is harmful to the lungs of some animals. This chemical has not been found in people exposed to xylene. Small amounts of breakdown products of xylene have appeared in the urine of people as soon as 2 hours after breathing air containing xylene. Usually, most of the xylene that is taken in leaves the body within 18 hours after exposure ends. Storage of xylene in fat or muscle may prolong the time needed for xylene to leave the body.


1.5 How can xylene affect my health?

Scientists use many tests to protect the public from harmful effects of toxic chemicals and to find ways for treating persons who have been harmed.

One way to learn whether a chemical will harm people is to determine how the body absorbs, uses, and releases the chemical. For some chemicals, animal testing may be necessary. Animal testing may also help identify health effects such as cancer or birth defects. Without laboratory animals, scientists would lose a basic method for getting information needed to make wise decisions that protect public health. Scientists have the responsibility to treat research animals with care and compassion. Scientists must comply with strict animal care guidelines because laws today protect the welfare of research animals.

Scientists have found that the three forms of xylene and xylene mixtures have very similar effects on health. No health effects have been noted at the background levels that people are exposed to on a daily basis. Short-term exposure of people to high levels of xylene can cause irritation of the skin, eyes, nose, and throat; difficulty in breathing; impaired function of the lungs; delayed response to a visual stimulus; impaired memory; stomach discomfort; and possible changes in the liver and kidneys. Both short- and long-term exposure to high concentrations of xylene can also cause a number of effects on the nervous system, such as headaches, lack of muscle coordination, dizziness, confusion, and changes in one's sense of balance.

People exposed to very high levels of xylene for a short period of time have died. Most of the information on health effects in humans exposed for long periods of time is from studies of workers employed in industries that make or use xylene. Those workers were exposed to levels of xylene in air far greater than the levels normally encountered by the general population. Many of the effects seen after their exposure to xylene could have been caused by exposure to other chemicals that were in the air with xylene.

Results of studies in animals indicate that large amounts of xylene can cause changes in the liver and harmful effects on the kidneys, lungs, heart, and nervous system. Short-term exposure to very high concentrations of xylene causes death in animals, as well as muscular spasms, incoordination, hearing loss, changes in behavior, changes in organ weights, and changes in enzyme activity. Long-term exposure of animals to low concentrations of xylene has not been well studied, but there is some information that long-term exposure of animals can cause harmful effects on the kidney (with oral exposure) or on the nervous system (with inhalation exposure).

Information from animal studies is not adequate to determine whether or not xylene causes cancer in humans. Both the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and EPA have found that there is insufficient information to determine whether or not xylene is carcinogenic and consider xylene not classifiable as to its human carcinogenicity.

Exposure of pregnant women to high levels of xylene may cause harmful effects to the fetus. Studies of unborn animals indicate that high concentrations of xylene may cause increased numbers of deaths, decreased weight, skeletal changes, and delayed skeletal development. In many instances, these same high concentrations also cause damage to the mothers. The higher the exposure and the longer the exposure to xylene, the greater the chance of harmful health effects.


1.6 How can xylene affect children?

This section discusses potential health effects in humans from exposures during the period from conception to maturity at 18 years of age.

Children might be exposed to xylenes by inhaling fumes of gasoline or of paints or other products containing xylene as a solvent. Although no studies are available, it is likely that exposed children would be similar to adults in the uptake of xylenes by breathing or swallowing or through the skin.

The effects of xylenes have not been studied in children, but it is likely that they would be similar to those seen in exposed adults. Although there is no direct evidence, children may be more sensitive to acute inhalation exposure than adults because their narrower airways would be more sensitive to swelling effects (a reason that women may be more sensitive than men).

There are no conclusive studies showing developmental effects of xylenes in humans. However, animal studies showed that xylene absorbed by the mother can cross the placenta and reach the fetus. The unborn animals may have reduced body weight and delayed bone mineralization when the mother is exposed to toxic levels of xylene. Some animal studies have shown that newborn babies that were exposed to xylene during pregnancy have problems after birth with motor coordination and spatial navigation. In general, these developmental effects occur at exposure levels much higher than those typically seen in the background environment, levels high enough to also harm the mother.


1.7 How can families reduce the risk of exposure to xylene?

If your doctor finds that you have been exposed to substantial amounts of xylene, ask whether your children might also have been exposed. Your doctor might need to ask your state health department to investigate.

Exposure to xylene as solvents (in paints or gasoline) can be reduced if the products are used with adequate ventilation and if they are stored out of the reach of small children.

Sometimes older children sniff household chemicals in attempt to get high. Talk with your children about the dangers of sniffing xylene.

If products containing xylene are spilled on the skin, then the excess should be wiped off and the area cleaned with soap and water.


1.8 Is there a medical test to determine whether I have been exposed to xylene?

Medical tests are available to determine if you have been exposed to xylene at higher-than-normal levels. Confirmation of xylene exposure is determined by measuring some of its breakdown products eliminated from the body in the urine. These urinary measurements will determine if you have been exposed to xylene. There is a high degree of agreement between exposure to xylene and the levels of xylene breakdown products in the urine. However, a urine sample must be provided very soon (within hours) after exposure ends because xylene quickly leaves the body. Alcohol or aspirin may produce false positive test results. Medical tests have been developed to measure levels of xylene in blood by the National Center for Environmental Health and in exhaled breath by EPA's Total Exposure Assessment Methodology. These tests may be available in certain doctors' offices. Available tests can only indicate exposure to xylene; they cannot be used to predict which health effects, if any, will develop.


1.9 What recommendations has the federal government made to protect human health?

The federal government develops regulations and recommendations to protect public health. Regulations can be enforced by law. The EPA, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are some federal agencies that develop regulations for toxic substances. Recommendations provide valuable guidelines to protect public health, but cannot be enforced by law. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) are two federal organizations that develop recommendations for toxic substances.

Regulations and recommendations can be expressed as "not-to-exceed" levels, that is,levels of a toxic substance in air, water, soil, or food that do not exceed a critical value that is usually based on levels that affect animals; they are then adjusted to levels that will help protect humans. Sometimes these not-to-exceed levels differ among federal organizations because they used different exposure times (an 8-hour workday or a 24-hour day), different animal studies, or other factors.

Recommendations and regulations are also updated periodically as more information becomes available. For the most current information, check with the federal agency or organization that provides it. Some regulations and recommendations for xylene include the following:

The EPA estimates that, for an adult of average weight, exposure to 7 milligrams of xylene per liter (mg/L or ppm) of water each day for a lifetime (70 years) is unlikely to result in harmful noncancerous health effects.

Exposure to 40 ppm (or mg/L) xylene in water for 1 or 10 days is unlikely to present a health risk to a small child. The EPA has proposed a recommended maximum level of 10 ppm xylene in drinking water.

To protect people from the potential harmful health effects of xylene, EPA regulates xylene in the environment. EPA has set a legally enforceable maximum level of 10 mg/L (equal to 10 ppm) of xylene in water that is delivered to any user of a public water system.

OSHA regulates levels of xylene in the workplace. The maximum allowable amount of xylene in workroom air during an 8-hour workday in a 40-hour workweek is 100 ppm (435 mg/m3). These regulations match the recommendations (not legally enforceable) of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. NIOSH has recommended an exposure limit (not legally enforceable) of 100 ppm of xylene averaged over a workday up to 10 hours long in a 40-hour workweek. NIOSH has classified xylene exposures of 900 ppm (3,906 mg/m2) as immediately dangerous to life or health.

EPA regulations require that a spill of 100 or more pounds of mixed xylenes or p-xylene or 1,000 pounds or more of m-xylene or o-xylene (new or used solvents) be reported to the Federal Government National Response Center.


1.10 Where can I get more information?

If you have any more questions or concerns, please contact your community or state health or environmental quality department or:

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
Division of Toxicology and Environmental Medicine
1600 Clifton Road NE, Mailstop F-32
Atlanta, GA 30333
Phone: 1-800-CDC-INFO • 888-232-6348 (TTY)
Email: cdcinfo@cdc.gov

Information line and technical assistance:

Phone: 888-422-8737
FAX: (770)-488-4178

ATSDR can also tell you the location of occupational and environmental health clinics. These clinics specialize in recognizing, evaluating, and treating illnesses resulting from exposure to hazardous substances.

To order toxicological profiles, contact:

National Technical Information Service
5285 Port Royal Road
Springfield, VA 22161
Phone: 800-553-6847 or 703-605-6000


1.11 References

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 2005. Toxicological profile for Xylene. (Draft for Public Comment). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service.


1.12 Xylene MSDS Information

A free Xylene MSDS is coming very soon. In the mean time you may find much of the Xylene Material Safety Data Sheet information in the below toxicological information.


1.13 Complete Xylene Toxicological Information

Human Health Effects from Xylene Exposure

  • Toxicity Summary
  • Evidence for Carcinogenicity
  • Human Toxicity Excerpts
  • Human Toxicity Values
  • Skin, Eye and Respiratory Irritations
  • Medical Surveillance
  • Probable Routes of Human Exposure
  • Body Burden
  • Average Daily Intake

Emergency Medical Treatment for Xylene Exposure

  • Emergency Medical Treatment

Animal Toxicity Studies

  • Toxicity Summary
  • Evidence for Carcinogenicity
  • Non-Human Toxicity Excerpts
  • National Toxicology Program Studies
  • Non-Human Toxicity Values
  • Ecotoxicity Values
  • TSCA Test Submissions

Metabolism/Pharmacokinetics

  • Metabolism/Metabolites
  • Absorption, Distribution & Excretion
  • Interactions

Pharmacology of Xylene

  • Interactions

Environmental Fate & Exposure to Xylene

  • Environmental Fate/Exposure Summary
  • Probable Routes of Human Exposure
  • Body Burden
  • Average Daily Intake
  • Natural Pollution Sources
  • Artificial Pollution Sources
  • Environmental Fate
  • Environmental Biodegradation
  • Environmental Abiotic Degradation
  • Environmental Bioconcentration
  • Soil Adsorption/Mobility
  • Volatilization from Water/Soil
  • Environmental Water Concentrations
  • Effluent Concentrations
  • Sediment/Soil Concentrations
  • Atmospheric Concentrations
  • Food Survey Values
  • Plant Concentrations
  • Fish/Seafood Concentrations
  • Milk Concentrations

Xylene Environmental Standards & Regulations

  • FIFRA Requirements
  • CERCLA Reportable Quantities
  • RCRA Requirements
  • Atmospheric Standards
  • Clean Water Act Requirements
  • Federal Drinking Water Standards
  • Federal Drinking Water Guidelines
  • State Drinking Water Standards
  • State Drinking Water Guidelines
  • Allowable Tolerances

Xylene Chemical/Physical Properties

  • Molecular Formula
  • Molecular Weight
  • Color/Form
  • Odor
  • Boiling Point
  • Corrosivity
  • Density/Specific Gravity
  • Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient
  • Solubilities
  • Vapor Pressure
  • Other Chemical/Physical Properties

Xylene Chemical Safety & Handling

  • Hazards Summary
  • DOT Emergency Guidelines
  • Odor Threshold
  • Skin, Eye and Respiratory Irritations
  • NFPA Hazard Classification
  • Fire Fighting Procedures
  • Firefighting Hazards
  • Hazardous Reactivities & Incompatibilities
  • Hazardous Decomposition
  • Prior History of Accidents
  • Protective Equipment & Clothing
  • Preventive Measures
  • Shipment Methods and Regulations
  • Storage Conditions
  • Cleanup Methods
  • Disposal Methods

Xylene Occupational Exposure Standards

  • OSHA Standards
  • Threshold Limit Values
  • Other Occupational Permissible Levels

Xylene Manufacturing/Use Information

  • Major Uses
  • Manufacturers
  • Methods of Manufacturing
  • General Manufacturing Information
  • Formulations/Preparations
  • Impurities
  • Consumption Patterns
  • U. S. Production
  • U. S. Imports
  • U. S. Exports

Xylene Laboratory Methods

  • Clinical Laboratory Methods
  • Analytic Laboratory Methods
  • Sampling Procedures

Special References

  • Special Reports

Xylene Synonyms and Identifiers

  • Related HSDB Records
  • Synonyms
  • Formulations/Preparations
  • Shipping Name/ Number DOT/UN/NA/IMO
  • Standard Transportation Number
  • EPA Hazardous Waste Number

XYLENE
CASRN: 1330-20-7

Human Health Effects:

Toxicity Summary:

After inhalation exposure the retention in the lungs is about 60% of the inhaled dose. Xylene is efficiently metabolized. More than 90% is biotransformed to methylhippuric acid, which is excreted in urine. Xylene does not accumulate significantly in the human body. Acute exposure to high concentrations of xylene can result in CNS effects and irritation in humans. ... The chronic toxicity appears to be relatively low in laboratory animals. There is suggestive evidence, however, that chronic CNS effects may occur in animals at moderate concentrations of xylene. Xylene does not appear to be a mutagen or carcinogen. The critical end point is developmental toxicity ... The xylene isomers are of moderate to low toxicity for aquatic organisms. ... The acute toxicity of xylene to birds is low.
[Environmental Health Criteria 190: Xylenes pp. 1-2 (1997) by the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation and the World Health Organization.]**QC REVIEWED**

Evidence for Carcinogenicity:

Evaluation: There is inadequate evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of xylenes. There is inadequate evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of xylenes. Overall classification: Xylenes are not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3).
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work)., p. 71 1204 (1999)]**PEER REVIEWED**

CLASSIFICATION: D; not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity. BASIS FOR CLASSIFICATION: Orally administered technical xylene mixtures did not result in significant increases in incidences in tumor responses in rats or mice of both sexes. HUMAN CARCINOGENICITY DATA: None. ANIMAL CARCINOGENICITY DATA: Inadequate.
[U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) on Xylenes (1330-20-7) Available from: http://www.epa.gov/ngispgm3/iris on the Substance File List as of March 15, 2000]**PEER REVIEWED**

A4; Not classifiable as a human carcinogen. /Xylene (o-,m-, & p- isomers)/
[ American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists TLVs and BEIs. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. Cincinnati, OH, 2005, p. 60]**QC REVIEWED**

Human Toxicity Excerpts:

Xylene is a central nervous system depressant that produces lightheadedness, nausea, headache, and ataxia at low doses and confusion, respiratory depression, and coma at high doses. Above 200 ppm, xylene causes conjunctivitis, nasal irritation, and sore throats; it is a potent respiratory irritant at high concentrations. ... Xylene produces a defating dermatitis with prolonged cutaneous exposure.
[Ellenhorn, M.J. and D.G. Barceloux. Medical Toxicology - Diagnosis and Treatment of Human Poisoning. New York, NY: Elsevier Science Publishing Co., Inc. 1988., p. 962]**PEER REVIEWED**

Transient mildly elevated hepatic aminotransferase levels and reversible renal failure were reported in an estimated 10,000 ppm xylene exposure occurring during the painting of a poorly ventilated ship compartment. Two men were comatose and one was dead on arrival after this prolonged exposure over 18 hours. The survivors developed no long-term sequelae. The contributions of hypoxia and a toluene solvent could not be quantitated.
[Ellenhorn, M.J. and D.G. Barceloux. Medical Toxicology - Diagnosis and Treatment of Human Poisoning. New York, NY: Elsevier Science Publishing Co., Inc. 1988., p. 962]**PEER REVIEWED**

In workers exposed to organic solvents (acetone, benzene, toluene, ethyl acetate, butyl acetate, xylene, gasoline, and turpentine) the incidence of chronic bronchitis was higher, and the volume of expiratory air was lower than in normal control subjects. In smokers the incidence was higher than nonsmokers of /exposed and nonexposed/ groups. Smoking increases risk of chronic bronchitis in ... subjects /exposed to organic solvents/.
[Sykut E; Przegl Lek 38 (4): 399-402 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Dermal application of xylene caused a 20-40% decr in electrical impedance of human skin.
[Kiss G; Munkavedelem 27 (1-3): 25-6 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

CNS DEFECTS WERE MORE COMMON IN CHILDREN OF MOTHERS EXPOSED TO ORG SOLVENTS & DUSTS DURING PREGNANCY. HYDRANENCEPHALY OCCURRED IN CHILDREN WHOSE MOTHERS HAD BEEN EXPOSED TO THE SOLVENTS TOLUENE, XYLENE, & WHITE SPIRIT DURING MANUFACTURE OF RUBBER PRODUCTS.
[HOLMBERG PC, NURMINEN M; AM J OF INDUST MED 1: 167 (1980)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Women are liable to suffer from menstrual disorders (menorrhagia, metrorrhagia). It has been reported that female workers exposed to ... xylene in concn which periodically exceeded the exposure limits were also affected by pathological pregnancy conditions (toxicosis, danger of miscarriage, hemorrhage during child birth) and infertility.
[International Labour Office. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. Vols. I&II. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office, 1983., p. 2335]**PEER REVIEWED**

Mixed xylenes ... at exposures of one to four times TLV (threshold limit value) /SRP: 400 ppm/ levels were used. Subjective reports of irritation, as well as polygraph records of eyeblink and respiration rate were recorded during 30 min exposures. Psychomotor tests were administered before, during, and after exposure. Both a higher incidence of eye irritation and rate of eyeblink were reported by exposed subjects compared to controls, but the effects were mild. There were no significant differences in respiration rates or in tests of psychomotor function.
[Hastings GP et al; Adv Mod Environ Tox 6: 255-70 (1984)]**PEER REVIEWED**

USING A STANDARDIZED INTERVIEW SCHEDULE, OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO ORG SOLVENTS WAS INVESTIGATED IN 61 MALE PATIENTS WITH DIAGNOSIS OF NON-HODGKIN'S LYMPHOMA. RESULTS INDICATE A RELATION BETWEEN EXPOSURE TO ORG SOLVENTS & SUPRADIAPHRAGMATIC PRESENTATION OF NON-HODGKIN'S LYMPHOMA. ELEVEN REPORTED EXPOSURE TO XYLENE. HOWEVER, IN MOST CASES EXPOSURE TO MORE THAN ONE SOLVENT WAS REPORTED.
[OLSSON H, BRANDT L; ACTA MED SCAND 210: 415 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

For the period 1961-80, 118 cases of industrial gassings caused by the solvents methlyene chloride, xylene, toluene and styrene were reported to Her Majesty's Factory Inspectorate. The data were collated and analyzed according to the predetermined criteria of age, sex, mode and circumstances of use, clinical effect and outcome. The study shows the /SRP: CNS depressant/ effect of these solvents and underlines the dangers of their use in confined spaces. Symptoms were most commonly attributable to the nervous and respiratory system.
[Bakinson MA, Jones RD; Br J Ind Med 42 (3): 184-90 (1985)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Disturbances of memory, mood, equilibrium and sleep that occurred simultaneously with headache and indigestion, were experienced more frequently among women working in histology who had daily exposure to formaldehyde, xylene and toluene than in unexposed female clerical workers in the same hospitals. Neurobehavioral symptoms were accompanied by irritation of the eyes, upper air ways and trachea. Formaldehyde exposure correlated better with neurobehavioral symptoms and with respiratory and mucous membrane symptoms than did exposure to xylene/toluene or to other agents.
[Kilburn KH et al; Arch Environ Health 40 (4): 229-33 (1985)]**PEER REVIEWED**

... Inhalation of xylenes at concn of 435-1300 mg/cu m for 15 min to 6 hr/day for 4 days results in CNS disturbances including changes in numerative ability, reaction time, short-term memory and electroencephalograph.
[USEPA; Advisory Opinion for Xylenes (Dimethyl benzenes) (Draft) p.6 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

An adverse health effect disturbance to equilibrium has been observed in humans. ... This effect has been correlated with blood concn ... of 30 umol/l (equivalent to 318 ug/100 ml) ... .
[USEPA; Advisory Opinion for Xylenes (Dimethyl benzenes) (Draft) p.6 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Mixtures of organic solvents, which include xylenes, have been implicated as the cause of lens change in car painters. ...
[National Research Council. Drinking Water and Health. Volume 3. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1980., p. 179]**PEER REVIEWED**

Among nine pregnancies producing offspring with caudal regression syndrome five mothers had exposure to fat solvents. These included ... xylene.
[Shepard, T.H. Catalog of Teratogenic Agents. 5th ed. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986., p. 612]**PEER REVIEWED**

The concentration of xylene present in the blood, its serum or plasma, that has been reported to cause death, or is so far above reported therapeutic or toxic concentrations that one can judge that it might cause death in humans is 3-40 ug/ml.
[Winek, C.L. Drug and Chemical Blood-Level Data 1985. Pittsburgh, PA: Allied Fischer Scientific, 1985., p. ]**PEER REVIEWED**

The correlation between xylene exposure and urinary excretion of methyl hippuric acid (MHA) was studied in 40 workers (35 men, 5 women) employed in the paint industry. Subjects were exposed primarily to xylene although exposure to 11 other solvents was possible. Personal sampling showed 8-hr TWA's for xylene ranged from 0-865 mg/cu m with a median exposure of 69 mg/cu m. Urine was collected over one 24-hr period for each worker. Personal air samples were collected for each worker over the course of a complete workday. MHA excretion was linearly correlated to the 8-hr TWA for xylene exposure after adjustment for body weight. The total amount of MHA excreted in the urine over 24 hr showed virtually the same correlation to xylene exposure (r = 0.84) as the MHA excretion during the latter part of the workshift (r = 0.81, sampling time 4-5 hr) among 37 workers exposed to 8-hr TWA xylene concentrations of 0-200 mg/cu m.
[Lundberg I, Sollenbert J; Scand J Work Environ Health 12:149-53 (1986)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Vapor irritates eyes and mucous membranes and may cause dizziness, headache, nausea, and mental confusion. Liquid irritates eyes and mucous membranes. Swallowing or absorption through skin would cause poisoning. Prolonged exposure to skin contact may result in dermatitis.
[Armour, M.A. Hazardous Laboratory Chemicals Disposal Guide. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 1991., p. 461]**PEER REVIEWED**

Serum concentrations of liver enzymes were determined for Swedish paint industry workers exposed to a mixture of organic solvents including xylene. Mean xylene exposure for 44 individuals was 82 mg/cu m (19 ppm) with a range of 1 to 6070 mg/cu m; five workers were exposed to a mean concentration of 865 mg/cu m (199 ppm). Serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, ornithine carbamoyltransferase, and gamma-glutamyltransferase activities were not elevated by these exposures. ... Occupational experience reveals complaints of dermatitis, eczema, and irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract but rarely serious illness. It is likely that untoward effects on the hematopoietic system reported in the past as being caused by xylene resulted from benzene contamination of commercial xylene.
[Hayes, W.J., Jr., E.R. Laws, Jr., (eds.). Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology. Volume 2. Classes of Pesticides. New York, NY: Academic Press, Inc., 1991., p. 644]**PEER REVIEWED**

Six volunteers were able to detect the odor of mixed xylenes at a concentration of 60 mg/cu m; four could detect 6 mg/cu m, but none could detect 0.6 mg/cu m. The odor threshold was calculated as 4.5 mg/cu m or about 1 ppm for a 10-sec exposure. In a 15-min exposure period, the only common sign of discomfort at 2000 mg/cu m (460 ppm) was eye irritation in four of six subjects. Some transitory olfactory fatigue occurred, with recovery in 10 min.
[Hayes, W.J., Jr., E.R. Laws, Jr., (eds.). Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology. Volume 2. Classes of Pesticides. New York, NY: Academic Press, Inc., 1991., p. 644]**PEER REVIEWED**

Exposure of volunteers to technical xylene by inhalation caused irritation of the airways; very high accidental exposure caused pneumonitis. Ingestion of xylene caused irritation of the gastrointestinal tract.
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work)., p. V47 142 (1989)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Repeated, prolonged exposure to fumes may produce conjunctivitis of the eye and dryness of the nose, throat, and skin. Direct liquid contact may result in flaky or moderate dermatitis. Inhalation of vapors may cause CNS excitation then depression, characterized by paresthesia, tremors, apprehension, impaired memory, weakness, nervous irritation, vertigo, headache, anorexia, nausea, and flatulence, and may lead to anemia and mucosal hemorrhage. Clinically, no bone marrow aplasia, but hyperplasia, moderate liver enlargement, necrosis, and nephrosis may occur.
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982., p. 3295]**PEER REVIEWED**

