There's No Place Like Home...For Hazardous Substances



Hazardous