During an informal study in 1973 it was noted that approx 1/3 of patients with congenital heart disease lived in a small area in the Tucson Valley. In 1981 groundwater for nearly identical area was found to be contaminated with trichloroethylene and to a lesser extent with dichloroethylene and chromium. Contamination probably began during the 1950s. Affected wells were closed after discovery of contamination. This sequence of events allowed investigation of the prevalence of congenital heart disease in children whose parents were exposed to the contaminated water area as compared with children whose parents were never exposed to the contaminated water area. The contaminated water area contained 8.8% of the Tucson Valley population and 4.5% of the labor force. Using their case registry, the authors interviewed parents of 707 children with congenital heart disease who, between 1969 and 1987, 1) conceived their child in the Tucson Valley, and 2) spent the month before the first trimester and the first trimester of the case pregnancy in the Tucson Valley. Two random dialing surveys showed that only 10.5% of the Tucson Valley population had ever had work or residence contact, or both, with the contaminated water area, whereas 35% of parents of children with congenital heart disease had had such contact (p < 0.005). The prevalence of congenital cardiac disease (excluding syndromes, children with atrial tachycardia or premature infants with patent ductus arteriosus) in the Tucson Valley was 0.7% of live births and with syndromes was calculated to be 0.82%. The odds ratio for congenital heart disease for children of parents with contaminated water area times that for those without contact (p < 0.005) and decr to near unity for new arrivals in the contaminated water area after well closure. The proportion of infants with congenital heart disease as compared with the number of live births was significantly higher for resident mothers in the contaminated water area than for mothers with no exposure. No other environmental agent could be identified that was localized to the contaminated water area, but one could have been missed. The data show a significant assoc but not a cause and effect relation between parental exposure to the contaminated water area and an incr proportion of congenital heart disease among live births as compared with the proportion of congenital heart disease among live births for parents without contaminated water area contact.
[Goldberg SJ et al; J Am Coll Cardiol 16 (1): 155-64 (1990)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The quantitative relationship between exposure to xylene vapor and urinary excretion in methylhippuric acid isomers were studied in the second half of a working wk. The participants in the study were 121 male workers engaged in dip-coating of metal parts who were predominantly exposed to three xylene isomers. The intensity of exposure measured by diffusive sampling during an 8-hr shift was such that the geometric mean vapor concn was 3.8 ppm for xylenes (0.8 ppm for o-xylene, 2.1 ppm for m-xylene, and 0.9 ppm for p-xylene), 0.8 ppm for toluene, and 0.9 ppm for ethylbenzene. Urine samples were collected at the end of the shift and analyzed for metabolites by HPLC. The statistical analysis showed that there is a linear relationship between the intensity of exposure to xylenes and the concn of methylhippuric acid in urine, that the regression line passes very close to the origin, and that the increment in observed (i.e., noncorrected) methylhippuric acid concn as a function of incr xylene concn was 17.8 mg/ppm. Further exam on the basis on individual xylene isomers showed that the slopes of the regression lines for o- and m-isomers were similar (i.e., 17.1 and 16.6 mg/L/ppm, respectively), whereas that for p-xylene was larger (21.3 mg/L/ppm).
[Kawai T et al; Int Arch Occup Environ Health 63 (1): 69-76 (1991)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Human Toxicity Values:

LDLo Human oral 50 mg/kg
[USEPA; Advisory Opinion for Xylenes (Dimethyl benzenes) (Draft) p.3 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Skin, Eye and Respiratory Irritations:

Xylene vapor may cause irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat. At high concentrations, xylene vapor may cause severe breathing difficulties which may be delayed in onset. Repeated or prolonged exposure ... may cause a skin rash.
[Mackison, F. W., R. S. Stricoff, and L. J. Partridge, Jr. (eds.). NIOSH/OSHA - Occupational Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards. DHHS(NIOSH) Publication No. 81-123 (3 VOLS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Jan. 1981., p. 1]**PEER REVIEWED**

Vapor irritates eyes and mucous membranes and may cause dizziness, headache, nausea, and mental confusion. Liquid irritates eyes and mucous membranes.
[Armour, M.A. Hazardous Laboratory Chemicals Disposal Guide. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 1991., p. 461]**PEER REVIEWED**

Medical Surveillance:

EMPLOYEES EXPOSED TO XYLENE SHOULD UNDERGO COMPREHENSIVE PREPLACEMENT & BIENNIAL MEDICAL CHECKUPS. AIR & BIOLOGIC MONITORING PROGRAMS SHOULD BE ESTABLISHED & EVALUATED REGULARLY.
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982., p. 3299]**PEER REVIEWED**

History and examination /of workers exposed to xylene/ should be directed toward, but not limited to, the incidence of headaches, nausea, or other GI disturbances, dizziness, and of alc consumption; ... attention should be focused on complaints and evidence of eye, mucous membrane, or skin irritation; ... examination /should/ include a complete blood count, a routine urinalysis, and ... liver function tests.
[NIOSH; Criteria Document: Xylene p.2 (1975) DHEW Pub. NIOSH 75-168]**PEER REVIEWED**

Probable Routes of Human Exposure:

Xylene can affect the body if it is inhaled, if it comes in contact with the eyes or skin, or if it is swallowed.
[Mackison, F. W., R. S. Stricoff, and L. J. Partridge, Jr. (eds.). NIOSH/OSHA - Occupational Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards. DHHS(NIOSH) Publication No. 81-123 (3 VOLS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Jan. 1981., p. 1]**PEER REVIEWED**

THE ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF USING SOFT CONTACT LENSES (IN HUMANS) IN ENVIRONMENTS WITH FUMES FROM SOLVENTS OR SPLASHES OF STRONG ACIDS & ALKALIS WERE STUDIED EXPERIMENTALLY. UPTAKE OF XYLENE BY LENS MATERIALS WAS UP TO 90 TIMES THAT BY PHYSIOLOGIC SALINE, USED TO SIMULATE TEAR FLUID. WHEN EXPOSED LENSES WERE SOAKED FOR 10 & 60 MIN IN A VERY SMALL VOLUME OF SALINE THE CONCN OF SOLVENT IN THAT SALINE WAS ONLY UP TO 23 & 11%, RESPECTIVELY, OF THAT IN DIRECT EXPOSED SALINE. SOLVENTS WERE RELEASED MAINLY TO THE AIR. CONTACT LENSES WOULD LEAD TO A PROLONGED EXPOSURE BUT TO A RATHER LOW CONCN AS COMPARED TO DIRECT EXPOSURE.
[NILSSON S EG, ANDERSSON L; ACTA OPHTHALMOL 60 (4): 599-608 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Exposure to organic solvent vapors was investigated in 40 unit workplaces (with 189 workers) in 16 small scale industries in north-east Japan ... in which synthetic urushi lacquer was applied to produce non-metal tableware. ... Two furniture factories were also studied. The equipment used was carbon felt dosimeters and portable PID-GC ... . ... The gas chromatography could analyze benzene-toluene xylenes within 150 seconds. ... Toluene was the major pollutant in the workplace air, with small quantities of xylenes. ... Exposure did not exceed the current occupational exposure limit in all the cases except for the two workers, who were excessively exposed due to the generation of dense vapors in automated spraying process.
[Ikeda M et al; Ind Health 23 (3): 181-90 (1985)]**PEER REVIEWED**

... There is a broad potential for exposure both to industrial workers in the production and use of the xylenes and to the general public (via vehicle exhausts, consumer products, etc). ...
[Fishbein L; Sci Total Environ 43 (1-2): 165-83 (1985)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Number of USA workers exposed 140,000 /Time frame not mentioned/
[Doull, J., C.D.Klassen, and M.D. Amdur (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. 3rd ed., New York: Macmillan Co., Inc., 1986., p. 349]**PEER REVIEWED**

NIOSH (NOES Survey 1981-1983) has statistically estimated that 1,528,018 workers (316,320 of these are female) are potentially exposed to xylenes in the US(1). An average xylene concn of 0.1 ppm was detected in the breathing zones of paint shops sampled in the US(2). Lab personnel are exposed to an average xylene concn of 0.16 ppm and material handling personnel are exposed to an average xylene concn of 1.6 ppm at hazardous waste facilities in the US(3). The 8 hour TWA exposure to xylenes for personnel at organic solvent recycling plants was measured as 1 ppm(4). A study from 1979-1987 calculated the average exposure to xylenes in paint manufacturing plants as 2.01 ppm in breathing zone locations(5). A survey of 97 autobody shops in the US reported the 8 hour TWA exposure to xylenes was 3.3 ppm for painters and 0.7 ppm for non-painting personnel(6). The 8 hour TWA for worker exposure to xylenes in a German histology laboratory and a US histology laboratory was measured as 243-295 mg/cu m and 11-315 mg/cu m respectively(7). The 8 hour TWA for worker exposure to xylenes in a US hospital laboratory was measured as 3-1700 mg/cu m(7). Occupational exposure may be through inhalation and dermal contact with this compound at workplaces where xylenes are produced or used(SRC). The general population will be exposed to xylenes largely via inhalation of ambient air, particularly in areas with heavy traffic, near filling stations and near industrial sources such as refineries(SRC). Exposure may also arise from consuming contaminated food and drinking water(SRC). An average concn of 0.37 ppb of 3- and 4-xylene was measured in blood samples collected from 60 persons in the US that are not occupationally exposed to xylenes(8).
[(1) NIOSH; National Occupational Exposure Survey (NOES) (1983) (2) Whitehead LW et al; Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 45: 767-772 (1984) (3) Pedersen BA, Higgins GM; J Air Waste Manage Assoc 45: 89-94 (1995) (4) Kupferschmid LL, Perkins JL; Appl Ind Hyg 1: 122-124 (1986) (5) Myer HE et al; Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 54: 663-670 (1993) (6) Daniel W et al; Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 53: 124-129 (1992) (7) IARC; Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1972-Present. Xylenes 47: 129 (1989) (8) Ashley DL et al; Clin Chem 40: 1401-1404 (1994)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Humans are exposed to xylene primarily from air, particularly in areas with heavy traffic, near filling stations, near industrial sources such as refineries or where xylene is used as a solvent. Exposure may also arise from drinking contaminated well water near leaking underground gasoline storage tanks or from spills of petroleum products. (SRC)
**PEER REVIEWED**

Benzene and xylenes are components of gasoline. The US population exposed to xylenes from petroleum related sources can be assumed to be the same as for benzene, namely: people choosing self-service at gasoline service stations 37,000,000; people living in the vicinity of gasoline service stations 118,000,000; petroleum refineries 6,597,000; urban exposure (auto emissions) 113,690,000(1). /Xylenes/
[(1) Mara SJ, Lee SS; Human Exposure to Atmos Benzene, Center for Resource Environ Studies Rep No.30 pp 3 Menlo Park CA: SRI (1977)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Body Burden:

ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS IN HUMAN MILK WERE IDENTIFIED BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY. XYLENE WAS ONE OF THE AROMATICS IDENTIFIED.
[PELLIZZARI ED ET AL; BULL ENVIRON COMTAM TOXICOL 28: 322 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

FOLLOWING EXPOSURE OF RABBITS TO AN ATMOSPHERE OF ABOUT 3,000 MG/CU M FOR 8 HR/DAY, 6 DAYS/WK, FOR 130 DAYS, XYLENE WAS FOUND AT SLIGHTLY HIGHER AVG CONCENTRATIONS IN THE ADRENAL (148 PPM), BONE MARROW (130 PPM), SPLEEN (115 PPM), & BRAIN (100 PPM) THAN IN BLOOD (91 PPM) OR IN OTHER ORGANS.
[Hayes, Wayland J., Jr. Pesticides Studied in Man. Baltimore/London: Williams and Wilkins, 1982., p. 123]**PEER REVIEWED**

Average Daily Intake:

AIR INTAKE: (Assume typical concn 4.0 ppb) 353 ug; WATER INTAKE: (Assume typical concn 0-1 ppb) 2 ug; FOOD INTAKE: Insufficient data. (SRC)
**PEER REVIEWED**

Emergency Medical Treatment:

Emergency Medical Treatment:

Animal Toxicity Studies:

Toxicity Summary:

After inhalation exposure the retention in the lungs is about 60% of the inhaled dose. Xylene is efficiently metabolized. More than 90% is biotransformed to methylhippuric acid, which is excreted in urine. Xylene does not accumulate significantly in the human body. Acute exposure to high concentrations of xylene can result in CNS effects and irritation in humans. ... The chronic toxicity appears to be relatively low in laboratory animals. There is suggestive evidence, however, that chronic CNS effects may occur in animals at moderate concentrations of xylene. Xylene does not appear to be a mutagen or carcinogen. The critical end point is developmental toxicity ... The xylene isomers are of moderate to low toxicity for aquatic organisms. ... The acute toxicity of xylene to birds is low.
[Environmental Health Criteria 190: Xylenes pp. 1-2 (1997) by the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation and the World Health Organization.]**QC REVIEWED**

Evidence for Carcinogenicity:

Evaluation: There is inadequate evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of xylenes. There is inadequate evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of xylenes. Overall classification: Xylenes are not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3).
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work)., p. 71 1204 (1999)]**PEER REVIEWED**

CLASSIFICATION: D; not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity. BASIS FOR CLASSIFICATION: Orally administered technical xylene mixtures did not result in significant increases in incidences in tumor responses in rats or mice of both sexes. HUMAN CARCINOGENICITY DATA: None. ANIMAL CARCINOGENICITY DATA: Inadequate.
[U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) on Xylenes (1330-20-7) Available from: http://www.epa.gov/ngispgm3/iris on the Substance File List as of March 15, 2000]**PEER REVIEWED**

A4; Not classifiable as a human carcinogen. /Xylene (o-,m-, & p- isomers)/
[ American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists TLVs and BEIs. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. Cincinnati, OH, 2005, p. 60]**QC REVIEWED**

Non-Human Toxicity Excerpts:

/INVESTIGATORS/ ... FOUND NO ADVERSE EFFECTS ON THE HEMATOPOIETIC SYSTEM /OF THE GUINEA PIG/ AFTER SC ADMIN AT 300 MG/KG/DAY FOR 6 WK OR 700 MG/KG/DAY FOR 9 WK. OTHER REPORTS OF MYELOTOXICITY OF XYLENE ARE PROBABLY RELATED TO BENZENE CONTAMINATION.
[National Research Council. Drinking Water & Health Volume 1. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1977., p. 788]**PEER REVIEWED**

... RABBITS EXPOSED TO BENZENE-FREE XYLENE (AT 5 MG/L, OR 1,150 PPM) FOR 40-55 DAYS HAD DECREASED RED & WHITE CELL COUNTS.
[National Research Council. Drinking Water & Health Volume 1. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1977., p. 789]**PEER REVIEWED**

RATS WERE EXPOSED TO XYLENE VAPORS COMPOSED OF THE 3 XYLENE ISOMERS, ETHYLBENZENE, TOLUENE, AROMATICS & NONAROMATICS. LC50 FOR RATS WAS 29 MG/L/4 HR (6700 PPM). CATS SUCCUMBED WITHIN 2 HR AT 41 MG/L (9500 PPM) WITH SIGNS OF CNS DAMAGE. NO DIFFERENCES FROM CONTROL ANIMALS WERE OBSERVED IN BEAGLE DOGS & RATS THAT INHALED 3.5, 2.0 OR 0.77 MG/L CONCN FOR 6 HR/DAY, 5 DAYS/WK FOR 13 WK.
[CARPENTER CP ET AL; TOXICOL APPL PHARMACOL 33 (3): 543-58 (1975)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The embryotoxic effects of xylene were studied by exposing rats to 1000 mg/cu m of air during days 9 through 14 /of pregnancy/ ... found no teratogenic results although minor skeletal anomalies occurred.
[Shepard, T.H. Catalog of Teratogenic Agents. 5th ed. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986., p. 612]**PEER REVIEWED**

Data obtained from rodents indicates that maternal exposure to mixed xylenes or individual xylene isomers can have adverse effects on the conceptus. Fetotoxic effects were reported following maternal inhalation exposure to mixed xylenes; altered enzyme activities were also found in rat pups. Dermal application resulted in apparent changes in fetal enzyme activities, while oral treatment was followed by prenatal mortality, growth inhibition, and malformations, primarily cleft palate. Maternal inhalation of individual isomers was associated with all the above mentioned effects, with the exception of cleft palate. The o- and p- isomers appeared more hazardous to the offspring than did the m-isomer. Malformations (ie cleft palate) associated with mixed or individual isomers were primarily reported at maternally toxic doses. Thus, a clear case for a selective teratogenic effect due to the exposure to xylene has yet to be presented.
[Hood RD, Ottley MS; Drug Chem Toxicol 8 (4): 281-97 (1985)]**PEER REVIEWED**

EFFECTS OF COAL TAR-ASSOCIATED CHEMICALS WERE TESTED BY SINGLE TOPICAL APPLICATION (1 MG/10 G BODY WT) TO NEONATAL RATS. THE INDUCIBILITY OF XYLENE ON SKIN ARYL HYDROCARBON HYDROXYLASE (AHH) WAS 8% & ON LIVER ARYL HYDROCARBON HYDROXYLASE 10%.
[MUKHTAR H ET AL; TOXICOL APPL PHARMACOL 64: 541-9 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Male rats exposed to different concentrations of xylene for three days /exhibited/ small but statistically significant increase in cytochrome p450 content. Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide cytochrome c reductase activity and O-deethylation of 7-ethoxyresorufin in liver microsomes were detected already at an exposure level of 75 ppm. Morphological studies of livers from rats exposed to relatively high concentrations showed marked proliferation of smooth endoplasmic reticulum with little changes of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. No pathological alterations were observed. Castration of male rats influenced the response of xylene exposure only to a minor extent. Hypophysectomy alone was shown to cause significant increases in cytochrome p450 and cytochrome b5 content and epoxide hydrolase activity. Induction of cytochrome p450 dependent enzymatic activities after exposure to xylenes was reduced but qualitatively similar to that obtained with normal male rats whereas the induction of epoxide hydrolase activity was prevented. ...
[Toftgard R et al; Toxicol 27 (2): 119-37 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

XYLENE WAS ADMIN ORALLY TO FEMALE WISTAR CFT STRAIN RATS. XYLENE DID NOT PROVE LETHAL UP TO THE DOSAGE OF 6 ML/KG. HOWEVER, THE MINIMUM LETHAL DOSE WAS 7 ML/KG. SYMPTOMS MANIFESTED AT FATAL DOSES WERE DULLNESS, STUPOR, ANESTHESIA, CNS DEPRESSION, & COMA. MORTALITY WAS DOSE-DEPENDENT.
[MURALIDHARA, KRISHNAKUMARI MK; IND J EXPER BIOL 18: 1148 (1980)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Xylene, a widely used industrial solvent, is a mixture of ortho-, meta-, and para- isomers. In this study, ... the effects of each isomer, as well as a commercial-grade mixture of xylenes, on two behavioral measures /were examined/: 1) Operant performance of 15 mice trained to lever-press under a DRL (differential reinforcement of low rates) 10 sec schedule, and 2) motor performance of mice on an inverted screen test. The 15 min operant sessions immediately followed 30 min exposures to solvent vapors (500 to 7000 ppm), or air, in static inhalation chambers. Ortho-, meta-, para-, and mixed xylenes produced similar biphasic effects on response rates, and concentration dependent decreases in reinforcement rates.
[Moser VC et al; Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 80 (2): 293-8 (1985)]**PEER REVIEWED**

SUBACUTE EXPOSURE OF MALE RATS TO 2000 PPM OF XYLENE, ORTHO-XYLENE, META-XYLENE, PARA-XYLENE, & ETHYLBENZENE PRODUCED DISCRETE INCREASES OF DOPAMINE & NORADRENALINE LEVELS & TURNOVER IN VARIOUS PARTS OF HYPOTHALAMUS. XYLENE ITSELF PRODUCED WIDESPREAD INCR OF DOPAMINE TURNOVER WITHIN NEOSTRIATUM & SUBCORTICAL LIMBIC FOREBRAIN.
[ANDERSSON K ET AL; TOXICOL APPL PHARMACOL 60: 535-48 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

EXPOSURE 6 HR/DAY FOR 3 DAYS TO 2000 PPM INCREASED HEPATIC CYTOCHROME P450 CONCENTRATIONS & NADPH CYTOCHROME C REDUCTASE ACTIVITY IN RATS. IN KIDNEY MICROSOMES AN INCR CONCN OF CYTOCHROME P450 WAS OBTAINED. IN LUNG MICROSOMES XYLENE CAUSED A DECR IN CYTOCHROME P450 CONTENT.
[TOFTGARD R, NILSEN OG; TOXICOL 23: 197-212 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

MALLARD EGGS WERE TREATED BY IMMERSION IN XYLENE (1% & 10%) FOR 30 SECONDS AT ROOM TEMP. XYLENE HAD NO SIGNIFICANT EFFECTS AT CONCENTRATIONS OF 10% ON EMBRYONIC WT & LENGTH WHEN COMPARED TO CONTROLS.
[HOFFMAN DJ, EASTIN WC; TOXICOL LETT 6: 35-40 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

HAMSTERS RECEIVED XYLENE TOPICALLY FOR 2 HR BETWEEN DAYS 7 & 11 & WERE KILLED AT DAY 15 OF GESTATION. FETAL SIZE & WEIGHT DECREASED & THE INCIDENCE OF PRENATAL DEATHS INCREASED. FETAL HEMORRHAGE & GASTROSCHISIS WERE ALSO NOTED. NO MALFORMATIONS WERE FOUND IN CONTROLS.
[OVERMAN DO; TERATOLOGY 23: 56A (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

PREGNANT OUTBRED ALBINO MICE RECEIVED BY GAVAGE, 3 TIMES/DAY IN COTTONSEED OIL, A XYLENE MIXT ON DAYS 6-15 OF GESTATION. THE MICE WHERE KILLED ON DAY 18. AT 3.6 ML/KG/DAY, XYLENE KILLED 12 OF 38 DAMS & CAUSED A SIGNIFICANTLY SMALLER AVG WT GAIN DURING PREGNANCY THAN DID THE COTTONSEED OIL. FETUSES FROM DAMS TREATED @ 2.4 ML/KG/DAY HAD AVG FETAL WT SIGNIFICANTLY LOWER THAN THAT OF CONTROL FETUSES. AT 2.4, 3.0, & 3.6 ML/KG/DAY XYLENE PRODUCED A SIGNIFICANTLY GREATER AVG % OF MALFORMED FETUSES THAN DID THE CONTROL. CLEFT PALATE WAS THE MAJOR MALFORMATION AT ALL 3 DOSES. WHEN BILATERAL WAVY RIBS WERE COUNTED AS A MALFORMATION, THE AVG % OF MALFORMED FETUSES INCR FROM 7.8 TO 10.5 @ 3.0 ML/KG/DAY & FROM 9.1 TO 13.4 @ 3.6 ML/KG/DAY. THUS, XYLENE (MIXED ISOMERS) IS TERATOGENIC TO MICE @ 2.4 & 3.0 ML/KG/DAY.
[MARKS TA ET AL; J TOXICOL ENVIRON HEALTH 9 (1): 97-105 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

By exposing cats for several hours to concentrations of xylene vapor which were just sublethal /the laboratory/ succeeded in producing vacuoles in the corneal epithelium which appeared to be analogous to those occurring in vacuolar keratopathy occurring in workmen from exposure to solvent vapors.
[Shepard, T.H. Catalog of Teratogenic Agents. 5th ed. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986., p. 612]**PEER REVIEWED**

Rats /exposed to/ xylene at 230, 1900, or 3360 mg/cu m for 24 hr/day from day 7-14 of pregnancy showed no maternal toxicity. However, bone formation was retarded in the fetuses at all 3 concn, and the number of nephrons with enzyme activity and the activity ... of succinic dehydrogenase, alkyl phosphatase, acid phosphatase, and glucose 6-phosphatase were decreased in fetuses at the highest concn. ... The incidence of extra ribs in fetuses increased, however, none of the concn were teratogenic. The incidence of postimplantation fetal loss increased.
[Balogh T et al; Egeszsegtudomany 26 (1): 42-8 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

In rats, exposure to xylene (50 or 500 mg/cu m) resulted in embryotoxic and teratogenic effects. The brain, liver, lung, and heart were affected. The number of postimplantation losses increased by 9.7 and 168% in the 50 and 500 mg/cu m xylene group, respectively. The incidence of fetal skeletal abnormalities was increased by 62 and 177%, respectively.
[Mirkova E et al; J Hyg Epidemiol Microbiol Immunol 27 (3): 337-43 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Rats were exposed to ... xylene at 200-800 ppm for 30 days. After exposure, changes in the dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, acetylcholine (ACH), CAMP, CGMP, GCBA, Gln, Asp, Tau, Gly, and Ala content of different areas of the brain were investigated. Acetylcholine in the striatum and the whole brain was reduced dose dependently by ... xylene. ... Xylene caused different changes in monoamine content ... but the changes were not dose dependent. ... Glutamine content was increased by ... xylene at 800 ppm.
[Honma T et al; Ind Health 21 (3): 143-52 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

In rats exposed to /xylene/ by inhalation for 2 wk (5 days/wk, 6 hr/day) ... kidney 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase activity was increased >200% ... /and/ liver UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity was increased ... approx 100%. ...
[Heinonen T et al; Extrahepatic Drug Metag Chem Carcinog Proc Int Meet 29-31 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

... Xylene reduced the number and weight of /Agaricus bisporus/ sporophores.
[Flegg PB; Sci Hortic 21 (4): 301-10 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Kucera reports studies in chick embryos exposed for 60 to 240 minutes to a xylene atmosphere at developmental periods up to the 10 somite stage. A high malformation rate was found and nearly one-half of the defects were rumplesness, a defect resembling caudal regression syndrome.
[Shepard, T.H. Catalog of Teratogenic Agents. 5th ed. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986., p. 1548]**PEER REVIEWED**

Exposure of male rats to /250-2000 ppm/ of xylene for 3 days induced, in a dose related way, the in vitro liver microsomal metabolism of antipyrine. The degree of induction was significant at an exposure level of 250 ppm and maximal (2.5-fold incr) at 2000 ppm. This incr was of the same magnitude as after phenobarbital treatment. Female rats had lower basal antipyrine metabolism than males but exhibited a greater relative incr in antipyrine metabolism following xylene exposure. ... Exposure to lower xylene levels did not produce significant alterations in antipyrine elimination half-life. ...
[Toftgaard R; Toxicol 28 (1-2): 117-31 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Quail eggs were treated directly by spraying the shell with 2 or 0.05% aq suspensions of ... xylene, or indirectly by repeated ingestion by the parental quail of contaminated feed. /Xylene/ significantly acted upon the quail biotic potentials by reducing the hatching rate and the embryonic viability and increasing the fecundation rate and the weight of eggs, chickens, and adults. /Xylene/ reversed the sex ratio, so that the male birds had an advantage in number and acted more specifically on the embryonic genital development.
[David D; Arch Anat Microsc Morphol Exp 71 (3): 159-74 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

... Xylene at 2 mmol/kg decreased the metabolism of (14)C labeled benzene (2 mmol/kg) to phenol and other metabolites in rats. The metabolism of (14)C toluene was not inhibited by ... xylene. ...
[Gut I; Prac Lek 33 (6-7): 202-8 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Groups of Sprague Dawley rats were exposed, by inhalation, to ... xylene (600 ppm, 2625 mg/cu m) ... for 4 wk. Increased liver weights and liver to body wt ratios were observed. ... An increase in in vitro formation of certain metabolites of all substrates was found in rats exposed to xylene. ... Xylene was a 'phenobarbital-like' inducer of rat liver microsomal cytochrome p450.
[Toftgard R et al; Scand J Work Environ Health 7 (1): 31-7 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

In single administration studies, groups of five F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice of each sex received 500, 1,000, 2,000, 4,000, or 6,000 mg/kg /gavage in corn oil/. Administration of xylenes caused deaths at 6,000 mg/kg in rats and mice of each sex and at 4,000 mg/kg in male rats. Clinical signs observed /from 24 hr to 2 wk/ of dosing at 4,000 mg/kg included prostration, muscular incoordination, and loss of limb movement. Tremors, prone position, and slowed breathing were recorded for mice on day 3, but all mice appeared normal by the end of the 2 wk observation period.
[NTP; Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Xylenes (Mixed) p.3 Report No TR 327 (1986) NIH Pub No 87-2583]**PEER REVIEWED**

In 14 day studies, groups of five /rats/ ... of each sex ... were administered 0, 125, 250, 500, 1,000, or 2,000 mg/kg and mice received 0, 250, 500, 1,000, 2,000, or 4,000 mg/kg. Chemical related mortality occurred only at 2,000 mg/kg in rats and 4,000 mg/kg in mice. Rats and mice exhibited shallow breathing and prostration within 48 hr following dosing at 2,000 mg/kg. These signs persisted until day 12 for rats, but no clinical signs were noted during the second wk for mice.
[NTP; Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Xylenes (Mixed) p.3 Report No TR 327 (1986) NIH Pub No 87-2583]**PEER REVIEWED**

In 13 wk studies, groups of 10 rats of each sex received 0, 62.5, 125, 250, 500, or 1,000 mg/kg, and groups of 10 mice of each sex received 0, 125, 250, 500, 1,000, or 2,000 mg/kg. No deaths or clinical signs of toxicity were recorded in rats. However, high dose male rats gained 15% less and females gained 8% less weight than did the vehicle controls. Two female mice died at the 2,000 mg/kg level. Lethargy, short and shallow breathing, unsteadiness, tremors, and paresis were observed for both sexes in the 2,000 mg/kg group within 5-10 min after dosing and lasted for 15-60 min.
[NTP; Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Xylenes (Mixed) p.3 Report No TR 327 (1986) NIH Pub No 87-2583]**PEER REVIEWED**

... It is of importance to note that coal-based solvents (eg, xylene) have been suggested to be possible potent lymphocytic leukemogens, such as benzene, in a limited study of the relationship between lymphocytic leukemia and exposures to benzene and other solvents in the rubber industry. Available animal data on the carcinogenicity of xylene(s) are inadequate to permit an evaluation. In limited studies thus far, the individual isomers were not found genotoxic when tested in a number of short-term tests.
[Fishbein L; Sci Total Environ; 43 (1-2): 165-83 (1985)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Two laboratories tested multiple forms of xylene for their developmental toxicity hazard potential (A/D ratio) by means of the hydra assay. The three isomers, as well as a solution of mixed xylenes, all interfered with development (D) at or near to concn that also were toxic to adult (A) hydra. The development/adult ratios ranged from 1 to 2 in hydra as they had in conventional tests made in pregnant laboratory animals. Each testing laboratory concluded that xylenes were not primary development hazards but coeffective agents capable of disrupting development only at or near to concn also toxic to adults. In each instance every xylene tested interfered with the same stage or developmental sequence and in a concn related manner. The hydra assay may be useful for establishing priorities to test agents in a more elaborate system, but substances less soluble than xylene may exceed the test's applicability.
[Johnson EM et al; Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 82 (2): 323-8 (1986)]**PEER REVIEWED**

... Pregnant CFY rats /were exposed/ by continuous inhalation to 1,000 mg/cu m (230 ppm) of a xylene mixture (10% o-, 50% m-, 20% p-xylene, and 20% ethylbenzene) on gestational days 9 through 14. At this concn, the xylene mixture produced skeletal effects including an increased incidence of supernumerary ribs (9/143 alizarin-stained fetuses in the dosed group compared to 2/143 in the control group). ... Two cases of agnathia (absence of mandible) /were reported/ in 286 pups.
[Hudak A, Ungvary G; Toxicol 11: 55-63 (1978)]**PEER REVIEWED**

RATS PRETREATED WITH XYLENE OR PHENOBARBITAL & THEN EXPOSED TO N-HEXANE, SHOWED A MARKEDLY INCR PEAK SERUM CONCN OF THE NEUROTOXIC METABOLITE 2,5-HEXANEDIONE.
[TOFTGAARD R ET AL; MOL PHARMACOL 23 (1): 265-71 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Admin of xylenes to rats caused decr in liver glutathione (GSH) concn, reduction in glutathione concn was most pronounced after treatment with o-xylene isomer (4.0 mmol/kg).
[Van Doorn R et al; Arch Toxicol 43 (4): 293-304 (1980)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hepatocytes isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-275 g) were exposed to halogenated and non-halogenated hydrocarbons. Leakage of cellular enzymes and inhibition of respiration were monitored as indicators of toxicity. Cell suspensions contained 2-3X10+6 cells/ml and were viable for 6 hr as indicated by a < 10% increment in the fractional release of aspartate aminotransferase activity. The hydrocarbons were added to the cell suspension as 20% solutions in ethanol. The addition of 20 mM dimethylbenzene (DMB) caused a rapid release, which peaked within 60 min, into the medium. Approximately 22% (n= 4) of the total aspartate aminotransferase was found in the medium and the release was concentration dependent. Cellular oxygen consumption was reduced when DNB was present, and the reduction was dose dependent. The relationship of the effects of cellular respiration to alteration in mitochondrial function was studied using dinitrophenol (DNP) and succinate, an NADH-independent mitochondrial substrate. DNP-induced oxygen stimulation was abolished by 10 mM DMB. Succinate-stimulated respiration was unaffected by 2.5 mM DMB, but DPN-stimulated respiration was significantly reduced. Mitochondrial function returned to normal within 1 hr. /Dimethylbenzene/
[Berger ML, Sozeri T; Toxicology 45 (3): 319-30 (1987)]**PEER REVIEWED**

In some rats exposed to 3000 mg/cu m mixed xylenes for 8 hours per day on six days per week for 110-130 days, exposure resulted in paralysis of the hind legs, weight loss, a slight decrease in leukocytes, increases in blood urea, urinary blood and albumin, and hyperplasia of the bone marrow. Slight congestion of kidney, liver, heart, adrenal, lung and spleen were observed. Cellular desquamation of glomeruli and necrosis of the convoluted tubules were also reported.
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work)., p. V47 138 (1989)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Ten to 20 applications of undiluted mixed xylenes on the ears or shaved abdomen of rabbits for two or four weeks resulted in moderate to marked erythema and oedema, with superficial necrosis at both sites. After introduction of two drops of mixed xylenes into the rabbit eye, slight conjunctival irritation and transient corneal injury were observed. Application of undiluted xylene to the eye caused corneal lesions in cats.
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work)., p. V47 137 (1989)]**PEER REVIEWED**

... Two drops of mixed xylenes instilled into rabbit eyes induced slight conjunctival irritation with very slight, transient corneal injury.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I, II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991., p. 1732]**PEER REVIEWED**

Nine rats inhaled 690 ppm of mixed xylenes, 8 hours/day, 6 days/week for 110 to 130 days, while six rabbits inhaled 1200 ppm 8 hours/day, 6 days/week for 40 to 50 days. In some animals, exposure resulted in paralysis of hind legs; weight loss; a slight decrease in leukocytes; increases in blood urea, urinary blood, and albumin; and hyperplasia of the bone marrow. Slight congestion of the kidney, liver, heart, adrenal, lung, and spleen was observed.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I, II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991., p. 1733]**PEER REVIEWED**

Fertility and pregnancy indices were no different among male and female rats inhaling 60, 250, or 500 ppm xylene, 6 hours/day for 131 premating days, during 20 mating days, and throughout gestation and lactation as compared with the concurrent control animals.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I, II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991., p. 1734]**PEER REVIEWED**

Rats exposed to 300 ppm, 6 hours/day, 5 days/week for 18 weeks showed increased hepatic monooxygenation. /From table/
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I, II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991., p. 1733]**PEER REVIEWED**

The effects of acute xylene exposure on the enkephalinergic neuromodulatory system were studied in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected ip with 0 or 1.6 mL/kg xylene daily for 3 consecutive days. Three hr after the last dose, they were killed and the brains were removed. The brains were dissected into the parietal cortex. caudate putamen, medial preoptic areas of the hypothalamus, globus pallidus, olfactory tubercle, and central amygdaloid nuclei (CA). The various brain parts were analyzed for changes in their met-enkephalin content by an immunostaining technique. Xylene decr the extent of immunostaining for met-enkephalin in the globus pallidus, olfactory tubercle, and the CA. The decr in the globus pallidus and CA were statistically significant. The decr in the olfactory tubercle was not significant. Immunostaining for met-enkephalin in the other brain regions was not affected by xylene. The authors conclude that xylene decr the met-enkephalin content of specific brain regions. The regional specificity of these decr suggests that enkephalins are involved in xylene neurotoxicity.
[de Gandarias JM et al; Ind Health 33 (1): 1-6 (1995)]**PEER REVIEWED**

... Mixed xylenes (60% m-, 14% p-, 9% o-xylene, and 17% ethylbenzene) in corn oil were administered by gavage to mice and rats 5 days/week for 103 weeks. Mice received daily doses of 500 or 1000 mg/kg; rats received 250 or 500 mg/kg. No gross or histopathological lesions were related to these treatments; tumor incidence was similar for treated and control groups of either species. There was no evidence for carcinogenicity. When tested for mutagenicity, o-, m-, and p-xylene were negative by assay in the Ames system using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA1535, TA1537, TA1538, TA98, and TA100 with or without metabolic activation by S9 fraction derived from livers of rats either untreated or induced with Aroclor 1254. Xylene did not change the number of sister chromatid exchanges or the number of chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes in vitro. /Xylenes/
[Hayes, W.J., Jr., E.R. Laws, Jr., (eds.). Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology. Volume 2. Classes of Pesticides. New York, NY: Academic Press, Inc., 1991., p. 644]**PEER REVIEWED**

Teratogenicity has been evaluated for a xylene mixture (9.1% o, 60.2% m, 13.6% p, and 17.0% ethylbenzene) in pregnant albino CD-I mice given the mixture at dosages of 2.4, 3.0, and 3.6 ml/kg/day by gavage on days 6-15 of gestation. At these near-lethal doses, xylene produced a significant increase in malformations, with cleft palate being the major malformation observed. Exposure of CFY rats to 1000 mg/cu m (230 ppm) xylene for 24 hr/day from day 9 to 14 of gestation was not teratogenic, although there was an increase in skeletal anomalies consisting of extra ribs and fused sternebrae.
[Hayes, W.J., Jr., E.R. Laws, Jr., (eds.). Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology. Volume 2. Classes of Pesticides. New York, NY: Academic Press, Inc., 1991., p. 644]**PEER REVIEWED**

Rats exposed 6 hr/day for 3 days to 2000 ppm of a xylene mixture of the o, m, and p isomers showed an increase in hepatic cytochrome p450 and NADPH-cytochrome c reductase. The p isomer was less potent in inducing this effect that the other isomers or the mixture. Microsomes from lung and kidney also showed increases in cytochrome p450 for the xylene mixture and isomers except the p isomer failed to induce cytochrome p450 in microsomes from kidney.
[Hayes, W.J., Jr., E.R. Laws, Jr., (eds.). Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology. Volume 2. Classes of Pesticides. New York, NY: Academic Press, Inc., 1991., p. 644]**PEER REVIEWED**

... Under the conditions of these 2 yr gavage studies, there was no evidence of carcinogenicity of xylenes (mixed) for male or female F344/N rats given 250 or 500 mg/kg or for male or female B6C3F1 mice given 500 or 1,000 mg/kg.
[Toxicology & Carcinogenesis Studies of Xylenes in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (gavage Studies). Technical Report Series No. 327 (1986) NTIS Publication No. PB87-189684/AS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709]**QC REVIEWED**

National Toxicology Program Studies:

Two yr toxicology and carcinogenesis studies were conducted by admin 0, 250, or 500 mg/kg xylenes in corn oil by gavage to groups of 50 F344/N rats of each sex, 5 days per week for 103 weeks. Groups of 50 B6C3F1 mice of each sex were administered 0, 500, or 1,000 mg/kg xylenes on the same schedule. ... Under the conditions of these 2 yr gavage studies, there was no evidence of carcinogenicity of xylenes (mixed) for male or female F344/N rats given 250 or 500 mg/kg or for male or female B6C3F1 mice given 500 or 1,000 mg/kg.
[Toxicology & Carcinogenesis Studies of Xylenes in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (gavage Studies). Technical Report Series No. 327 (1986) NTIS Publication No. PB87-189684/AS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709]**QC REVIEWED**

Non-Human Toxicity Values:

LD50 Rat oral 4.3 g/kg
[Hayes, W.J., Jr., E.R. Laws, Jr., (eds.). Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology. Volume 2. Classes of Pesticides. New York, NY: Academic Press, Inc., 1991., p. 643]**PEER REVIEWED**

LD50 Rat oral 10 mL/kg /Xylene/
[Hayes, W.J., Jr., E.R. Laws, Jr., (eds.). Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology. Volume 2. Classes of Pesticides. New York, NY: Academic Press, Inc., 1991., p. 643]**PEER REVIEWED**

LD50 Mouse oral 1590 mg/kg /Xylene/
[Hayes, W.J., Jr., E.R. Laws, Jr., (eds.). Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology. Volume 2. Classes of Pesticides. New York, NY: Academic Press, Inc., 1991., p. 643]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Rat inhalation 6,350 ppm/4 hr
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982., p. 3292]**PEER REVIEWED**

LCLo Rat inhalation 8,000 ppm/4 hr
[BDM Corp; The AAR Haz Mater Database (1981) as cited in Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Xylene (Draft) p.80 (Dec 1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Rat inhalation 6,350 ppm/4 hr
[Clayton GD, Clayton FE; Patty's Ind Hyg and Toxicol 2A, 2B : (1981) as cited in Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Xylene (Draft) p.80 (Dec 1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Mouse inhalation 3,907 ppm/6 hr
[US National Research Council; The Alkyl Benzenes (1981) as cited in Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Xylene (Draft) p.81 (Dec 1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

LD50 Rat oral 4.3 g/kg and 10 ml/kg /Xylene/
[Hayes, W.J., Jr., E.R. Laws, Jr., (eds.). Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology. Volume 2. Classes of Pesticides. New York, NY: Academic Press, Inc., 1991., p. 643]**PEER REVIEWED**

LD50 Mouse oral 1590 mg/kg /Xylene/
[Hayes, W.J., Jr., E.R. Laws, Jr., (eds.). Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology. Volume 2. Classes of Pesticides. New York, NY: Academic Press, Inc., 1991., p. 643]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Rat oral 29,000 mg/cu m (6670 ppm) /Xylene/
[Hayes, W.J., Jr., E.R. Laws, Jr., (eds.). Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology. Volume 2. Classes of Pesticides. New York, NY: Academic Press, Inc., 1991., p. 644]**PEER REVIEWED**

LD50 Rat oral range from 3523 mg/kg to 8600 mg/kg. /Mixed Xylenes/
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I, II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991., p. 1732]**PEER REVIEWED**

LD50 Mouse (B6C3F1) oral 5251 mg/kg (female) and 5627 mg/kg (male). /Mixed Xylenes/
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I, II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991., p. 1732]**PEER REVIEWED**

LD50 Rabbit dermal > 5 ml/kg (43 g/kg). /Mixed Xylenes/
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I, II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991., p. 1732]**PEER REVIEWED**

Ecotoxicity Values:

LD50 Goldfish 13 mg/l/24 hr /Conditions of bioassay not specified, no specific isomer/
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data of Organic Chemicals. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1983., p. 1191]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Rainbow trout 13.5 mg/l/96 hr /Conditions of bioassay not specified, no specific isomer/
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data of Organic Chemicals. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1983., p. 1191]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Fathead minnow 46 mg/l/1 hr; 42 mg/l/24-96 hr @ 18-22 deg C, in a static bioassay /No specific isomer/
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data of Organic Chemicals. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1983., p. 1191]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Carassius auratus (goldfish) 16.9 ppm/96 hr /Conditions of bioassay not specified, no specific isomer/
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data of Organic Chemicals. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1983., p. 1191]**PEER REVIEWED**

TSCA Test Submissions:

Acute oral toxicity was evaluated in groups of 7 Sprague-Dawley male albino rats administered single doses of undiluted xylenes by oral gavage at levels of 0.85, 2.55, 4.25, 5.95, 7.65, and 8.65 g/kg of body weight. Mortality was observed in 3 animals in the 4.25 g/kg dose group, 5 in the 5.95 g/kg dose group, and in all animals in the two highest dose groups. The LD50 value was calculated to be 4.5 g/kg (3.3 - 6.2 g/kg confidence limits) by the Litchfield and Wilcoxon method. Clinical observations included shallow, rapid respiration and bloody discharge around the nose in the 4.25 and 5.95 g/kg dose group and marked depression to coma, shallow respiration, lacrimation, and bloody crusts around the eyes and nose in the 7.65 and 8.50 g/kg dose group. Gross necropsy revealed congested to hemorrhagic lungs, pale, mottled livers and kidneys, and excessive hyperhemia to a grey-green discoloration of the walls of the stomach and upper intestinal tract in decedents; survivors appeared normal.
[Hazleton Nuclear Science Corporation; Acute Oral LD50 - Rats. (1962), EPA Document No. 878220853, Fiche No. OTS0215109]**UNREVIEWED**

Xylene (CAS No. 1330-20-7) was tested for dermal irritation. The test substance was applied at 0.5 ml to intact and abraded skin of three groups of 6 rabbits (sex not reported). The first group had the sites occluded for 4 hours, the second for 24 hours, and the third were unoccluded. Well-defined to moderate erythema and edema were noted in the unoccluded and the 4-hour occluded groups. Well-defined to moderate erythema and well-defined to severe edema were observed in the 24-hour occluded group. The primary irritation scores were 4.2, 5.2, and 4.8 for 4-hour occluded, 24-hour occluded and non-occluded groups, respectively.
[STANDARD OIL CO; The Eye and Skin Irritation Potential of Xylene; 02/09/77; Document No. 878220855; Fiche No. OTS0215109]**UNREVIEWED**

Xylene (CAS No. 1330-20-7) was tested for eye irritation. The test substance was applied at 0.1 ml to the conjunctival sac of one eye of each of 6 rabbits (sex not reported) Mild iritis was observed in most eyes at 1 hour; slight corneal opacity was observed in 2 eyes at 24 hours, and 1 eye at 48 hours. Moderate conjunctival irritation was present in most eyes at 1 and 24 hours, but was slight at 48 and 72 hours. All eyes were normal by 7 days.
[STANDARD OIL CO; The Eye and Skin Irritation Potential of Xylene; 02/09/77; Document No. 878220855; Fiche No. OTS0215109]**UNREVIEWED**

Xylene (CAS# 1330-207) was evaluated for developmental effects in mice administered the test substance by gavage at dose levels of 0, 0.6, 1.2, 2.4, 3.0, 3.6 or 4.2 mL/kg/day. There were 15/15 mortalities at 4.2 mL/kg/day and 12/38 at 3.6 mL/kg/day. Maternal body weight gain was reduced in survivors at 3.6 mL/kg/day (p<0.05). The average maternal liver weight was increased at 2.4 and 3.0 mL/kg/day and the average fetal weight was reduced at 2.4 and 3.0 mL/kg/day (p<0.05). The average percent of malformed fetuses was increased at 2.4, 3.0, and 3.6 mL/kg/day (p<0.01). Cleft palate was observed in the 1.2, 2.4, 3.0, and 3.6 mL/kg/day groups.
[Research Triangle Inst.; Initial Submission: Teratogenicity Study with Xylene in Mice with Cover Letter Dated 072292, (1979), EPA Doc. No. 88-920005518, Fiche No. OTS0544772]**UNREVIEWED**

Mixed xylenes (CAS# 1320-20-7) were evaluated for developmental effects in groups of male and female Charles River rats administered the test substance for 6 hours/day by inhalation at concentrations of 0 (group I), 60 (group II), 250 (group III), 500 ppm (groups IV, V, and VI). Group I consisted of 30 untreated males and 30 untreated females, groups II and III consisted of 10 treated males and 10 treated females in each, group IV contained 20 treated males and 40 treated females, group V contained 10 treated males and 20 untreated females, and group VI contained 10 untreated males and 20 treated females. Treated animals were exposed for 131 days pre-mating and 20-day mating period. Females continued to be exposed during days 1-20 of gestation and on days 5-20 of lactation. Twenty group I (control) and 12 group IV females were sacrificed on day 21 of gestation in order to evaluate mating performance and pregnancy data. Group III and group VI showed mating indices which were significantly lower than controls. High dose females (groups IV and VI) showed an increased mean number of resorption sites. Mean fetal weight was lower in the high dose group than in the control group (this difference was only significant for female fetuses).
[Bio/dynamics Inc.; Initial Submission: Parental and Fetal Reproduction Inhalation Toxicity Study in Rats with Mixed Xylenes (Volume I of II) (Final Report) with Cover Letter Dated 012092, (1983), EPA Doc. No. 88-920000699, Fiche No. OTS0533862]**UNREVIEWED**

Mixed xylenes (CAS# 1320-20-7) were evaluated for developmental effects in groups of male and female Charles River rats administered the test substance for 6 hours/day by inhalation at concentrations of 0 (group I), 60 (group II), 250 (group III), 500 ppm (groups IV, V, and VI). Group I consisted of 30 untreated males and 30 untreated females, groups II and III consisted of 10 treated males and 10 treated females in each, group IV contained 20 treated males and 40 treated females, group V contained 10 treated males and 20 untreated females, and group VI contained 10 untreated males and 20 treated females. Treated animals were exposed for 131 days pre-mating and 20-day mating period. Females continued to be exposed during days 1-20 of gestation and on days 5-20 of lactation. Twenty group I (control) and 12 group IV females were sacrificed on day 21 of gestation in order to evaluate mating performance and pregnancy data. Group III and group VI showed mating indices which were significantly lower than controls. High dose females (groups IV and VI) showed an increased mean number of resorption sites. Mean fetal weight was lower in the high dose group than in the control group (this difference was only significant for female fetuses).
[Bio/dynamics Inc.; Initial Submission: Parental and Fetal Reproduction Inhalation Toxicity Study in Rats with Mixed Xylenes (Volume I of II) (Final Report) with Cover Letter Dated 012092, (1983), EPA Doc. No. 88-920000699, Fiche No. OTS0533862]**UNREVIEWED**

Xylene (CAS# 1330-20-7) was evaluated for acute dermal toxicity. The test substance was applied undiluted to the skin of New Zealand albino rabbits for 24-hours. Dosages and mortality data are as follows: 2000 (0/1 M); 3160 (0/1 F); 5010 (1/1 M in 2-days); 7940 mg/kg body weight (1/1 F in 2-days). Clinical signs included weight loss, increasing weakness, collapse, and death. Necropsy findings included hemorrhagic areas of the lungs, liver, and kidney discoloration, enlarged gall bladder, and gastrointestinal inflammation. The LD50 was determined to be greater than 3160 mg/kg b.w.
[MONSANTO CO; Initial Submission: Toxicity Studies with Ortho Xylene in Rats and Rabbits with Cover Letter Dated 08/17/92; 09/11/78; EPA Doc. No. 88-920007141; Fiche No. OTS0545480]**UNREVIEWED**

Metabolism/Pharmacokinetics:

Metabolism/Metabolites:

IN HUMANS ... EXPOSED TO APPROX 0.2-0.4 MG/L XYLENE ISOMERS (O-, M-, P-XYLENE) OR 1:1:1 MIXT FOR UP TO 8 HR ... MORE THAN 95% ... EXCRETED BY HUMANS INTO URINE IN FORM OF METHYLHIPPURIC ACIDS. ... SMALL PORTION ... EXCRETED INTO URINE AS CORRESPONDING XYLENOLS.
[National Research Council. Drinking Water and Health. Volume 3. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1980., p. 179]**PEER REVIEWED**

Quantitative determination of urinary metabolites in humans exposed to xylene using colorimetric determination is widely used. The metabolites of ... xylene are measured as ... methyl hippuric acid (MHA), paper chromatography and thin layer chromatography are necessary as pretreatments of samples. The addition of pyridine, p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (DAB) and acetic anhydride to glycine conjugates gives the most stable color development. Excellect analytical sensitivity and specificity with gas chromatographic methods requires pretreatment with diazomethane for methylesterification of methyl hippuric acid.
[Ogata M; Acta Med Okayama 35 (6): 385-94 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

... Xylene is metabolized to a toxic aldehyde, methylbenzaldehyde ... .
[Riihimaki V et al; Scand J Work Environ Health 8: 77-9 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The principal difference between human and animal xylene metabolism is the production of p-methylbenzaldehyde catalyzed by rabbit and rodent lung and liver alcohol dehydrogenase. Glucuronidation apparently occurs after saturation of normal glycine metabolic pathways that predominate in humans as evidenced by the methylhippuric acids in urine. Methylbenzyl alcohol and dimethylpheonl have not been reported in human studies.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I, II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991., p. 1735]**PEER REVIEWED**

Generally, the xylenes are metabolized to the corresponding o-, m-, or p-toluic acids, and excreted in urine free or conjugated with glycine as methylhippuric acid.
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982., p. 3296]**PEER REVIEWED**

Absorption, Distribution & Excretion:

For exposure to xylene at concn averaging 100 ppm, the mean methyl hippuric acid concn should average 1.5 to 2 g/g creatinine (range 1.0-3.0) in a sample collected during the second part of the exposure period. Almost total urinary excretion of xylene occurs by 24 hours. The rapid xylene clearance from blood (plasma half-life of 4 hours) prevents adequate biological monitoring of serum samples. ...
[Ellenhorn, M.J. and D.G. Barceloux. Medical Toxicology - Diagnosis and Treatment of Human Poisoning. New York, NY: Elsevier Science Publishing Co., Inc. 1988., p. 963]**PEER REVIEWED**

XYLENES HAVE BEEN REPORTED TO CROSS THE HUMAN PLACENTA.
[National Research Council. Drinking Water and Health. Volume 3. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1980., p. 180]**PEER REVIEWED**

XYLENE, WHEN INGESTED, IS READILY ABSORBED BY THE HUMAN SYSTEM, AS HAS BEEN SHOWN IN ACCIDENTAL INGESTIONS. ABSORPTION THROUGH INTACT & BROKEN SKIN OCCURS READILY. ... XYLENE IS ABSORBED MAINLY THROUGH MUCOUS MEMBRANES & PULMONARY SYSTEM. ... ABSORBED XYLENE IS TRANSLOCATED THROUGH THE VASCULAR SYSTEM. ...
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982., p. 3296]**PEER REVIEWED**

The uptake of solvent by man during whole body exposure to toluene and xylene occurs almost exclusively through the lung; dermal uptake represents about 1% of the total uptake.
[Wallen M et al; Brit J Indust Med 42: 111-6 (1985)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Male rats were injected ip with benzene, toluene, or a mixt or xylene isomers at 20 mmol hydrocarbon/kg daily for 3 days. The effects of administration of these hydrocarbons upon their own in vitro metabolism, as well as upon cytochrome p450, NADPH-cytochrome c reductase, aminopyrine N-demethylase, aniline hydroxylase, glutathione, glutathione S-transferase, and UDP-glucuronyltransferase in liver were studied.
[Pathiratne A et al; Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 82 (2): 272-80 (1986)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The correlation between xylene exposure and urinary excretion of methyl hippuric acid (MHA) was studied in 40 workers (35 men, 5 women) employed in the paint industry. Subjects were exposed primarily to xylene although exposure to 11 other solvents was possible. Personal sampling showed 8 hr time weighted average for xylene ranged from 0-865 mg/cu m with a median exposure of 69 mg/cu m. Urine was collected over one 24 hr period for each worker. Personal air samples were collected for each worker over the course of a complete workday. Methyl hippuric acid excretion was linearly correlated to the 8 hr time weighted average for xylene exposure after adjustment for body weight. The total amount of methyl hippuric acid excreted in the urine over 24 hr showed virtually the same correlation to xylene exposure (r= 0.84) as the methyl hippuric acid excretion during the latter part of the workshift (r= 0.81, sampling time 4-5 hr) among 37 workers exposed to 8 hr time weighted average xylene concentrations of 0-200 mg/cu m.
[Lundberg I, Sollenbert J; Scand J Work Environ Health 12: 149-53 (1986)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Humans exposed to 46 or 92 ppm of o-, m-, p-xylene or a mixture (1:1:1) of the three for 8 hr absorbed approx 64% of the inhaled xylene. No difference in the absorption rate was reported due to level of exposure, length of exposure, or the type and/or mixture of the xylene isomers. The absorption of xylene appeared to vary among individuals due to differences in ventilation rate. ... Individuals with an incr ventilation rate retained less xylene.
[NCI; Monograph on Human Exposure to Chemicals in the Workplace: Xylene p.4-2 (July/1985)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Male Wister rats exposed to xylene in air (80% m-xylene, 12% p-xylene) for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 2 weeks accumulated 64.8 mg/xylene/g of perirenal fat after five exposures and 127.0 mg/xylene/g of perirenal fat after 10 exposures to xylene.
[NCI; Monograph on Human Exposure to Chemicals in the Workplace: Xylene p.4-4 (July/1985)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Groups of five male Wister rats were exposed to 300 ppm of technical grade xylene (85% m-xylene, 15% other isomers) for 6 hr/day, 5 days a week for 5, 9, 14, or 18 weeks. Analysis of the perirenal fat by gas chromatography indicated that 67.6, 57.4, 40.7, and 36.6 mg/g of tissue was present after 5, 9, 14, or 18 weeks of exposure, respectively. The gradual decr in the xylene content of perirenal fat as the length of exposure was incr may have been the result of an incr metabolic rate.
[NCI; Monograph on Human Exposure to Chemicals in the Workplace: Xylene p.4-4 (July/1985)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Groups of six male human volunteers were exposed to 200 or 100 ppm of a xylene mixture (49.4% ethylbenzene) for 30 min through a breathing valve. The first group, while being exposed to 200 ppm of the xylene mixture, exercised on a bicycle ergometer for 90 min. The second group, exposed to 100 ppm, ... incr their level of exercise at 30 min intervals. At rest and during light work, pulmonary uptake ... was about 63% during the 2 hr exposure period. At a more strenuous work level, pulmonary uptake ... was only 51% after a correction had been applied for the incr breathing vol that occurs during heavy exercise.
[NCI; Monograph on Human Exposure to Chemicals in the Workplace: Xylene p.4-1 (July/1985)]**PEER REVIEWED**

15 human male volunteers exposed for 70 min periods to 100 and 300 ppm at rest and 300 ppm while exercising absorbed a mean of 180, 541, or 1210 mg of xylene, respectively. The xylene absorption rate for both exposure levels was 43% while resting and 64% while exercising, assuming inhalation volumes of 20 cu m/24 hr at rest and 10 cu m/8 hr at work.
[NCI; Monograph on Human Exposure to Chemicals in the Workplace: Xylene p.4-2 (July/1985)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Xylene possesses marked solubility in adipose tissue (distribution coefficient fat/blood approximately 100). ...
[Riihimaki V et al; Arch Toxicol 49: 253-63 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Xylene vapor is absorbed rapidly from the lungs, and xylene liquid and vapor are absorbed slowly through the skin. Of the xylene absorbed, about 95% is metabolized in the liver to methylhippuric acid and 70 to 80% of metabolites are excreted in the urine within 24 hr. However, the many variables which affect the absorption, metabolism and clearance of xylene incl exercise, alcohol intake, cigarette smoking, co-exposure to other solvents, gender, and GI, hepatic and renal pathology.
[Langman JM; Pathol 26 (3): 301-309 (1994)]**PEER REVIEWED**

FOLLOWING EXPOSURE OF RABBITS TO ATMOSPHERE OF ABOUT 3,000 MG/CU M FOR 8 HR/DAY, 6 DAYS/WK, FOR 130 DAYS, XYLENE WAS FOUND AT SLIGHTLY HIGHER AVG CONCENTRATIONS IN THE ADRENAL (148 PPM), BONE MARROW (130 PPM), SPLEEN (115 PPM), & BRAIN (100 PPM) THAN IN BLOOD (91 PPM) OR IN OTHER ORGANS. /XYLENES/
[Hayes, Wayland J., Jr. Pesticides Studied in Man. Baltimore/London: Williams and Wilkins, 1982., p. 123]**PEER REVIEWED**

IN HUMANS ... EXPOSED TO APPROX 0.2-0.4 MG/L XYLENE ISOMERS (O-, M-, P-XYLENE) OR 1:1:1 MIXT FOR UP TO 8 HR ... PULMONARY RETENTION WAS 64%, WHICH WAS ... INDEPENDENT OF DOSAGE OR DURATION OF EXPOSURE. AFTER EXPOSURE, ONLY 5% OF RETAINED XYLENES WERE ELIM IN EXPIRED AIR. MORE THAN 95% ... EXCRETED BY HUMANS INTO URINE IN FORM OF METHYLHIPPURIC ACIDS. ... SMALL PORTION ... EXCRETED INTO URINE AS CORRESPONDING XYLENOLS.
[National Research Council. Drinking Water and Health. Volume 3. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1980., p. 179]**PEER REVIEWED**

Interactions:

Concomitant ingestion of ethyl alcohol potentiated the deleterious behavioral effects of xylene in animals. Alcohol also potentiated the weak hepatic microsomal enzyme-inducing effects of xylene, and the combination produced liver damage at doses of xylene which were not effective alone.
[Gosselin, R.E., R.P. Smith, H.C. Hodge. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1984., p. III-399]**PEER REVIEWED**

Daily oral administration of 55 mg balagrin in xylene (20% balagrin-80% xylene) for 4 months, or administration of 235 mg xylene/kg stimulated rat serum ornithine carbamoyl transferase and leucine aminopeptidase, and decreased the relative weight of the liver. Only balagrin plus xylene decreased serum alpha-2 globulins, stimulated serum and liver cholinesterase, and decreased liver triglycerides, whereas xylene alone increased the blood leukocyte count and stimulated liver cytochrome oxidase, and inhibited it in the testes and brain. Xylene alone stimulated liver isocitrate dehydrogenase and glucose dehydrogenase more than did balagrin plus xylene. ... A 79% incr in hepatic DNA indicated repair.
[Ivanova-Chemishanska L et al; Probl Khig 5: 50-7 (1980)]**PEER REVIEWED**

... When consumed prior to exposure, ethanol decreases the metabolic clearance of xylene by approximately one-half.
[Ellenhorn, M.J. and D.G. Barceloux. Medical Toxicology - Diagnosis and Treatment of Human Poisoning. New York, NY: Elsevier Science Publishing Co., Inc. 1988., p. 963]**PEER REVIEWED**

The present study involved an investigation of possible interactions between 3 aromatic hydrocarbons in their ability to affect the development of the rat embryonic brain in vitro during 40 hr of the organogenic period. The embryos were explanted on day 10.5 of gestation and cultured in heat-inactivated rat serum to which various combinations of toluene, xylene or benzene had been added in 0.1% DMSO as dispersant. The actual amt of solvent present at different times in the culture period was quantitated using GC. The results showed that the solvents affected embryonic development in an additive manner (toluene 0.287 + or - 0.077; xylene 0.331 + or - 0.026; benzene 0.256 + or - 0.020; toluene + xylene 0.294 + or - 0.047; toluene + benzene 0.261 + or - 0.025; xylene + benzene 0.252 + or - 0.014 mL/mL). In each case the embryos had a small flattened head. Also, addition of below-threshold levels of solvents alone or in combo resulted in apparently normal embryonic development. The data indicate that exposure to combinations of toluene, xylene and benzene result in an additive rather than a synergistic or potentiating effect on rat embryonic development in vitro.
[Brown-Woodman PD et al; Teratol 45 (3): 326 (1992)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The health effects of exposure to a mixture of toluene and xylene isomers were studied on the fourth or fifth days of a working week in factories in China. The study population consisted of 233 exposed subjects and 241 controls. The prevalence of some subjective symptoms significantly incr in the exposed population, and the symptom profiles were similar to those found after exposure to toluene or xylenes alone. Hematology and serum biochemistry did not show notable changes. It seems reasonable to conclude that the effects of the toxicities of toluene and xylenes in combo are additive.
[Chen Z et al; Occupat Environ Med 51 (1): 47-49 (1994)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Aromatic compounds are metabolized via the p450 mixed function microsomal enzyme system in the endoplastic reticulum of the liver. The co-ingestion of ethanol has an effect on the metabolism of xylene. Ethanol inhibits the oxidation of the aromatic ring and also alkyl side chain oxidation. This is probably through a direct inhibitory effect on the microsomal oxidation by ethanol. Xylene blood concentrations increase up to two-fold following ethanol ingestion indicating inhibition of metabolism.
[Sullivan, J.B. Jr., G.R. Krieger (eds.). Hazardous Materials Toxicology-Clinical Principles of Environmental Health. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins, 1992., p. 1092]**PEER REVIEWED**

Pharmacology:

Interactions:

Concomitant ingestion of ethyl alcohol potentiated the deleterious behavioral effects of xylene in animals. Alcohol also potentiated the weak hepatic microsomal enzyme-inducing effects of xylene, and the combination produced liver damage at doses of xylene which were not effective alone.
[Gosselin, R.E., R.P. Smith, H.C. Hodge. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1984., p. III-399]**PEER REVIEWED**

Daily oral administration of 55 mg balagrin in xylene (20% balagrin-80% xylene) for 4 months, or administration of 235 mg xylene/kg stimulated rat serum ornithine carbamoyl transferase and leucine aminopeptidase, and decreased the relative weight of the liver. Only balagrin plus xylene decreased serum alpha-2 globulins, stimulated serum and liver cholinesterase, and decreased liver triglycerides, whereas xylene alone increased the blood leukocyte count and stimulated liver cytochrome oxidase, and inhibited it in the testes and brain. Xylene alone stimulated liver isocitrate dehydrogenase and glucose dehydrogenase more than did balagrin plus xylene. ... A 79% incr in hepatic DNA indicated repair.
[Ivanova-Chemishanska L et al; Probl Khig 5: 50-7 (1980)]**PEER REVIEWED**

... When consumed prior to exposure, ethanol decreases the metabolic clearance of xylene by approximately one-half.
[Ellenhorn, M.J. and D.G. Barceloux. Medical Toxicology - Diagnosis and Treatment of Human Poisoning. New York, NY: Elsevier Science Publishing Co., Inc. 1988., p. 963]**PEER REVIEWED**

The present study involved an investigation of possible interactions between 3 aromatic hydrocarbons in their ability to affect the development of the rat embryonic brain in vitro during 40 hr of the organogenic period. The embryos were explanted on day 10.5 of gestation and cultured in heat-inactivated rat serum to which various combinations of toluene, xylene or benzene had been added in 0.1% DMSO as dispersant. The actual amt of solvent present at different times in the culture period was quantitated using GC. The results showed that the solvents affected embryonic development in an additive manner (toluene 0.287 + or - 0.077; xylene 0.331 + or - 0.026; benzene 0.256 + or - 0.020; toluene + xylene 0.294 + or - 0.047; toluene + benzene 0.261 + or - 0.025; xylene + benzene 0.252 + or - 0.014 mL/mL). In each case the embryos had a small flattened head. Also, addition of below-threshold levels of solvents alone or in combo resulted in apparently normal embryonic development. The data indicate that exposure to combinations of toluene, xylene and benzene result in an additive rather than a synergistic or potentiating effect on rat embryonic development in vitro.
[Brown-Woodman PD et al; Teratol 45 (3): 326 (1992)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The health effects of exposure to a mixture of toluene and xylene isomers were studied on the fourth or fifth days of a working week in factories in China. The study population consisted of 233 exposed subjects and 241 controls. The prevalence of some subjective symptoms significantly incr in the exposed population, and the symptom profiles were similar to those found after exposure to toluene or xylenes alone. Hematology and serum biochemistry did not show notable changes. It seems reasonable to conclude that the effects of the toxicities of toluene and xylenes in combo are additive.
[Chen Z et al; Occupat Environ Med 51 (1): 47-49 (1994)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Aromatic compounds are metabolized via the p450 mixed function microsomal enzyme system in the endoplastic reticulum of the liver. The co-ingestion of ethanol has an effect on the metabolism of xylene. Ethanol inhibits the oxidation of the aromatic ring and also alkyl side chain oxidation. This is probably through a direct inhibitory effect on the microsomal oxidation by ethanol. Xylene blood concentrations increase up to two-fold following ethanol ingestion indicating inhibition of metabolism.
[Sullivan, J.B. Jr., G.R. Krieger (eds.). Hazardous Materials Toxicology-Clinical Principles of Environmental Health. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins, 1992., p. 1092]**PEER REVIEWED**

Environmental Fate & Exposure:

Environmental Fate/Exposure Summary:

Commercial xylene is a mixture of the three xylene isomers in the following percent ranges: 2-xylene, 10-25 percent; 3-xylene 45-70 percent; and 4-xylene 6-15 percent. Its production and use in petroleum products, as a chemical solvent, and as an organic synthesis reagent may result in its release to the environment through various waste streams, including discharges from storage facilities and the use of automobiles. Natural sources of xylene such as petroleum, forest fires and the volatiles of plants may also account for this compounds presence in the environment. Xylene will enter the atmosphere primarily from fuel emissions and exhausts linked with its use in gasoline. Based upon an experimental vapor pressure of 7.99 mm Hg at 25 deg C, xylene is expected to exist entirely in the vapor phase in the ambient atmosphere. Vapor-phase xylene is degraded in the atmosphere by reaction with photochemically-produced hydroxyl radicals with an estimated atmospheric lifetime of about 1-2 days. Xylene is expected to have moderate to high mobility in soils based upon experimental Koc values obtained with a variety of soils at differing pH values and organic carbon content. Volatilization from moist soil surfaces is expected based on an experimental Henry's Law constant of 7.0X10-3 atm-cu m/mole. Biodegradation is an important environmental fate process for xylene. In general, it has been found that xylene is biodegraded in soil and groundwater samples under aerobic conditions and may be degraded under anaerobic denitrifying conditions. In water, xylene is expected to adsorb somewhat to sediment or particulate matter based on its measured Koc values. This compound is expected to volatilize from water surfaces given its experimental Henry's Law constant. Estimated half-lives for a model river and model lake are 3 and 99 hours, respectively. The potential for bioconcentration in aquatic organisms is low based on an experimental BCF value of 20, measured in eels. Exposure to xylene may occur occupationally during its production or subsequent use, particularly as a solvent or in gasoline, via dermal and respiratory routes. The main route of exposure for the general population will be through inhalation of contaminated air as well as ingestion of contaminated drinking water and food. Dermal contact with household products containing xylene is also expected to be significant. (SRC)
**PEER REVIEWED**

Probable Routes of Human Exposure:

Xylene can affect the body if it is inhaled, if it comes in contact with the eyes or skin, or if it is swallowed.
[Mackison, F. W., R. S. Stricoff, and L. J. Partridge, Jr. (eds.). NIOSH/OSHA - Occupational Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards. DHHS(NIOSH) Publication No. 81-123 (3 VOLS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Jan. 1981., p. 1]**PEER REVIEWED**

THE ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF USING SOFT CONTACT LENSES (IN HUMANS) IN ENVIRONMENTS WITH FUMES FROM SOLVENTS OR SPLASHES OF STRONG ACIDS & ALKALIS WERE STUDIED EXPERIMENTALLY. UPTAKE OF XYLENE BY LENS MATERIALS WAS UP TO 90 TIMES THAT BY PHYSIOLOGIC SALINE, USED TO SIMULATE TEAR FLUID. WHEN EXPOSED LENSES WERE SOAKED FOR 10 & 60 MIN IN A VERY SMALL VOLUME OF SALINE THE CONCN OF SOLVENT IN THAT SALINE WAS ONLY UP TO 23 & 11%, RESPECTIVELY, OF THAT IN DIRECT EXPOSED SALINE. SOLVENTS WERE RELEASED MAINLY TO THE AIR. CONTACT LENSES WOULD LEAD TO A PROLONGED EXPOSURE BUT TO A RATHER LOW CONCN AS COMPARED TO DIRECT EXPOSURE.
[NILSSON S EG, ANDERSSON L; ACTA OPHTHALMOL 60 (4): 599-608 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Exposure to organic solvent vapors was investigated in 40 unit workplaces (with 189 workers) in 16 small scale industries in north-east Japan ... in which synthetic urushi lacquer was applied to produce non-metal tableware. ... Two furniture factories were also studied. The equipment used was carbon felt dosimeters and portable PID-GC ... . ... The gas chromatography could analyze benzene-toluene xylenes within 150 seconds. ... Toluene was the major pollutant in the workplace air, with small quantities of xylenes. ... Exposure did not exceed the current occupational exposure limit in all the cases except for the two workers, who were excessively exposed due to the generation of dense vapors in automated spraying process.
[Ikeda M et al; Ind Health 23 (3): 181-90 (1985)]**PEER REVIEWED**

... There is a broad potential for exposure both to industrial workers in the production and use of the xylenes and to the general public (via vehicle exhausts, consumer products, etc). ...
[Fishbein L; Sci Total Environ 43 (1-2): 165-83 (1985)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Number of USA workers exposed 140,000 /Time frame not mentioned/
[Doull, J., C.D.Klassen, and M.D. Amdur (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. 3rd ed., New York: Macmillan Co., Inc., 1986., p. 349]**PEER REVIEWED**

NIOSH (NOES Survey 1981-1983) has statistically estimated that 1,528,018 workers (316,320 of these are female) are potentially exposed to xylenes in the US(1). An average xylene concn of 0.1 ppm was detected in the breathing zones of paint shops sampled in the US(2). Lab personnel are exposed to an average xylene concn of 0.16 ppm and material handling personnel are exposed to an average xylene concn of 1.6 ppm at hazardous waste facilities in the US(3). The 8 hour TWA exposure to xylenes for personnel at organic solvent recycling plants was measured as 1 ppm(4). A study from 1979-1987 calculated the average exposure to xylenes in paint manufacturing plants as 2.01 ppm in breathing zone locations(5). A survey of 97 autobody shops in the US reported the 8 hour TWA exposure to xylenes was 3.3 ppm for painters and 0.7 ppm for non-painting personnel(6). The 8 hour TWA for worker exposure to xylenes in a German histology laboratory and a US histology laboratory was measured as 243-295 mg/cu m and 11-315 mg/cu m respectively(7). The 8 hour TWA for worker exposure to xylenes in a US hospital laboratory was measured as 3-1700 mg/cu m(7). Occupational exposure may be through inhalation and dermal contact with this compound at workplaces where xylenes are produced or used(SRC). The general population will be exposed to xylenes largely via inhalation of ambient air, particularly in areas with heavy traffic, near filling stations and near industrial sources such as refineries(SRC). Exposure may also arise from consuming contaminated food and drinking water(SRC). An average concn of 0.37 ppb of 3- and 4-xylene was measured in blood samples collected from 60 persons in the US that are not occupationally exposed to xylenes(8).
[(1) NIOSH; National Occupational Exposure Survey (NOES) (1983) (2) Whitehead LW et al; Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 45: 767-772 (1984) (3) Pedersen BA, Higgins GM; J Air Waste Manage Assoc 45: 89-94 (1995) (4) Kupferschmid LL, Perkins JL; Appl Ind Hyg 1: 122-124 (1986) (5) Myer HE et al; Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 54: 663-670 (1993) (6) Daniel W et al; Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 53: 124-129 (1992) (7) IARC; Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1972-Present. Xylenes 47: 129 (1989) (8) Ashley DL et al; Clin Chem 40: 1401-1404 (1994)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Humans are exposed to xylene primarily from air, particularly in areas with heavy traffic, near filling stations, near industrial sources such as refineries or where xylene is used as a solvent. Exposure may also arise from drinking contaminated well water near leaking underground gasoline storage tanks or from spills of petroleum products. (SRC)
**PEER REVIEWED**

Benzene and xylenes are components of gasoline. The US population exposed to xylenes from petroleum related sources can be assumed to be the same as for benzene, namely: people choosing self-service at gasoline service stations 37,000,000; people living in the vicinity of gasoline service stations 118,000,000; petroleum refineries 6,597,000; urban exposure (auto emissions) 113,690,000(1). /Xylenes/
[(1) Mara SJ, Lee SS; Human Exposure to Atmos Benzene, Center for Resource Environ Studies Rep No.30 pp 3 Menlo Park CA: SRI (1977)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Body Burden:

ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS IN HUMAN MILK WERE IDENTIFIED BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY. XYLENE WAS ONE OF THE AROMATICS IDENTIFIED.
[PELLIZZARI ED ET AL; BULL ENVIRON COMTAM TOXICOL 28: 322 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

FOLLOWING EXPOSURE OF RABBITS TO AN ATMOSPHERE OF ABOUT 3,000 MG/CU M FOR 8 HR/DAY, 6 DAYS/WK, FOR 130 DAYS, XYLENE WAS FOUND AT SLIGHTLY HIGHER AVG CONCENTRATIONS IN THE ADRENAL (148 PPM), BONE MARROW (130 PPM), SPLEEN (115 PPM), & BRAIN (100 PPM) THAN IN BLOOD (91 PPM) OR IN OTHER ORGANS.
[Hayes, Wayland J., Jr. Pesticides Studied in Man. Baltimore/London: Williams and Wilkins, 1982., p. 123]**PEER REVIEWED**

Average Daily Intake:

AIR INTAKE: (Assume typical concn 4.0 ppb) 353 ug; WATER INTAKE: (Assume typical concn 0-1 ppb) 2 ug; FOOD INTAKE: Insufficient data. (SRC)
**PEER REVIEWED**

Natural Pollution Sources:

Common naturally occurring sources of xylenes are petroleum(1); forest fires and volatiles of plants(2).
[(1) Verschueren K; Handbook on Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. 2nd ed NY,NY VanNostrand Reinhold Co p.1188-94 (1982) (2) Graedel TE; Chemical Compounds in the Atmosphere. NY,NY Academic Press p.108 (1978)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Artificial Pollution Sources:

Agricultural spraying.
[NAS; The Alkyl Benzenes page I-1 to I-99 (1980)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Xylene's production and use in petroleum products, as a chemical solvent and intermediate, and for the manufacture of terephthalic acid and herbicides(1-4) may result in its release to the environment through various wastestreams(SRC).
[(1) Kavaler AR; Chemical Marketing Reporter August 21, 1995 (2) Lewis RJ: Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary Vol 12, NY, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold p 1235 (1993) (3) NAS; The Alkyl Benzenes pp I.1 to I.99 (1980) (4) Ashford RD; Ashford's Dictionary of Industrial Chemicals: Properties, Production, Uses. London, England: Wavelength Publ, Ltd. p. 956 (1994)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Environmental Fate:

Several experimental Koc values for xylene have been reported in soil samples with differing pH and organic carbon content values(1-3). The reported Koc value of o-xylene is in the range of 48-68(1). Mixtures of xylenes in silt clay soil at pH 8.5 and organic carbon content of 0.17 percent have a reported experimental Koc of 365; xylene in silt clay soil at pH 7.0 and organic carbon content of 1.40 percent have a reported experimental Koc of 39; xylene in coarse sand at pH 6.8 and organic carbon content of 0.09 percent has a reported experimental Koc of 311; xylene in coarse sand at pH 6.6 and organic carbon content of 0.04 percent has a reported experimental Koc of 2600(2). Xylene in Norwegian forest soil at pH 5.6 and organic carbon content of 0.2 percent has a reported experimental Koc of 129; xylene in Norwegian agricultural soil at pH 7.4 and organic carbon content of 2.2 percent has a reported experimental Koc of 158; xylene in Norwegian forest soil at pH 4.2 and organic carbon content of 3.7 percent has a reported experimental Koc of 289(3). Xylene isomers have been observed to pass through soil at a dune-infiltration site on the Rhine River(4) and to leach into groundwater under a rapid infiltration site(5). Based on an experimental vapor pressure of 7.99(6), volatilization from dry soil surfaces is expected(SRC). Volatilization from moist soil surfaces is expected based on an experimental Henry's Law constant of 7.0X10-3 atm-cu m/mole(7) reported for a mixture of xylenes. Xylene is degraded in standard biodegradability tests using various inocula including sewage, activated sludge and seawater(8-13).
[(1) Nathwani JS, Phillip CR; Chemosphere 6: 157-62 (1977) (2) Pavlostathis SG, Mathavan GN; Environ Sci Technol 26: 532-538 (1992) (3) Seip HM et al; Sci Total Environ 50: 87-101 (1986) (4) Piet GJ et al; Quality of Groundwater Int Symp. Von Duyvenbouden W et al ed. Studies Env Sci 17: 557-64 (1981) (5) Tomson WB et al; Water Res 15: 1109-16 (1981) (6) Daubert TE, Danner RP; Physical and Thermodynamic Properties of Pure Chemicals Data Compilation Washington, DC: Taylor and Francis (1989) (7) Smith JR et al; Water Environ Res 65: 804-818 (1993) (8) Bridie AL et al; Water Res 13: 627-30 (1979) (9) Kappeler T, Wuhrmann K; Water Res 12: 327-33 (1978) (10) Phelps TJ et al; Environ Sci Technol 25: 1461-1465 (1991) (11) API; Transport and Fate of Dissolved Methanol, Methyl-Tertiary-Butyl-Ether, and Monoaromatic Hydrocarbons in a Shallow Sand Aquifer, App H. Amer Pet Inst, Environ Sci Dept, API Publ No 4601 April (1994) (12) Daniels SL et al; Environ Toxicol Chem 4: 107-117 (1985) (13) Graves DA et al; Appl Biotechnol Site Rem Pap Int Symp, In Situ On-Site Bioreclam 2nd. Hinchee REL et al Eds. Boca Raton,FL: Lewis (1993)]**PEER REVIEWED**

AQUATIC FATE: Based on a recommended classification scheme(1) and experimentally determined Koc values in the range of 39-359(2-4), xylene is expected to adsorb somewhat to suspended solids and sediment in water(SRC). Xylene is expected to volatilize from water surfaces(1,SRC) based on an experimental Henry's Law constant of 7.0X10-3 atm-cu m/mole(5) reported for a mixture of xylene isomers. Estimated half-lives for a model river and model lake are 3 and 99 hours, respectively(1,SRC). Xylene is degraded in standard biodegradability and field tests using various inocula including sewage, activated sludge and seawater(6-12).
[(1) Lyman WJ et al; Handbook of Chemical Property Estimation Methods. Washington DC: Amer Chem Soc pp. 4-9, 5-4, 5-10, 15-1 to 15-29 (1990) (2) Nathwani JS, Phillip CR; Chemosphere 6: 157-62 (1977) (3) Pavlostathis SG, Mathavan GN; Environ Sci Technol 26: 532-538 (1992) (4) Seip HM et al; Sci Total Environ 50: 87-101 (1986) (5) Smith JR et al; Water Environ Res 65:804-818 (1993) (6) Bridie AL et al; Water Res 13: 627-30 (1979)(7) Kappeler T, Wuhrmann K; Water Res 12: 327-33 (1978) (8) Phelps TJ et al; Environ Sci Technol 25: 1461-1465 (1991) (9) API; Transport and Fate of Dissolved Methanol, Methyl-Tertiary-Butyl-Ether, and Monoaromatic Hydrocarbons in a Shallow Sand Aquifer, App H. Amer Pet Inst, Environ Sci Dept, API Publ No 4601 April (1994) (10) Daniels SL et al; Environ Toxicol Chem 4: 107-117 (1985) (11) Graves DA et al; Appl Biotechnol Site Rem Pap Int Symp, In Situ On-Site Bioreclam 2nd. Hinchee REL et al Eds. Boca Raton,FL: Lewis (1993) (12) Clapp WL et al; Water Environ Res 66: 153-160 (1994)]**PEER REVIEWED**

ATMOSPHERIC FATE: According to a model of gas/particle partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds in the atmosphere(1), xylene, which has an experimental vapor pressure of 7.99 mm Hg at 25 deg C(2), will exist solely as a vapor in the ambient atmosphere. Vapor-phase xylene is degraded in the atmosphere by reaction with photochemically-produced hydroxyl radicals(SRC); the atmospheric lifetime of xylene is about 1-2 days(3,4). Ambient levels of xylene are detected in the atmosphere due to large emissions of this compound(SRC).
[(1) Bidleman TF; Environ Sci Technol 22: 361-367 (1988) (2) Daubert TE, Danner RP; Physical and Thermodynamic Properties of Pure Chemicals Data Compilation Washington, DC: Tayor and Francis (1989) (3) Spicer CW et al; A Literature Review of Atmospheric Transformation Products of Clean Air Act Title III Hazardous Air Pollutants. USEPA/600/R-94/088 US EPA Contract No 68-D80082 Final Report, Research Triangle Park (1993) (4) Kelly TJ et al; Environ Sci Technol 28: 378-387 (1994)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Environmental Biodegradation:

Xylenes are degraded in standard biodegradability tests using various inocula including sewage, activated sludge and seawater(1-7). Using a standard BOD dilution technique and a sewage inoculum, a theoretical BOD of 52, 80 and 44% was observed over a 5 day incubation period for 2-, 3-, and 4-xylene respectively(1). Using a standard BOD dilution technique and a benzene acclimated sludge inoculum, a theoretical BOD of 40, 10 and 26% was observed over an 8 day incubation period for 2-, 3-, and 4-xylene respectively(2). An unspecified amount of xylene was aerobically degraded in 8 days when contaminated groundwater was percolated through a microbial enriched soil column; the acclimation period was 3-4 days(2). A microbial consortium enriched from subsurface sediments contaminated with chlorinated hydrocarbons completely degraded 26 ug/l of xylene during a 21 day incubation period(3). 2-, 3-, and 4-Xylene at concns between 85 ug/l - 361 ug/l were degraded by a sand aquifer(4). Using a standard BOD dilution technique and an activated sewage inoculum, a theoretical BOD of 72 percent was observed over a 20 day incubation period for a mixture of xylene isomers(5). The biodegradation rate constant for xylene in an activated sludge inoculum was calculated as 0.2 hours-1, with a half-life of 3.3 hours(6). An activated sludge inoculum obtained from a Wisconsin wastewater treatment facility biodegraded a 5.53 ug/l sample of combined 3- and 4-xylene(7).
[(1) Bridie AL et al; Water Res 13: 627-30 (1979) (2) Kappeler T, Wuhrmann K; Water Res 12: 327-33 (1978) (3) Phelps TJ et al; Environ Sci Technol 25: 1461-1465 (1991) (4) API; Transport and Fate of Dissolved Methanol, Methyl-Tertiary-Butyl-Ether, and Monoaromatic Hydrocarbons in a Shallow Sand Aquifer, App H. Amer Pet Inst, Environ Sci Dept, API Publ No 4601 April (1994) (5) Daniels SL et al; Environ Toxicol Chem 4: 107-117 (1985) (6) Graves DA et al; Appl Biotechnol Site Rem Pap Int Symp, In Situ On-Site Bioreclam 2nd. Hinchee REL et al Eds. Boca Raton,FL: Lewis (1993) (7) Clapp WL et al; Water Environ Res 66: 153-160 (1994)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Environmental Abiotic Degradation:

Xylenes degrade in the atmosphere primarily by reacting with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals(SRC), with an atmospheric lifetime of about 1-2 days(1,2). The rate constant for the vapor-phase reaction of 2-, 3- and 4-xylene with photochemically-produced hydroxyl radicals has been measured as 13.7X10-12 cu cm/molecule-sec, 23.6X10-12 cu cm/molecule-sec and 14.3X10-12 cu cm/molecule-sec respectively at 25 deg C(3,4). This corresponds to an atmospheric half-life of about 28, 16 and 27 hours for 2-, 3 and 4-xylene respectively at an atmospheric concn of 5X10+5 hydroxyl radicals per cu cm(3,4).
[(1) Spicer CW et al; A Literature Review of Atmospheric Transformation Products of Clean Air Act Title III Hazardous Air Pollutants. USEPA/600/R-94/088 US EPA Contract No 68-D80082 Final Report, Research Triangle Park, (1993) (2) Kelly TJ et al; Environ Sci Technol 28: 378-387 (1994) (3) Atkinson R; J Phys Chem Ref Data (1989) (4) Kwok ESC, Atkinson R; Atmos Environ 29: 1685-1695 (1995)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The rate constant for the vapor-phase reaction of 2-, 3- and 4-xylene with photochemically-produced nitrate radicals has been measured as 2.0X10-16 cu cm/molecule-sec(1), 7.6X10-17 cu cm/molecule-sec(2) and 1.4X10-16 cu cm/molecule-sec(2) respectively at 25 deg C. This corresponds to an atmospheric half-life of about 80, 220 and 115 days for 2-, 3 and 4-xylene respectively at an atmospheric concn of 5X10+8 nitrate radicals per cu cm(3,SRC). The rate constant for the vapor-phase reaction of a mixture of xylenes with ozone has been measured as approximately 5.0X10-21 cu cm/molecule-sec at 25 deg C(4). This corresponds to an atmospheric half-life of about 6 years at an atmospheric concn of 7.0X10+11 ozone molecules per cu cm(4,SRC). The photolysis of jet fuel JP-4 in water resulted in the degradation of 3- and 4-xylene, combined, from 1.46 to 1.38 to 1.34 to 1.20 mg/l in 0, 7, 14, and 21 days, respectively, in pond water(5). Xylene is not expected to undergo hydrolysis in the environment due to the lack of functional groups to hydrolyze(SRC). Ambient levels of xylene are detected in the atmosphere due to large emissions of this compound(SRC).
[(1) Atkinson R et al; Environ Sci Technol 21: 1123-6 (1987) (2) Atkinson R et al; Int J Chem Kin 16: 887-898 (1984) (3) Atkinson R; J Phys Chem Ref Data 20: 459-507 (1991) (4) Atkinson R, Carter WPL; Chem Rev 84: 437-70 (1984) (5) Smith JH, Harper JC; pp 336-53 in Proc 12th Conf on Environ Toxicol 3,4, and 5 Nov 1981. Airforce Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, Ohio (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Environmental Bioconcentration:

An experimental BCF value of 20 was measured for xylene isomers in eels exposed to petroleum for 10 days(1). According to a classification scheme(2), this BCF value suggests that bioconcentration in aquatic organisms is low(SRC).
[(1) Ogata M, Miyaka Y; Water Res 12: 1041-4 (1978) (2) Franke C et al; Chemosphere 29: 1501-14 (1994)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Soil Adsorption/Mobility:

Several experimental Koc values for xylenes have been reported depending upon the pH and organic carbon content of the soil(1-3). Batch experiments conducted with five low organic carbon content (0.04-1.12%), field contaminated soils (3 silty clay and two sandy loams) yielded Koc values ranging from 39-365(1). Xylene in Norwegian forest soil at pH 5.6 and organic carbon content of 0.2 percent has a reported experimental Koc of 129; xylene in Norwegian agricultural soil at pH 7.4 and organic carbon content of 2.2 percent has a reported experimental Koc of 158; xylene in Norwegian forest soil at pH 4.2 and organic carbon content of 3.7 percent has a reported experimental Koc of 289(2). Based on a recommended classification scheme(5) and the experimentally determined Koc values, xylene is expected to have moderate to high mobility in soils(SRC). Xylene isomers have been observed to pass through soil at a dune-infiltration site on the Rhine River(3) and to leach into groundwater under a rapid infiltration site(6).
[(1) Pavlostathis SG, Mathavan GN; Environ Sci Technol 26: 532-538 (1992) (2) Seip HM et al; Sci Total Environ 50: 87-101 (1986) (3) Piet GJ et al; Quality of Groundwater Int Symp. Von Duyvenbouden W et al ed; Studies Env Sci 17: 557-64 (1981) (4) Swann RL et al; Res Rev 85: 23 (1983) (5) Walton BT et al; J Environ Qual 21: 552-558 (1992) (6) Tomson WB et al; Water Res 15: 1109-16 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Volatilization from Water/Soil:

The Henry's Law constant for xylene has been reported as 7.0X10-3 atm-cu m/mole(1). This value indicates that xylene will volatilize rapidly from water surfaces(2,SRC). Based on this Henry's Law constant, the volatilization half-life from a model river (1 m deep, flowing 1 m/sec, wind velocity of 3 m/sec) is estimated as approximately 3 hours(2,SRC). The volatilization half-life from a model lake (1 m deep, flowing 0.05 m/sec, wind velocity of 0.5 m/sec) is estimated as approximately 99 hours(2,SRC). An experiment which measured the rate of evaporation of xylenes from a 1:1000 jet fuel:water mixture found that this rate averaged approximately 0.6 times the oxygen reaeration rate(3). Combining this ratio with oxygen reaeration rates for typical bodies of water(2), one estimates that the half-life for evaporation of xylene from a typical river or pond is 29 and 144 hours, respectively(SRC).
[(1) Smith JR et al; Water Environ Res 65: 804-818 (1993) (2) Lyman WJ et al; Handbook of Chemical Property Estimation Methods. Washington DC: Amer Chem Soc pp. 15-1 to 15-29 (1990) (3) Smith JH, Harper JC; pp 336-53 in 12th Conf on Environ Toxicol: Behavior of Hydrocarbon Fuels in Aquatic Environment (1980)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Environmental Water Concentrations:

DRINKING WATER: According to a federal survey of drinking water from groundwater supplies, xylenes are present in < 5% of supplies(1). In a survey of 30 Canadian water treatment facilities, xylene was detected in the drinking water in Canada with mean values of 1 ppb(2). Xylene has been qualitatively detected in the municipal drinking water supplies of Washington, DC(3), Philadelphia, PA(4), Cleveland, OH(5), Tuscaloosa, AL(6), Houston, TX(7), and New Orleans, LA(8). Xylene was detected at 0.1-2.9 ppb in drinking water wells in the vicinity of a landfill(7). A max of 0.1 ppb has been found in bank-filtered Rhine river water in the Netherlands(9). Xylene was detected, not quantified, in 14 drinking water supplies in Great Britain(10). Xylene was detected in the Woburn drinking wells in Woburn, MA(11). Xylene was detected in the drinking water produced by offshore installations in Norway at concns between 41-15,000 ng/l(12).
[(1) Dyksen JE, Hess AF III; J Amer Water Works Assoc 74: 394-403 (1982) (2) Otson R et al; J Assoc Off Anal Chem 65: 1370-4 (1982) (3) Saunders RA et al; Water Res 9: 1143-5 (1975) (4) Suffet IH et al; pp 375-97 in Identification and analysis of Organic Pollutants in Water. Keith LH ed. Ann Arbor, MI: Ann Arbor Sci Publ (1976) (5) Sanjivamurthy VA; Water Res 12: 31-3 (1978) (6) Bertsch W et al; J Chromatogr 112: 701-8 (1975) (7) DeWalle FB, Chian ESK; J Water Works Assoc 73: 206-11 (1981) (8) Piet GJ, Morra CF; pp 31-42 in Artificial Groundwater Recharge (Water Res Eng Ser) Huisman L, Olsthorn TN eds. Pitman Publ (1983) (9) Dowty BJ et al; Environ Sci Technol 9: 762-5 (1975) (10) Fielding M et al; Organic Micropollutants in Drinking Water TR 159 p 49 Medmenham UK Water Res Ctre (1981) (11) Massachusetts Dept of Public Health; Health assessment For Wells G and H site, Woburn MA, Region I CERCLIS No Mad980732168. Boston,MA: Mass Dept Public Health Report 1989. NTIS PB90-137993 (12) Kristiansen NK et al; Chemosphere 25: 1631-42 (1992)]**PEER REVIEWED**

GROUNDWATER: Xylene isomers have been found in groundwater under landfills(1) and in the hundreds ppb range under a coal gasification site, 15 months after gasification was completed(2). Xylene was detected in the groundwater near the Lipari landfill site in Mantau, NJ(3). Xylene was detected at concns of 2-9900 ppb, in the groundwater near an elementary school located in the US(4). Xylene was detected in the groundwater near an oil storage facility in Virginia at an average concn of 2.8 ppm(5). Xylene was detected in groundwater under a landfill in Norman, OK(6) and under a rapid infiltration site in Phoenix, AZ(7) at various concns. Xylene isomers were detected, not quantified, in 10 groundwater water supplies in Great Britain(8).
[(1) DeWalle FB, Chian ESK; J Water Works Assoc 73: 206-11 (1981) (2) Stuermer DH et al; Environ Sci Technol 16: 582-7 (1982) (3) USEPA; Superfund Record of decision EPA Region 2: Lipari Landfill, Mantau Township, Gloucester County, NJ, Report 1988. USEPA/ROD/RO2-88/074. NTIS PB89-219224 (1988) (4) Mausolea et al; Environ Sci Technol 26: 185-192 (1992) (5) Mushrush GW et al; Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 52: 31-38 (1994) (6) Dunlap WJ et al; pp 96-110 in Organic Pollutants Contributed to Groundwater by a Landfill. USEPA-600/9-76-004 (1976) (7) Tomson MB et al; Water Res 15: 1109-16 (1981) (8) Fielding M et al; Organic Micropollutants in Drinking Water TR 159 p 49 Medmenham UK Water Res Ctre (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

SURFACE WATER: Xylene was detected, not quantified in the Mississippi River near New Orleans(1), the Black Warrior River in Tuscaloosa, AL(2), and the Glatt River in Switzerland(3). Xylene was detected, not quantified in Lakes Erie and Michigan(4). Xylene was detected at average concns of < 1 ppb in the raw water sources of 30 Canadian cities(5). Xylene was detected in only 1 of 204 surface water samples in the USA(6). Xylene was detected, not quantified in northern Lake Ontario(7). Xylene was detected in the surface waters of the Florida Bay at concns of 2-8 ug/l(8). Xylene was detected, not quantified, in 4 surface water supplies in Great Britain(9).
[(1) Dowty BJ et al; Environ Sci Technol 9: 762-5 (1975) (2) Bertsch W et al; J Chromatogr 112: 701-8 (1975) (3) Zuercher F, Giger W; Vom Wasser 47: 37-55 (1976) (4) Konasewich D; Status Report on Organic and Heavy Metal Contaminants in Lakes Erie, Michigan, Huron, and Superior Basins. Great Lakes Water Qual Rev Board (1978) (5) Otson R et al; J Assoc Off Anal Chem 65: 1370-4 (1982) (6) Ewing BB et al; Monitoring to Detect Previously Unrecognized Pollutants in Surface Waters USEPA-560/6-77-015, 015a p 75 (1977) (7) Onuska et al; J Great Lakes 9: 169-182 (1983) (8) IARC; Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1972-Present. Xylenes. 47: 129 (1989) (9) Fielding M et al; Organic Micropollutants in Drinking Water TR 159 p 49 Medmenham UK Water Res Ctre (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

SEAWATER: Xylene was detected, not quantified in Vineland Sound, MA(1) and the Gulf of Mexico(2). Xylene was detected in Valdez Harbor-Trans Alaskan Pipeline Terminal at concns of 0.2 and 0.7 ppb in 2 of 7 sampling sites(3). Unspecified concns of xylene were detected in the coastal waters of France(4).
[(1) Suffet IH et al; pp 375-97 in Identification and Analysis of Organic Pollutants in Water. Keith LH ed. Ann Arbor, MI: Ann Arbor Sci Publ (1976) (2) Sauer TC Jr et al; Mar Chem 7: 1-16 (1978) (3) Lysyj I et al; Environ Int 4: 407-16 (1980) (4) Marchand M et al; Marine Environ Res 25: 131-139 (1988)]**PEER REVIEWED**

RAIN/SNOW: Xylene isomers were detected in the rainfall around West Los Angeles, at concns in the parts per trillion range(1). Xylene was identified in surface Antarctic snow from 1987-1991 at concns ranging from 12 to 198 ng/l and in deep snow samples at concns ranging from 8 to 29 ng/l(2). Xylene isomers were quantified during seven rain events in Portland, OR in 1984, and concns ranged from 34 to 260 ng/l(3).
[(1) Kamamura K, Kaplan IR; Environ Sci Technol 17: 497-501 (1983) (2) Desideri PG et al; Intern J Environ Anal Chem 55: 33-46 (1994) (3) Ligocki MP et al; Atmos Environ 19: 1609-17 (1985)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Effluent Concentrations:

Xylenes were detected at a low-level radioactive waste disposal site in Maxey Flats at concns of 0.12 and 0.48 ppm in 2 of 3 trench leachates(1). Xylene was detected in the effluent of an industrial plant near Philadelphia at a concn of 1,000 ppb(2). Xylene was detected in the effluent from containing ponds in Atigun river, Alaska at concns of 1.2 ppb(3). Xylene was detected in the treated effluents from offshore oil drilling platforms in the Gulf of Mexico at an average concn of 0.3 ppb(3). Xylene was detected at concns of 50 ppb and 2,250 ppb in the leachate of a steel production plant in Sydney, Nova Scotia(4). Xylene was detected in the leachate from selected Wisconsin landfills at concns between 1 ug/l and 100 ug/l(5). Xylene concns of 14,900 ppb, 2,651 ppb and 10,900 ppb were detected in gas samples at three landfill sites in Quebec, Canada(6). The total amount of xylene emissions from four wastewater treatment facilities in Los Angeles, CA were measured between 72-3683 kg/year(7). The concn of xylene emitted from a German incineration facility was 7.7 ug/cu-m(8). Emissions of combined 3- and 4-xylene and 2-xylene from an outboard boat motor into a freshwater lake in Germany were measured as 71 mg and 37 mg respectively, for 10 minutes of operation(9). Combined 3- and 4-xylene and 2-xylene were detected at concn ranges of 61.5-427.4 mg/km and 22.6-172.9 mg/km respectively, in the emissions of automobiles under various driving conditions in the UK(10). Xylene isomers were detected at mean concns of 1.13-2.27 ppm in the tailpipe emissions from automobiles in the UK(11).
[(1) Francis AJ et al; Nuclear Technology 50: 158-63 (1980) (2) Hites RA; pp.107-19 in 8th Natl Conf Municp Sludge Manag: Sources and Fates of Industrial Organic Compounds: a case study (1979) (3) Lysyj I; Environ Int 4: 407-16 (1980) (4) Baechler FE, Macfarlane DS; in Subsurface Contamination by Immiscible Fluids. Proc Int Conf, Weyer KU Ed. Rotterdam: The Netherlands. Balkema. (1992) (5) Battista JR, Connelly JP; VOC Contamination at Selected Wisconsin Landfills-Sampling Results and Policy Implications. Wisconsin Dept Of Nat Res, Madison, WI 53707. Publ SW-094-89 (1989) (6) Brosseau J, Heitz M; Atmos Environ 28: 285-293 (1994) (7) Mayer GJ et al; Water Environ Res 66: 140-144 (1994) (8) Jay K, Stieglitz L; Chemosphere 30: 1249-1260 (1995) (9) Juettner F; Chemosphere 29: 191-200 (1994) (10) Bailey JC et al; Sci Tot Environ 93: 199-206 (1990) (11) Bailey JC et al; Atmos Environ 24: 43-52 (1990)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Sediment/Soil Concentrations:

Xylene was detected in the soil at the Clothier waste disposal facility in Granby, NY at an average concn of 79 ppb(1). Xylene was detected in the soil at a building construction site in the Netherlands at a maximum concn of 2,030 mg/kg(2). Xylene was detected at concns of about 1,500 ug/kg in the soil at a hazardous waste facility in Pemberton, New Jersey(3).
[(1) ASTDR; Health Assessment For Clothier Disposal Site, Town of Granby, Oswego County, NY Region 2. CERCLIS No NYD00051176 Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Report 1989 PB90-138975 (1989) (2) Bachhausen P; pp 983-988 in Contam Soil 90, Int KFK/TNO Conf, 3rd, Arendt F et al Eds, Dordrecht, Neth: Kluwer (1990) (3) USEPA; Superfund Record of Decision: Lang Property, Pemberton Township, NJ September 1986. USEPA/ROD/RO2-86/031. NTIS PB87-188470 (1986) (4) Kookana RS, Rogers SL; Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 142: 13-64 (1995)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Sediment collected from the River Morava, Slovakia, contained xylene at concns from 0.21 to 1.53 ug/kg wet weight(1). Sediment samples from the River Tees estuary, England, contained xylene at concns from 3.4 to 250 ppb(2).
[(1) Al-Rekabi H et al; Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 56: 90-97 (1996) (2) Harland BJ et al; Intern J Environ Anal Chem 20: 295-311 (1985)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Atmospheric Concentrations:

SOURCE DOMINATED AREAS: Xylene was detected at concns between 0.2-99.0 ppb near two landfills in New Jersey(1), and at concns between 3-5 ppb downwind from an automobile painting plant in Janesville, WI(2).
[(1) Bozzelli JW et al; Analysis of selected toxic and carcinogenic substances in ambient air in New Jersey. New Jersey Dept Environ Prot (1980) (2) Sexton K, Westberg H; Environ Sci Technol 14: 329-32 (1980)]**PEER REVIEWED**

URBAN/SUBURBAN: Atmospheric concns of total mixed xylenes have been determined at various locations throughout the world. From approximately 1900 samples across the USA an average atmospheric concn of 4.0 ppb was observed(1). Atmospheric concns of xylene for several cities were reported; Turin, Italy 15.06 ppb; Los Angeles, CA 1-18.1 ppb; Sidney, Australia 3.9 ppb; Lincoln Tunnel, NY 33 ppb; Houston, TX 38 ppb; Philadelphia, PA 16 ppb; London, UK 2.3 ppb; Phoenix, AZ 8.6 ppb(2). Combined 3- and 4-xylene was detected at an average concn of 18.1 ppb and 2-xylene was detected at an average concn of 7.2 ppb in 39 US cities(3). 2-, 3- and 4-Xylene were detected in the Lincoln Tunnel, NY at concns of 114 ppb, 49 ppb and 74 ppb respectively(4). Ambient concns of xylene isomers were reported for several urban cities; Zurich, Switzerland 9-21 ppb(5); Berlin, Germany 13.6-18.1 ppb(5); Paris, France 0.6-1.5 ppb(5); Johannesburg, Pretoria and Durban South Africa 1.3-4.5 ppb(5); London, England 0.8-2.8 ppb(5); Tokyo, Japan 0.4-1.0 ppb (5); Phoenix, AZ 1.8-4.2 ppb(5); Houston, TX 1.3-3.8 ppb(5); St. Louis, MO 0.3-1.0 ppb(5); Denver, CO 0.6-2.9 ppb(5) and Staten Island, NY 2.6 ppb(5).
[(1) Brodzinsky R, Singh HB; Volatile Organic Compounds in the Atmosphere: An Assessment of Available Data; Menlo Park CA pp.128-9 SRI Contract 68-02-3452 (1982) (2) Gilli G et al; Sci Total Environ 148:49-56 (1994) (3) Seila RL et al; Determination of C2 to C12 Ambient Air Hydrocarbons in 39 US Cities From 1984 Through 1986. USEPA/600/S3-89/058 Atmos Res Expos Assess Lab, Research Triangle Park NC (1989) (4) Lonneman WA et al; Environ Sci Technol 20: 790-796 (1986) (5) Grosjean D; Sci Total Environ 100: 367-414 (1991)]**PEER REVIEWED**

RURAL/REMOTE: The median concn of xylene sampled at 114 areas in the USA was 0.18 ppb with a maximum concn of 78 ppb(1). Ambient concns of xylene isomers were reported for several rural locations; Loop Head, Ireland 0.95-2.7 parts per trillion(2); rural Brazil 80-140 parts per trillion(2); rural Kenya 10-330 parts per trillion(2) and Niwot Ridge, CO 2-55 parts per trillion(2).
[(1) Brodzinsky R, Singh HB; Volatile Organic Compounds in the Atmosphere: An Assessment of Available Data; Menlo Park CA pp.128-9 SRI Contract 68-02-3452 (1982) (2) Grosjean D; Sci Total Environ 100: 367-414 (1991)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Food Survey Values:

Unspecified concns of xylenes were detected in cheese products obtained from dairy cattle in the French Alps(1). Unspecified concns of xylenes were detected in mother's milk in Bayonne, NJ; Jersey City, NJ; Baton Rouge, LA; Pittsburgh, PA; Charleston, WV(2). Unspecified amounts of xylenes were identified in human milk by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry(3).
[(1) Dumont JP, Adda J; J Agric Food Chem 26: 364-367 (1978) (2) Errickson MD et al; Acquisition and Chemical Analysis of Mother's Milk For Selected Toxic Substances USEPA-560/13-80-029. Washington, DC US EPA Off Pestic Toxic Subst (1980) (3) Pellizzari ED et al; Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 28: 322 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Plant Concentrations:

2- and 3-Xylene were detected, not quantified, in the volatiles of kiwi fruit flowers(1).
[(1) Tatsuki K et al; J Agric Food Chem 38:2176-80 (1990)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Fish/Seafood Concentrations:

Xylene was detected in rainbow trout from the Colorado river and carp obtained from Las Vegas Wash, NV at concns of 50 and 120 ppb respectively(1).
[(1) Hiatt MH; Anal Chem 55: 506-516 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Milk Concentrations:

ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS IN HUMAN MILK WERE IDENTIFIED BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY. XYLENE WAS ONE OF THE AROMATICS IDENTIFIED.
[PELLIZZARI ED ET AL; BULL ENVIRON COMTAM TOXICOL 28: 322 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Unspecified amounts of xylenes were identified in human milk by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry(1). Unspecified concns of xylenes were detected in mother's milk in Bayonne, NJ; Jersey City, NJ; Baton Rouge, LA; Pittsburgh, PA; Charleston, WV(2).
[(1) Pellizzari ED et al; Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 28: 322 (1982) (2) Errickson MD et al; Acquisition and Chemical Analysis of Mother's Milk For Selected Toxic Substances USEPA-560/13-80-029. Washington, DC US EPA Offc Pestic Toxic Subst (1980)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Environmental Standards & Regulations:

FIFRA Requirements:

Xylene is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance when used as an aquatic herbicide applied to irrigation conveyance systems in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is to be used only in programs of the Bureau of Reclamation, US Department of Interior and cooperating water user organizations. (b) It is to be applied as an emulsion at an initial concn not to exceed 750 ppm. (c) It is not to be applied when there is any likelihood that the irrigation water will be used as a source of raw water for a potable water system or where return flows of such treated irrigation water into receiving rivers and streams would contain residues of xylene in excess of 10 ppm. (d) Xylene to be used as an aquatic herbicide shall meet the requirement limiting the presence of a polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons as listed in 172.250 of title 21, Code of Federal Regulations. /Xylene/
[40 CFR 180.1025 (7/1/95)]**PEER REVIEWED**

As the federal pesticide law FIFRA directs, EPA is conducting a comprehensive review of older pesticides to consider their health and environmental effects and make decisions about their future use. Under this pesticide reregistration program, EPA examines health and safety data for pesticide active ingredients initially registered before November 1, 1984, and determines whether they are eligible for reregistration. In addition, all pesticides must meet the new safety standard of the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996. Pesticides for which EPA had not issued Registration Standards prior to the effective date of FIFRA, as amended in 1988, were divided into three lists based upon their potential for human exposure and other factors, with List B containing pesticides of greater concern and List D pesticides of less concern. Xylene is found on List C. Case No: 3020; Pesticide type: insecticide; Case Status: OPP is reviewing data from the pesticide's producers regarding its human health and/or environmental effects, or OPP is determining the pesticide's eligibility for reregistration and developing the Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) document.; Active ingredient (AI): Xylene; AI Status: Registrants of the pesticide have not made or honored a commitment to seek reregistration, conduct the necessary studies, or pay the requisite fees, or they have asked EPA to cancel their product registrations. Unless some other interested party supports them, products containing the pesticide will be cancelled.
[USEPA/OPP; Status of Pesticides in Registration, Reregistration and Special Review p.235 (Spring, 1998) EPA 738-R-98-002]**QC REVIEWED**

CERCLA Reportable Quantities:

Persons in charge of vessels or facilities are required to notify the National Response Center (NRC) immediately, when there is a release of this designated hazardous substance, in an amount equal to or greater than its reportable quantity of 100 lb or 45.4 kg. The toll free number of the NRC is (800) 424-8802; In the Washington D.C. metropolitan area (202) 426-2675. The rule for determining when notification is required is stated in 40 CFR 302.4 (section IV. D.3.b).
[40 CFR 302.4 (7/1/95)]**PEER REVIEWED**

RCRA Requirements:

F003; When xylene is a spent solvent, it is classified as a hazardous waste from a nonspecific source (F003), as stated in 40 CFR 261.31, and must be managed according to State and/or Federal hazardous waste regulations.
[40 CFR 261.31 (7/1/95)]**PEER REVIEWED**

U239; As stipulated in 40 CFR 261.33, when xylene, as a commercial chemical product or manufacturing chemical intermediate or an off-specification commercial chemical product or a manufacturing chemical intermediate, becomes a waste, it must be managed according to Federal and/or State hazardous waste regulations. Also defined as a hazardous waste is any residue, contaminated soil, water, or other debris resulting from the cleanup of a spill, into water or on dry land, of this waste. Generators of small quantities of this waste may qualify for partial exclusion from hazardous waste regulations (40 CFR 261.5).
[40 CFR 261.33 (7/1/95)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Atmospheric Standards:

Listed as a hazardous air pollutant (HAP) generally known or suspected to cause serious health problems. The Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990, directs EPA to set standards requiring major sources to sharply reduce routine emissions of toxic pollutants. EPA is required to establish and phase in specific performance based standards for all air emission sources that emit one or more of the listed pollutants. Xylenes are included on this list.
[Clean Air Act as amended in 1990, Sect. 112 (b) (1) Public Law 101-549 Nov. 15, 1990]**QC REVIEWED**

Clean Water Act Requirements:

Designated as a hazardous substance under section 311(b)(2)(A) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act and further regulated by the Clean Water Act Amendments of 1977 and 1978. These regulations apply to discharges of this substance.
[40 CFR 116.4 (7/1/88)]**QC REVIEWED**

Federal Drinking Water Standards:

EPA 10000 ug/l
[USEPA/Office of Water; Federal-State Toxicology and Risk Analysis Committee (FSTRAC). Summary of State and Federal Drinking Water Standards and Guidelines (11/93), p. ]**QC REVIEWED**

Federal Drinking Water Guidelines:

EPA 10000 ug/l
[USEPA/Office of Water; Federal-State Toxicology and Risk Analysis Committee (FSTRAC). Summary of State and Federal Drinking Water Standards and Guidelines (11/93), p. ]**QC REVIEWED**

State Drinking Water Standards:

(NJ) NEW JERSEY 1000 ug/l
[USEPA/Office of Water; Federal-State Toxicology and Risk Analysis Committee (FSTRAC). Summary of State and Federal Drinking Water Standards and Guidelines (11/93), p. ]**QC REVIEWED**

State Drinking Water Guidelines:

(AZ) ARIZONA 440 ug/l
[USEPA/Office of Water; Federal-State Toxicology and Risk Analysis Committee (FSTRAC). Summary of State and Federal Drinking Water Standards and Guidelines (11/93), p. ]**QC REVIEWED**

(ME) MAINE 14,000 ug/l
[USEPA/Office of Water; Federal-State Toxicology and Risk Analysis Committee (FSTRAC). Summary of State and Federal Drinking Water Standards and Guidelines (11/93), p. ]**QC REVIEWED**

(MN) MINNESOTA 10000 ug/l
[USEPA/Office of Water; Federal-State Toxicology and Risk Analysis Committee (FSTRAC). Summary of State and Federal Drinking Water Standards and Guidelines (11/93), p. ]**QC REVIEWED**

Allowable Tolerances:

Xylene is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance when used as an aquatic herbicide applied to irrigation conveyance systems in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is to be used only in programs of the Bureau of Reclamation, US Department of Interior and cooperating water user organizations. (b) It is to be applied as an emulsion at an initial concn not to exceed 750 ppm. (c) It is not to be applied when there is any likelihood that the irrigation water will be used as a source of raw water for a potable water system or where return flows of such treated irrigation water into receiving rivers and streams would contain residues of xylene in excess of 10 ppm. (d) Xylene to be used as an aquatic herbicide shall meet the requirement limiting the presence of a polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons as listed in 172.250 of title 21, Code of Federal Regulations. /Xylene/
[40 CFR 180.1025 (7/1/95)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Residues of xylene are exempted from the requirement of a tolerance when used as a solvent and cosolvent (limits: pesticide formulations for grain storage only) in accordance with good agricultural practices as inert (or occasionally active) ingredients in pesticide formulations applied to growing crops or to raw agricultural commodities after harvest. /Xylene/
[40 CFR 180.1001(c) (7/1/95)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Xylene is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance when used as a solvent and cosolvent in accordance with good agricultural practice as inert (or occasionally active) ingredients in pesticide formulations applied to growing crops only. /Xylene/
[40 CFR 180.1001(d) (7/1/95)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Chemical/Physical Properties:

Molecular Formula:

C8-H10
**PEER REVIEWED**

Molecular Weight:

106.16
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 1722]**PEER REVIEWED**

Color/Form:

Colorless liquid
[Lewis, R.J., Sr (Ed.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 12th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Rheinhold Co., 1993, p. 1235]**PEER REVIEWED**

Odor:

Sweet odor
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Xylenes (Draft) p.1 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Boiling Point:

137-140 DEG C
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 1723]**PEER REVIEWED**

Corrosivity:

Xylene will attack some forms of plastics, rubber, and coatings.
[Mackison, F. W., R. S. Stricoff, and L. J. Partridge, Jr. (eds.). NIOSH/OSHA - Occupational Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards. DHHS(NIOSH) Publication No. 81-123 (3 VOLS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Jan. 1981., p. 2]**PEER REVIEWED**

Density/Specific Gravity:

0.864 @ 20 DEG C/4 DEG C
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982., p. 3556]**PEER REVIEWED**

Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient:

log Kow= 3.12-3.20
[Hansch, C., A. Leo. Substituent Constants for Correlation Analysis in Chemistry and Biology. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, 1979., p. 232]**PEER REVIEWED**

Solubilities:

PRACTICALLY INSOL IN WATER; MISCIBLE WITH ABSOLUTE ALCOHOL, ETHER, AND MANY OTHER ORGANIC LIQUIDS
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 1723]**PEER REVIEWED**

Vapor Pressure:

7.99 mm Hg at 25 deg C /from experimentally derived coefficients/
[Daubert, T.E., R.P. Danner. Physical and Thermodynamic Properties of Pure Chemicals Data Compilation. Washington, D.C.: Taylor and Francis, 1989., p. ]**PEER REVIEWED**

Other Chemical/Physical Properties:

Xylene can be easily chlorinated, sulfonated, or nitrated.
[Syrovadko ON; Ency of Occup Health and Safety II: 1523 (1972) as cited in NIOSH; Criteria Document: Xylene p.14 (1975) DHEW Pub. NIOSH 75-168]**PEER REVIEWED**

Chemical Safety & Handling:

Hazards Summary:

The major hazards encountered in the use and handling of xylene stem from its toxicologic properties and flammability. Exposure to this clear, sweet-smelling liquid may occur during its use as a solvent for paints, coatings, adhesives, and rubber and as a component of gasoline. Toxic by all routes of exposure (ie, dermal, ingestion, and inhalation), xylene can cause effects including headache, dizziness, skin and eye irritation, kidney and liver impairment, to pulmonary edema, coma, and death. The ACGIH recommends a workplace exposure limit (TLV) of 100 ppm as an 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA); however, to assure protection, wear Buna-N-rubber gloves, apron, and safety glasses. In unknown concentrations or emergency situations, an approved organic vapor cannister respirator with a full-face plate or self-contained breathing apparatus and full protective clothing are recommended. If contact does occur, immediately flush exposed eyes with running water, wash exposed skin with soap and water, and remove contaminated clothing. Xylene is ignitable by heat, sparks, and flame and may do so explosively in an enclosed area. Also, vapor may travel a considerable distance to a source of ignition, and flash back. The heat of a fire may cause containers to explode and/or cause thermal degradation of xylene, producing irritating or poisonous gases. Fires involving xylene may be extinguished with dry chemical, CO2, water spray, fog, or foam. For massive fires in enclosed areas, use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. If a xylene tank car or truck is involved in a fire, isolate 1/2 mile in all directions. Runoff from fire control water may cause pollution, and upon entering a sewer, may create an explosion hazard. Xylene substance should be stored in cool, well-ventilated places, away from sources of ignition and strong oxidizing materials. ... For small spills of xylene, take up with sand or other non-combustible absorbent, and place in containers for later disposal, or absorb on paper and evaporate in an appropriate exhaust hood. For large spills on land, dike to contain or divert to impermeable holding area (water spray may need to be applied to control flammable vapor) and remove material with pumps or vacuum equipment. Absorb residual with sand, vermiculite, or activated carbon and place in metal containers with covers. For large spills on water, contain material with booms, weirs, or natural barriers. Apply a universal gelling agent, and use (oil) skimming equipment or suction hoses to remove slick and trapped, solidified mass. Prior to implementing land disposal of waste residue (including waste sludge), consult environmental regulatory agencies.
**PEER REVIEWED**

DOT Emergency Guidelines:

/GUIDE 130: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS (NON-POLAR/WATER-IMMISCIBLE/NOXIOUS)/ Fire or Explosion: HIGHLY FLAMMABLE: Will be easily ignited by heat, sparks or flames. Vapors may form explosive mixtures with air. Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Most vapors are heavier than air. They will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Vapor explosion hazard indoors, outdoors or in sewers. Those substances designated with a "P" may polymerize explosively when heated or involved in a fire. Runoff to sewer may create fire or explosion hazard. Containers may explode when heated. Many liquids are lighter than water. /Xylenes/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook. A Guide book for First Responders During the Initial Phase of a Dangerous Goods/Hazardous Materials Incident. Washington, D.C. 2004G-130]**QC REVIEWED**

/GUIDE 130: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS (NON-POLAR/WATER-IMMISCIBLE/NOXIOUS)/ Health: May cause toxic effects if inhaled or absorbed through skin. Inhalation or contact with material may irritate or burn skin and eyes. Fire will produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Vapors may cause dizziness or suffocation. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution. /Xylenes/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook. A Guide book for First Responders During the Initial Phase of a Dangerous Goods/Hazardous Materials Incident. Washington, D.C. 2004G-130]**QC REVIEWED**

/GUIDE 130: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS (NON-POLAR/WATER-IMMISCIBLE/NOXIOUS)/ Public Safety: CALL Emergency Response Telephone Number ... . As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area for at least 50 meters (150 feet) in all directions. Keep unauthorized personnel away. Stay upwind. Keep out of low areas. Ventilate closed spaces before entering. /Xylenes/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook. A Guide book for First Responders During the Initial Phase of a Dangerous Goods/Hazardous Materials Incident. Washington, D.C. 2004G-130]**QC REVIEWED**

/GUIDE 130: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS (NON-POLAR/WATER-IMMISCIBLE/NOXIOUS)/ Protective Clothing: Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Structural firefighters' protective clothing will only provide limited protection. /Xylenes/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook. A Guide book for First Responders During the Initial Phase of a Dangerous Goods/Hazardous Materials Incident. Washington, D.C. 2004G-130]**QC REVIEWED**

/GUIDE 130: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS (NON-POLAR/WATER-IMMISCIBLE/NOXIOUS)/ Evacuation: Large spill: Consider initial downwind evacuation for at least 300 meters (1000 feet). Fire: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions. /Xylenes/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook. A Guide book for First Responders During the Initial Phase of a Dangerous Goods/Hazardous Materials Incident. Washington, D.C. 2004G-130]**QC REVIEWED**

/GUIDE 130: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS (NON-POLAR/WATER-IMMISCIBLE/NOXIOUS)/ Fire: CAUTION: All these products have a very low flash point: Use of water spray when fighting fire may be inefficient. Small fires: Dry chemical, CO2, water spray or regular foam. Large fires: Water spray, fog or regular foam. Do not use straight streams. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. Fire involving tanks or car/trailer loads: Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. For massive fire, use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles; if this is impossible, withdraw from area and let fire burn. /Xylenes/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook. A Guide book for First Responders During the Initial Phase of a Dangerous Goods/Hazardous Materials Incident. Washington, D.C. 2004G-130]**QC REVIEWED**

/GUIDE 130: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS (NON-POLAR/WATER-IMMISCIBLE/NOXIOUS)/ Spill or Leak: ELIMINATE all ignition sources (no smoking, flares, sparks or flames in immediate area). All equipment used when handling the product must be grounded. Do not touch or walk through spilled material. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. A vapor suppressing foam may be used to reduce vapors. Absorb or cover with dry earth, sand or other non-combustible material and transfer to containers. Use clean non-sparking tools to collect absorbed material. Large spills: Dike far ahead of liquid spill for later disposal. Water spray may reduce vapor; but may not prevent ignition in closed spaces. /Xylenes/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook. A Guide book for First Responders During the Initial Phase of a Dangerous Goods/Hazardous Materials Incident. Washington, D.C. 2004G-130]**QC REVIEWED**

/GUIDE 130: FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS (NON-POLAR/WATER-IMMISCIBLE/NOXIOUS)/ First Aid: Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Give artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. In case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. Wash skin with soap and water. Keep victim warm and quiet. In case of burns, immediately cool affected skin for as long as possible with cold water. Do not remove clothing if adhering to skin. Effects of exposure (inhalation, ingestion or skin contact) to substance may be delayed. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved and take precautions to protect themselves. /Xylenes/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook. A Guide book for First Responders During the Initial Phase of a Dangerous Goods/Hazardous Materials Incident. Washington, D.C. 2004G-130]**QC REVIEWED**

Odor Threshold:

The odor threshold was calculated as 4.5 mg/cu m or about 1 ppm for a 10-sec exposure.
[Hayes, W.J., Jr., E.R. Laws, Jr., (eds.). Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology. Volume 2. Classes of Pesticides. New York, NY: Academic Press, Inc., 1991., p. 644]**PEER REVIEWED**

Skin, Eye and Respiratory Irritations:

Xylene vapor may cause irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat. At high concentrations, xylene vapor may cause severe breathing difficulties which may be delayed in onset. Repeated or prolonged exposure ... may cause a skin rash.
[Mackison, F. W., R. S. Stricoff, and L. J. Partridge, Jr. (eds.). NIOSH/OSHA - Occupational Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards. DHHS(NIOSH) Publication No. 81-123 (3 VOLS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Jan. 1981., p. 1]**PEER REVIEWED**

Vapor irritates eyes and mucous membranes and may cause dizziness, headache, nausea, and mental confusion. Liquid irritates eyes and mucous membranes.
[Armour, M.A. Hazardous Laboratory Chemicals Disposal Guide. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 1991., p. 461]**PEER REVIEWED**

NFPA Hazard Classification:

Health: 2. 2= Materials hazardous to health, but areas may be entered freely with self-contained breathing apparatus.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997., p. 325-94]**QC REVIEWED**

Flammability: 3. 3= Liquids which can be ignited under almost all normal temp conditions. Water may be ineffective on these liq because of their low flash points. Solids which form coarse dusts, solids in shredded or fibrous form that create flash fires, solids that burn rapidly, usually because they contain their own oxygen, and any material that ignites spontaneously at normal temp in air.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997., p. 325-94]**QC REVIEWED**

Reactivity: 0. 0= Materials which are normally stable even under fire exposure conditions and which are not reactive with water. Normal fire fighting procedures may be used.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997., p. 325-94]**QC REVIEWED**

Fire Fighting Procedures:

Use water spray or fog to extinquish fire. Cool fire exposed containers with water.
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Xylenes (Draft) p.2 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

If material on fire or involved in fire: Do not extinguish fire unless flow can be stopped or safely confined. Use water in flooding quantities as fog. Solid streams of water may spread fire. Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Apply water from as far a distance as possible. Use foam, dry chemical, or carbon dioxide.
[Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1994., p. 1131]**PEER REVIEWED**

Firefighting Hazards:

Vapors are heavier than air & may travel to a source of ignition & flashback.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997., p. 49-138]**QC REVIEWED**

Electrical hazard: class 1, group D
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997., p. 49-138]**QC REVIEWED**

Hazardous Reactivities & Incompatibilities:

An attempt to chlorinate xylene with 1,3-dichloro-5,5-dimethyl-2,4-imidazolidindione (dichlorohydrantoin) caused a violent explosion. The haloimide undergoes immediate self accelerating decomp in the presence of solvents.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990, p. 524]**PEER REVIEWED**

Incompatible with strong oxidizers.
[Sittig, M. Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, 1985. 2nd ed. Park Ridge, NJ: Noyes Data Corporation, 1985., p. 931]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hazardous Decomposition:

When heated to decomposition, it emits acrid smoke and fumes.
[Sax, N.I. Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 6th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1984., p. 2739]**PEER REVIEWED**

Prior History of Accidents:

The wreck of the MV Ariadne, a Panamanian flag container ship, is examined as a case study of a hazardous substance emergency response in a third world country. /The ship/, carrying a cargo of heavy fuel oil, tetraethyl lead, xylene, toluene, methyl isobutyl ketone, butyl acetate, ethyl acetate, and acetone was grounded while departing the harbor of Mogadishu, Somalia. The Somalian government requested a team of technical advisors to help respond appropriately to the emergency. The major issues addressed by the advisory team were the need for additional salvage equipment and expertise, the danger of toxic fumes from the fire and explosions aboard the ship, the presence and possible release of tetraethyl lead, possible port blockage by the wreck, recovery of the chemical drums, and the extent of environmental damage caused by the release of oil, pesticides, and tetraethyl lead into the harbor. ...
[Heare SF et al; 1986 Hazard Matl Spill Conf p.12-18 (1986)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Protective Equipment & Clothing:

Employees should be provided with and required to use impervious clothing, gloves, face shields (eight-inch minimum) ... to prevent repeated or prolonged skin contact with liquid or solid xylene. Clothing contaminated with xylene should be placed in closed containers for storage until it can be discarded or until provision is made for the removal of xylene from the clothing. If the clothing is to be laundered ... the person performing the operation should be informed of xylene's hazardous properties.
[Mackison, F. W., R. S. Stricoff, and L. J. Partridge, Jr. (eds.). NIOSH/OSHA - Occupational Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards. DHHS(NIOSH) Publication No. 81-123 (3 VOLS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Jan. 1981., p. 2]**PEER REVIEWED**

Breakthrough times /for natural rubber, neoprene, and polyvinyl chloride/ less (usually significantly less) than one hr reported by (normally) two or more testers. Breakthrough times /for polyvinyl alcohol/ greater than one hr reported by (normally) two or more testers. Some data suggesting breakthrough times /for nitrile rubber/ or approx an hour or more.
[ACGIH; Guidelines Select of Chem Protect Clothing Volume #1 Field Guide p.34 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Preventive Measures:

Skin that becomes contaminated with xylene should be promptly washed with soap or mild detergent and water to remove any xylene. Employees who handle liquid or solid xylene should wash their hands thoroughly with soap or mild detergent and water before eating, smoking, or using toilet facilities.
[Mackison, F. W., R. S. Stricoff, and L. J. Partridge, Jr. (eds.). NIOSH/OSHA - Occupational Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards. DHHS(NIOSH) Publication No. 81-123 (3 VOLS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Jan. 1981., p. 3]**PEER REVIEWED**

A major concern in the painting studio is solvents, /including xylene/. ... Precautions include ... use of dilution and local exhaust ventilation, control of storage areas, disposal of solvent soaked rags in covered containers, minimizing skin exposure and the use of respirators and other personal protective equipment. The control of fire hazards is also important, since many of the solvents are highly flammable.
[Hart C; J Environ Health 49 (5): 282-6 (1987)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Contact lenses should not be worn when working with this chemical.
[NIOSH. Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. 2nd Printing. DHHS (NIOSH) Publ. No. 85-114. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, NIOSH/Supt. of Documents, GPO, February 1987., p. 237]**PEER REVIEWED**

SRP: The scientific literature for the use of contact lenses in industry is conflicting. The benefit or detrimental effects of wearing contact lenses depend not only upon the substance, but also on factors including the form of the substance, characteristics and duration of the exposure, the uses of other eye protection equipment, and the hygiene of the lenses. However, there may be individual substances whose irritating or corrosive properties are such that the wearing of contact lenses would be harmful to the eye. In those specific cases, contact lenses should not be worn. In any event, the usual eye protection equipment should be worn even when contact lenses are in place.
**PEER REVIEWED**

SRP: Contaminated protective clothing should be segregated in such a manner so that there is no direct personal contact by personnel who handle, dispose, or clean the clothing. Quality assurance to ascertain the completeness of the cleaning procedures should be implemented before the decontaminated protective clothing is returned for reuse by the workers. All contaminated clothing should not be taken home at end of shift, but should remain at employee's place of work for cleaning.
**PEER REVIEWED**

If material not on fire and not involved in fire: Keep sparks, flames, and other sources of ignition away. Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Build dikes to contain flow as necessary. Attempt to stop leak if without undue personnel hazard. Use water spray to knock-down vapors. /Xylenes/
[Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1994., p. 1131]**PEER REVIEWED**

Personnel protection: Avoid breathing vapors. Keep upwind. ... Do not handle broken packages unless wearing appropriate personal protective equipment. ...
[Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1994., p. 1131]**PEER REVIEWED**

Shipment Methods and Regulations:

No person may /transport,/ offer or accept a hazardous material for transportation in commerce unless that person is registered in conformance ... and the hazardous material is properly classed, described, packaged, marked, labeled, and in condition for shipment as required or authorized by ... /the hazardous materials regulations (49 CFR 171-177)./
[49 CFR 171.2 (7/1/96)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The International Air Transport Association (IATA) Dangerous Goods Regulations are published by the IATA Dangerous Goods Board pursuant to IATA Resolutions 618 and 619 and constitute a manual of industry carrier regulations to be followed by all IATA Member airlines when transporting hazardous materials.
[International Air Transport Association. Dangerous Goods Regulations. 47th Edition. Montreal, Quebec Canada. 2006., p. 272]**QC REVIEWED**

The International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code lays down basic principles for transporting hazardous chemicals. Detailed recommendations for individual substances and a number of recommendations for good practice are included in the classes dealing with such substances. A general index of technical names has also been compiled. This index should always be consulted when attempting to locate the appropriate procedures to be used when shipping any substance or article.
[International Maritime Organization. International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code. London, UK. 2004., p. 56]**QC REVIEWED**

Storage Conditions:

XYLENE SHOULD BE STORED IN COOL, WELL-VENTILATED PLACES, AWAY FROM AREAS OF ACUTE FIRE HAZARD, OPEN FLAMES & STRONGLY OXIDIZING MATERIALS. ALL CONTAINERS SHOULD BE CLEARLY LABELLED & KEPT TIGHTLY CLOSED.
[International Labour Office. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. Volumes I and II. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1971., p. 1523]**PEER REVIEWED**

Cleanup Methods:

1. REMOVE ALL IGNITION SOURCES. 2. VENTILATE AREA OF SPILL OR LEAK. 3. FOR SMALL QUANTITIES, ABSORB ON PAPER TOWELS. EVAPORATE IN SAFE PLACE (SUCH AS FUME HOOD). ALLOW SUFFICIENT TIME FOR EVAPORATING VAPORS TO COMPLETELY CLEAR HOOD DUCTWORK. BURN PAPER IN SUITABLE LOCATION AWAY FROM COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS. LARGE QUANTITIES CAN BE RECLAIMED OR COLLECTED & ATOMIZED IN SUITABLE COMBUSTION CHAMBER. XYLENE SHOULD NOT BE ALLOWED TO ENTER CONFINED SPACE, SUCH AS SEWER. ...
[Mackison, F. W., R. S. Stricoff, and L. J. Partridge, Jr. (eds.). NIOSH/OSHA - Occupational Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards. DHHS(NIOSH) Publication No. 81-123 (3 VOLS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Jan. 1981., p. 4]**PEER REVIEWED**

For spills on land, absorb remaining xylene with sand or vermiculite and put in metal containers for disposal. Activated carbon may be used on undissolved portion.
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Xylenes (Draft) p.92 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

For spills on water, contain and apply a universal gelling agent to solidify trapped mass then remove it.
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Xylenes (Draft) p.92 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Soil: construct barriers to contain spill or divert to impermeable holding area. Remove material with pumps or vacuum equipment. Absorb residual liquid with natural or synthetic sorbents, shovel into containers with covers.
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Xylenes (Draft) p.2 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Water: contain with booms, weirs, or natural barriers. Use (oil) skimming equipment or suction hoses to remove slick, followed by application of sorbents.
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Xylenes (Draft) p.2 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Air: use water spray to control flammable vapor. Control runoff for later treatment and/or disposal.
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Xylenes (Draft) p.2 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

/Small quantities:/ Shut off all possible sources of ignition. Wear face shield, goggles, laboratory coat, and nitrile rubber gloves. Cover spill with a 1:1:1 mixture by weight of sodium carbonate or calcium carbonate, clay cat litter (bentonite) and sand, then shovel into bucket and transport to fume hood for atmospheric evaporation. Ventilate site of spillage well to evaporate remaining liquid and dispel vapor.
[Armour, M.A. Hazardous Laboratory Chemicals Disposal Guide. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 1991., p. 461]**PEER REVIEWED**

Environmental considerations - air spill: Apply water spray or mist to knock down vapors.
[Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1994., p. 1131]**PEER REVIEWED**

Environmental considerations - water spill: Use natural barriers or oil spill control booms to limit spill travel. Use surface active agent (eg, detergent, soaps, alcohols), if approved by EPA. Inject "universal" gelling agent to solidify encircled spill and increase effectiveness of booms. If dissolved, in region of 10 ppm or greater concentration, apply activated carbon at ten times the spilled amount. Remove trapped material with suction hoses. Use mechanical dredges or lifts to remove immobilized masses of pollutants and precipitates.
[Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1994., p. 1131]**PEER REVIEWED**

Environmental considerations - land spill: Dig a pit, pond, lagoon, holding area to contain liquid or solid material. /SRP: If time permits, pits, ponds, lagoons, soak holes, or holding areas should be sealed with an impermeable flexible membrane liner./ Dike surface flow using soil, sand bags, foamed polyurethane, or foamed concrete. Absorb bulk liquid with fly ash, cement powder, or commercial sorbents. Apply "universal" gelling agent to immobilize spill. Apply appropriate foam to diminish vapor and fire hazard.
[Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1994., p. 1131]**PEER REVIEWED**

Disposal Methods:

Generators of waste (equal to or greater than 100 kg/mo) containing this contaminant, EPA hazardous waste number U239 and F003, must conform with USEPA regulations in storage, transportation, treatment and disposal of waste.
[40 CFR 240-280, 300-306, 702-799 (7/1/92)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Xylene is a waste chemical stream constituent which may be subjected to ultimate disposal by controlled incineration.
[USEPA; Engineering Handbook for Hazardous Waste Incineration p. 2-10 (1981) EPA 68-03-3025]**PEER REVIEWED**

Chemical Treatability of Xylene; Concentration Process: Biological traetment; Chemical Classification: Aromatic; Scale of Study: Full scale, continuous flow; Type of Wastewater Used: Industrial; Results of Study: Influent concn of 20-200 ppb decreased to 1.0-15.0 ppb effluent concn in survey of two municipal wastewater treatment plants.
[USEPA; Management of Hazardous Waste Leachate, EPA Contract No. 68-03-2766 p.E-49 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

A good candidate for fluidized bed incineration at a temperature range of 450 to 980 deg C and residence times of seconds for liquids and gases, and longer for solids. A good candidate for rotary kiln incineration at a temperature range of 820 to 1,600 deg C and residence times of seconds for liquids and gases, and hours for solids. A good candidate for liquid injection incineration at a temperature range of 650 to 1,600 deg C and a residence time of 0.1 to 2 seconds.
[USEPA; Engineering Handbook for Hazardous Waste Incineration p. 3-16 (1981) EPA 68-03-3025]**PEER REVIEWED**

The permeability of xylene in fire clay has been observed to sharply increase over a 4-day period after 24 days of normal behavior. This has been attributed to slow shrinkage of the clay which was responsible for the breakthrough. This type of breakthrough in clay would be a problem unless such materials are co-disposed with materials with higher dielectric constants.
[Green WJ et al; J Water Pollut Control Fed 53: 1347-54 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Occupational Exposure Standards:

OSHA Standards:

Permissible Exposure Limit: Table Z-1 8-hr Time Weighted Avg: 100 ppm (435 mg/cu m). /Xylenes (o-, m-, p- isomers)/
[29 CFR 1910.1000 (7/1/98)]**QC REVIEWED**

Vacated 1989 OSHA PEL TWA 100 ppm (435 mg/cu m); STEL 150 ppm (655 mg/cu m) is still enforced in some states. /Xylenes (o-, m-, p- isomers)/
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997., p. 374]**QC REVIEWED**

Threshold Limit Values:

8 hr Time Weighted Avg (TWA): 100 ppm; 15 min Short Term Exposure Limit (STEL): 150 ppm /Xylene (o-, m-, & p- isomers)/
[ American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists TLVs and BEIs. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. Cincinnati, OH, 2005, p. 60]**QC REVIEWED**

Biological Exposure Index (BEI): Determinant: Methylhippuric acids in urine; Sampling Time: end of shift; BEI: 1.5 g/g creatinine. /Xylenes, technical grade/
[ American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists TLVs and BEIs. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. Cincinnati, OH, 2005, p. 96]**QC REVIEWED**

A4; Not classifiable as a human carcinogen. /Xylene (o-,m-, & p- isomers)/
[ American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists TLVs and BEIs. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. Cincinnati, OH, 2005, p. 60]**QC REVIEWED**

Other Occupational Permissible Levels:

Maximum acceptable concentration (MAC) USSR 50 mg/cu m
[International Labour Office. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. Vols. I&II. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office, 1983., p. 2335]**PEER REVIEWED**

Manufacturing/Use Information:

Major Uses:

RAW MATERIAL FOR PRODUCTION OF BENZOIC ACID; AS SOLVENT; MANUFACTURING DYES & OTHER ORGANICS; STERILIZING CATGUT; PRODUCTION OF PHTHALIC ANHYDRIDE, ISOPHTHALIC & TEREPHTHALIC ACIDS & THEIR DIMETHYL ESTERS USED IN MANUFACTURE OF POLYESTER FIBERS; WITH CANADA BALSAM AS OIL-IMMERSION IN MICROSCOPY; CLEANING AGENT IN MICROSCOPE TECHNIQUE
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 1723]**PEER REVIEWED**

Manufacture of resins, paints, varnishes, general solvent for adhesives
[Doull, J., C.D.Klassen, and M.D. Amdur (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. 3rd ed., New York: Macmillan Co., Inc., 1986., p. 349]**PEER REVIEWED**

IN AVIATION GASOLINE; PROTECTIVE COATINGS; SYNTHESIS OF ORG CHEMICALS
[Lewis, R.J., Sr (Ed.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 12th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Rheinhold Co., 1993, p. 1235]**PEER REVIEWED**

SOURCE OF O-XYLENE, M-XYLENE, P-XYLENE & ETHYLBENZENE
**PEER REVIEWED**

SOLVENT-EG, FOR PAINTS, COATINGS, ADHESIVES & RUBBER
**PEER REVIEWED**

BACK-BLENDED INTO GASOLINE
**PEER REVIEWED**

UNRECOVERED COMPONENT OF GASOLINE
**PEER REVIEWED**

Used in manufacture of quartz crystal oscillators, hydrogen peroxide, perfumes, insect repellants, epoxy resins, pharmaceuticals, and in the leather industry.
[Sittig, M. Handbook of Toxic And Hazardous Chemicals. Park Ridge, NJ: Noyes Data Corporation, 1981., p. 452]**PEER REVIEWED**

/SRP:/ Used in histological laboratories.
**PEER REVIEWED**

Used as a solvent in phenoxyalkanoic herbicides.
[Que Hee SS, Sutherland RG; The Phenoxyalkanoic Herbicides p.64 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

(MEDICATION) Used in manufacture of ... pharmaceuticals ... .
[Sittig, M. Handbook of Toxic And Hazardous Chemicals. Park Ridge, NJ: Noyes Data Corporation, 1981., p. 452]**PEER REVIEWED**

Used as an indirect food additive for use only as a component of adhesives.
[21 CFR 175.105 (4/1/86)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Used as an indirect food additive polymer for use as a basic component of single and repeated use food contact surfaces. Xylene is used as a solvent in polysulfide polymer-polyepoxide resins.
[21 CFR 177.1650 (4/1/86)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Manufacturers:

Amoco Corp, Hq, 200 East Randolph Dr, Chicago IL 60601, (312) 856-6111; Production sites: Amoco Oil Co, subsidiary, PO Box 401, Texas City, TX 77590; subsidiary, Amoco Chemicals Co, PO Box 710, Whiting, IN 46394
[SRI. 1996 Directory of Chemical Producers-United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1996., p. 970]**PEER REVIEWED**

Ashland Oil, Inc, Hq, 1401 Winchester Ave, Ashland, KY 41101, (606) 329-3333; Production site: Ashland Chemical Co, Div, Petrochemicals Div, Leach Station, Catlettsburg, KY 41129
[SRI. 1996 Directory of Chemical Producers-United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1996., p. 970]**PEER REVIEWED**

BP Oil, 200 Public Square, Cleveland, OH 44114-2375, (216) 586-4141. Production site: Alliance, LA 70037
[SRI. 1996 Directory of Chemical Producers-United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1996., p. 970]**PEER REVIEWED**

Chevron Corp, Hq, 225 Bush St, San Francisco, CA 94104, (415) 894-7700; Production site: subsidiary, Chevron Chemical Co, Aromatics and Derivatives Div, Pascagoula, MS 39567
[SRI. 1996 Directory of Chemical Producers-United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1996., p. 970]**PEER REVIEWED**

Citgo Petroleum Corporation, 6130 South Yale Avenue, Tulsa, OK 74136, (918) 495-5000. Production site: Chorpus Christi, TX 78469
[SRI. 1996 Directory of Chemical Producers-United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1996., p. 970]**PEER REVIEWED**

Coastal Eagle Point Oil Company, PO Box 1000, US Route 130&I-296, Westville, NJ 08093,(609) 853-3100. Production site: Westville, NJ 08093
[SRI. 1996 Directory of Chemical Producers-United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1996., p. 970]**PEER REVIEWED**

Coastal Refining and Marketing Company, 9 Greenway Plaza, Houston, TX 77046, (713) 877-7174. Production site: Chorpus Christi, TX 78403
[SRI. 1996 Directory of Chemical Producers-United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1996., p. 970]**PEER REVIEWED**

Exxon Corp, Hq, 1251 Avenue of Americas, New York, NY 10020, (212) 398-3000; Production site: Exxon Chemical Co, div, Exxon Chemical Americas, PO Box 4004, Baytown, TX 77520
[SRI. 1996 Directory of Chemical Producers-United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1996., p. 970]**PEER REVIEWED**

Fina Oil and Chemical Company, PO Box 2159, Dallas TX, 75221, (214) 750-2400. Production site: Port Arthur, TX, 77640
[SRI. 1996 Directory of Chemical Producers-United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1996., p. 970]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hess Oil Virgin Islands Corp, PO Box 127, Kingshill, VI, 00851-0127. Phone (809)778-4000. Production site: St. Croix, VI, 00851
[SRI. 1996 Directory of Chemical Producers-United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1996., p. 970]**PEER REVIEWED**

Koch Industries, Inc, Hq, PO Box 2256, Wichita, KS 67201, (316) 832-5500; Production site: subsidiary, Koch Refining Co, Corpus Christi, TX 78403
[SRI. 1996 Directory of Chemical Producers-United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1996., p. 970]**PEER REVIEWED**

Lyondell-Citgo Refining Company LTD, 12000 Lawndale, Houston TX 77017. (713) 321-4111. Production site: Houston, TX 77017
[SRI. 1996 Directory of Chemical Producers-United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1996., p. 971]**PEER REVIEWED**

Marathon Oil, PO Box 3128, Houston, TX 77253, (713) 629-6600. Production site: Texas City, TX 77592-1191
[SRI. 1996 Directory of Chemical Producers-United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1996., p. 971]**PEER REVIEWED**

Mobil Chemical Company, Petroleum Division, 3225 Gallows Road, Fairfax, VA 22037-0001. (703) 846-3000. Production sites: Beaumont, TX 77704-0216; Chalmette, Louisiana 70043
[SRI. 1996 Directory of Chemical Producers-United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1996., p. 971]**PEER REVIEWED**

Phillips Petroleum Co, Hq, Phillips Building, Bartlesville, OK 74004, (918) 661-6600; Production sites: subsidiary, Phillips 66 Co, Chemicals and Catalysts Div, Specialty Chemicals, PO Box 308, Sweeny, TX 77480; subsidiary, Phillips Puerto Rico Core Inc, Guayama, Puerto Rico 0065
[SRI. 1996 Directory of Chemical Producers-United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1996., p. 971]**PEER REVIEWED**

Shell Oil Co, Hq, One Shell Plaza, Houston, TX 77001, (713) 241-6161; Production site: Shell Chemical Co, division, PO Box 100, Deer Park, TX 77536
[SRI. 1996 Directory of Chemical Producers-United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1996., p. 971]**PEER REVIEWED**

Sun Company, Inc, Hq, 240 Radnor-Chester Road, St Davids, PA 19087, (215) 293-6000; Production sites: subsidiary, Sun Refining and Marketing Co, PO Box 426, Marcus Hook, PA 19061; subsidiary, Sun Refining and Marketing Co, PO Box 920, Toledo, OH 43601
[SRI. 1996 Directory of Chemical Producers-United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1996., p. 971]**PEER REVIEWED**

The UNO-VEN Company, 3850 North Wilke Road, Arlington Heights, IL 6000. (708) 818-1800. Production site: Lemont, IL 60439-3659
[SRI. 1996 Directory of Chemical Producers-United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1996., p. 971]**PEER REVIEWED**

Methods of Manufacturing:

FIRST ISOLATED FROM A CRUDE WOOD DISTILLATE. OBTAINED FROM COAL TAR. ... MFR FROM PSEUDOCUMENE; BY CATALYTIC ISOMERIZATION OF HYDROCARBON FRACTION.
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 1723]**PEER REVIEWED**

... FROM TOLUENE BY TRANSALKYLATION.
[Lewis, R.J., Sr (Ed.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 12th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Rheinhold Co., 1993, p. 1235]**PEER REVIEWED**

RECOVERY FROM PETROLEUM-DERIVED CATALYTIC REFORMATE OR PYROLYSIS OF GASOLINE; DISPROPORTIONATION OF TOLUENE; RECOVERY FROM CRUDE LIGHT OIL (BY-PRODUCT OF COKE MFR)
**PEER REVIEWED**

General Manufacturing Information:

The commerical product mixed xylenes (a technical product generally containing 20% each of o-xylene, p-xylene and ethylbenzene, as well as small quantities of toluene) analogously to toluene is an agent of major chemical and occupational significance. It is produced in very large quantities and is extensively employed in a broad spectrum of applications, primarily as a solvent for which its use is increasing as a safe replacement for benzene, and in gasoline as part of the BTX component (benzene-toluene-xylene); xylenes are also frequently used in the rubber industry with other solvents such as toluene and benzene. As individual isomers they are extensively employed in the synthesis of synthetic agents. For example, phthalic acid, isophthalic acid, terephthalic acid, and diemthylterephthalate have very broad applications in the further preparation of phthalate ester plasticizers and components of polyester fiber, film and fabricated items. ... Compared with benzene and toluene, very much less is known of the human health hazards, particularly the chronic effects of xylenes, either as mixed xylenes, as individual isomers or in admixture with other alkylbenzenes.
[Fishbein L; Sci Total Environ 43 (1-2): 165-83 (1985)]**PEER REVIEWED**

... Xylene produced from petroleum ... contains approx 20% o-xylene, 44% m-xylene, 20% p-xylene and 15% ethylbenzene. Xylene from coal tar generally consists of 10-15% ortho-, 45-70% meta-, 23% para-, and 6-10% ethylbenzene.
[NIOSH; Criteria Document: Xylene p.14 (1975) DHEW Pub. NIOSH 75-168]**PEER REVIEWED**

Formulations/Preparations:

The commercial product "mixed xylenes" is a technical product generally containing approximately 40% m-xylene and 20% each of o-xylene, p-xylene, and ethylbenzene, as well as small quantities of toluene ... .
[Fishbein L; Sci Total Environ 43 (1-2): 165-83 (1985)]**PEER REVIEWED**

70% of all mixed xylene grades produced are 3 deg and 5 deg grade.
[DCE/NCI; Monograph On Human Exposure To Chemicals In The Workplace: Xylene p.1-1, 1985]**PEER REVIEWED**

Solvent xylene, 2 deg C range
[Kuney, J.H. and J.N. Nullican (eds.) Chemcyclopedia. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society, 1988., p. 119]**PEER REVIEWED**

Grade: Nitration (bp range 137.2-140.5 deg C), 4 degrees (bp range 138-134 deg C), 5 degrees (bp range 137-142 deg C, high in m- isomer), 10 degrees (bp range 135-145 deg C); industrial (bp 90% 40 deg C, complete 160 deg C). Also other grades depending upon use.
[Lewis, R.J., Sr (Ed.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 12th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Rheinhold Co., 1993, p. 1235]**PEER REVIEWED**

Impurities:

... Commercial xylenes may contain small amt of toluene, trimethylbenzene, phenol, thiophene, pyridine, and nonaromatic hydrocarbons.
[NIOSH; Criteria Document: Xylene p.14 (1975) DHEW Pub. NIOSH 75-168]**PEER REVIEWED**

Unpurified xylene may contain ... pseudocumene ... .
[International Labour Office. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. Vols. I&II. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office, 1983., p. 2335]**PEER REVIEWED**

The possibility that commercial xylene may ... contain benzene should not be ignored.
[NIOSH; Criteria Document: Xylene p.14 (1975) DHEW Pub. NIOSH 75-168]**PEER REVIEWED**

Consumption Patterns:

SOURCE OF P-XYLENE, 61.7%; SOURCE OF O-XYLENE, 12.3%; SOLVENT FOR PAINTS & COATINGS, 5.7%; OTHER SOLVENT USES, 3.1%; SOURCE OF ETHYLBENZENE, 3.1%; SOURCE OF M-XYLENE, 0.9%; GASOLINE BACK-BLENDING & MISCELLANEOUS, 13.2% (1980 RECOVERED USE)
**PEER REVIEWED**

Ortho-xylene, 15%; para-xylene, 60%; miscellaneous, 14%; exports, 11% (1982) /estimate/
[CHEMICAL PRODUCTS SYNOPSIS: Xylenes, 1983]**PEER REVIEWED**

(1993) 2.99X10+9 kg
[United States International Trade Commission. Synthetic Organic Chemicals - United States Production and Sales, 1993. USITC Publication 2810, Nov. 1994. Washington, D.C., p. ]**PEER REVIEWED**

U. S. Production:

(1982) 657,964,000 gal
[United States International Trade Commission. Synthetic Organic Chemicals-- United States Production and Sales, 1981. USITC Publications 1291 Washington, DC: United States International Trade Commission, 1981., p. 9]**PEER REVIEWED**

(1981) 882,408,000 gal
[United States International Trade Commission. Synthetic Organic Chemicals-- United States Production and Sales, 1981. USITC Publications 1291 Washington, DC: United States International Trade Commission, 1981., p. 10]**PEER REVIEWED**

(1967) 454,837,000 gal
[United States International Trade Commission. Synthetic Organic Chemicals-- United States Production and Sales, 1981. USITC Publications 1291 Washington, DC: United States International Trade Commission, 1981., p. 10]**PEER REVIEWED**

(1977) 2.80X10+12 G
**PEER REVIEWED**

(1982) 2.27X10+12 G
**PEER REVIEWED**

(1985) 2.38X10+12 g
[Chem Eng News 64 (23): 35 (1986)]**PEER REVIEWED**

(1985) 2.03X10+12 g /high purity 98-100%/
[USITC. SYN ORG CHEM-U.S. PROD/SALES 1985 p.19]**PEER REVIEWED**

(1987) 7.95X10+8 gal
[USITC. SYN ORG CHEM-U.S. PROD/SALES, PRELIMINARY (2-26-1988)]**PEER REVIEWED**

(1990) 6.21 billion lb
[Chem & Engineering News 70 (15): 17 (4/13/92)]**PEER REVIEWED**

(1991) 6.32 billion lb
[Chem & Engineering News 71 (15): 11 (4/12/93)]**PEER REVIEWED**

(1992) 6.39 billion lb
[Chem & Engineering News 72 (15): 13 (4/11/94)]**PEER REVIEWED**

(1993) 6.84 billion lb
[Chem & Engineering News 72 (15): 13 (4/11/94)]**PEER REVIEWED**

9.37 billion lb
[Chem & Engineering News 74 (15): 17 (4/8/96)]**PEER REVIEWED**

U. S. Imports:

(1977) 1.04X10+11 G
**PEER REVIEWED**

(1982) 1.31X10+11 G
**PEER REVIEWED**

(1984) 4.57X10+8 g /calculated/
[BUREAU OF THE CENSUS. U.S. IMPORTS FOR CONSUMPTION AND GENERAL IMPORTS 1984 p.1-328]**PEER REVIEWED**

(1985) 7.09X10+7 gal
[BUREAU OF THE CENSUS. U.S. IMPORTS FOR CONSUMPTION AND GENERAL IMPORTS 1985 p.1-547]**PEER REVIEWED**

(1986) 7.50X10+7 gal
[BUREAU OF THE CENSUS. US IMPORTS FOR CONSUMPTION AND GENERAL IMPORTS 1986 p.1-493]**PEER REVIEWED**

U. S. Exports:

(1977) 2.77X10+11 G
**PEER REVIEWED**

(1982) 2.83X10+11 G
**PEER REVIEWED**

(1985) 3.41X10+7 gal
[BUREAU OF THE CENSUS. U.S. EXPORTS, SCHEDULE E, 1985 p.2-69]**PEER REVIEWED**

(1987) 4.75X10+7 gal
[BUREAU OF THE CENSUS. U. S. EXPORTS, SCHEDULE E, OCTOBER 1987, P.2-71]**PEER REVIEWED**

Laboratory Methods:

Clinical Laboratory Methods:

Quantitative determination of urinary metabolites exposed to xylene using colorimetric determination is widely used. The metabolites of ... xylene are measured as ... methyl hippuric acid (MHA), paper chromatography and thin-layer chromatography are necessary as pretreatments of samples. The addition of pyridine, p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (DAB) and acetic anhydride to glycine conjugates gives the most stable color development. Excellect analytical sensitivity and specificity with gas chromatographic methods requires pretreatment with diazomethane for methylesterification of methyl hippuric acid. High performance liquid chromatography has been widely used for analysis of organic solvents. Non-volatile metabolites in urine can be assayed by this method without pretreatment.
[Ogata M; Acta Med Okayama 35 (6): 385-94 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

... Phenolic metabolites /of xylene/ were quantitatively estimated in hydrolyzed urine samples by gas chromatography.
[Bakke OM, Scheline BR; Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 16: 691-700 (1970) as cited in NIOSH; Criteria Document: Xylene p.55 (1975) DHEW Pub. NIOSH 75-168]**PEER REVIEWED**

Analytic Laboratory Methods:

ANALYTE: XYLENE; MATRIX: AIR; PROCEDURE: ADSORPTION ON CHARCOAL, DESORPTION WITH CARBON DISULFIDE, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY; RANGE: 218-870 MG/CU M; PRECISION: COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION 0.060.
[U.S. Department of Health, Education Welfare, Public Health Service. Center for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety Health. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods. 2nd ed. Volumes 1-7. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1977-present., p. V3 S318]**PEER REVIEWED**

ORGANIC GASES WERE COLLECTED IN TUBE FILLED WITH SOLID SORBENT. XYLENE WAS ONE OF THE GASES IDENTIFIED BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY.
[RIGBY LJ; ANN OCCUP HYG 24 (4): 331-46 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Commercial heterogeneous solvent products (eg paints, inks, and adhesives) were collected nationwide in Japan in 1980. The vapor phase of the product containers were analyzed for volatile organic solvent constituents by means of FID-gas chromatography on two FS-WCOT (OV-101 and PEG-600) capillary columns. ... Organic solvent components identified, ... /included/ xylenes /which were/ predominantly the m- (66%) and p- isomers. (61%)
[Kumai M et al; Indust Health 21: 185-97 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Results from the measurements of benzene, toluene, and xylenes in the city center of Oslo are presented. The samples were collected in March and August/September 1980 at two stations used in an air pollution monitoring program. The sampling equipment was two charcoal filters in series, placed in a filter holder with a disk of glass fiber prefilter in front. Analysis was by high resolution gas chromatography.
[Wathne BM; Atmos Environ 17 (9): 1713-22 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The results of a successful test of remote fluorescence analysis of ground water contaminants by using uv lasers and fiber optics /is described/. Several priority pollutants /including/ xylenes were detected using this technique.
[Chudyk WA et al; Anal Chem 57 (7): 1237-42 (1985)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Method TO-1: Method for the Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds in Ambient Air Using Tenax Adsorption and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). Detection limit 1 ng.
[USEPA/Atmospheric Research & Exposure Assessment Laboratory (AREAL); Compendium of Methods for the Determination of Air Pollutants in Indoor Air, Engineering Science, One Harrison Park, Suite 305, 401 Harrison Oaks Blvd, Cary, NC 27513 as cited in USEPA; EMMI. Environmental Monitoring Index Database Version 1.02 (1992) EPA/871-B-92-001 (NTIS Document No. PB92-503093)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Method 8020A: Aromatic Volatile Organics by Gas chromatography Detection limit 1 ug/l.
[USEPA/Office of Solid Waste (OSW); Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods SW846 Methods (1986)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Method 8240A: Volatile Organics by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry(GC/MS): Packed Column Technique. Detection limit 5ug/l.
[USEPA/Office of Solid Waste (OSW); Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods SW846 Methods (1986)]**PEER REVIEWED**

EPA CLP Method OHC: Organic Analysis, Multi-Media, High Concns: Volatile Organics in air determined by methanol extraction and gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC/FID). Detection limit 2.5 mg/kg.
[USEPA; EMMI. Environmental Monitoring Methods Index. Version 2.0. NTIS PB-95-502415 (1995)]**PEER REVIEWED**

EPA CLP Method Olm01: Organic Analysis, Multi-Media, High Concns: Volatile Organics in air determined by hexadecane extraction and gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC/FID). Detection limit 10 ug/l.
[USEPA; EMMI. Environmental Monitoring Methods Index. Version 2.0. NTIS PB-95-502415 (1995)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Sampling Procedures:

Xylene vapor is trapped on charcoal from a known vol of air.
[NIOSH; Criteria Document: Xylene p.82,84 (1975) DHEW Pub. NIOSH 75-168]**PEER REVIEWED**

Special References:

Special Reports:

Von Burg R; J Appl Toxicol 2: 269-71 (1982). A review article on the toxicity of xylene mixture and individual isomers.

National Academy of Sciences; The Alkyl Benzenes (1981)

Fishbein L; Sci Total Environ 43 (1-2): 165-83 (1985). A review article on the toxicology of xylenes.

NIOSH; Criteria Document: Xylene (1975) DHEW Pub. NIOSH 75-168

USEPA; Drinking Water Criteria Document: Xylenes (1984) EPA-600/X-84-185.

Bailey HC et al; ASTM Spec Tech Publ 891: 193-212 (1985)

NCI; Monograph on Human Exposure to Chemicals in the Workplace: Xylene (July/1985)

USEPA; Advisory Opinion for Xylenes (Dimethyl benzenes) (Draft) (1981)

NIOSH; Recommendations for Occupational Safety and Health Standards 35 (1S) (1986)

U.S. Dept Health & Human Services/Agency for Toxic Substances Disease Registry; Toxicological Profile for (Xylenes) (Update) (1995) NTIS# PB/95/264404

Toxicology & Carcinogenesis Studies of Xylenes in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (gavage Studies). Technical Report Series No. 327 (1986) NTIS Publication No. PB87-189684/AS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709

Synonyms and Identifiers:

Related HSDB Records:

134 [2-XYLENE] (Mixture Component)

135 [3-XYLENE] (Mixture Component)

136 [4-XYLENE] (Mixture Component)

Synonyms:

AI3-02209-X
**PEER REVIEWED**

BENZENE, DIMETHYL-
**PEER REVIEWED**

Caswell No 906
**PEER REVIEWED**

DIMETHYLBENZENE
**PEER REVIEWED**

EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 086802
**PEER REVIEWED**

KSYLEN (POLISH)
**PEER REVIEWED**

Methyltoluene
**PEER REVIEWED**

NCI-C55232
**PEER REVIEWED**

VIOLET 3
**PEER REVIEWED**

XILOLI (ITALIAN)
**PEER REVIEWED**

XYLENEN (DUTCH)
**PEER REVIEWED**

XYLENES
**PEER REVIEWED**

XYLOL
**PEER REVIEWED**

XYLOLE (GERMAN)
**PEER REVIEWED**

Formulations/Preparations:

The commercial product "mixed xylenes" is a technical product generally containing approximately 40% m-xylene and 20% each of o-xylene, p-xylene, and ethylbenzene, as well as small quantities of toluene ... .
[Fishbein L; Sci Total Environ 43 (1-2): 165-83 (1985)]**PEER REVIEWED**

70% of all mixed xylene grades produced are 3 deg and 5 deg grade.
[DCE/NCI; Monograph On Human Exposure To Chemicals In The Workplace: Xylene p.1-1, 1985]**PEER REVIEWED**

Solvent xylene, 2 deg C range
[Kuney, J.H. and J.N. Nullican (eds.) Chemcyclopedia. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society, 1988., p. 119]**PEER REVIEWED**

Grade: Nitration (bp range 137.2-140.5 deg C), 4 degrees (bp range 138-134 deg C), 5 degrees (bp range 137-142 deg C, high in m- isomer), 10 degrees (bp range 135-145 deg C); industrial (bp 90% 40 deg C, complete 160 deg C). Also other grades depending upon use.
[Lewis, R.J., Sr (Ed.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 12th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Rheinhold Co., 1993, p. 1235]**PEER REVIEWED**

Shipping Name/ Number DOT/UN/NA/IMO:

UN 1307; Xylenes (Xylol)

IMO 3.2; Xylenes

IMO 3.3; Xylenes

Standard Transportation Number:

49 093 50; Xylenes

EPA Hazardous Waste Number:

U239; A toxic waste when a discarded commercial chemical product or manufacturing chemical intermediate or an off-specification commercial chemical product.

F003; A hazardous waste from nonspecific sources when a spent solvent.




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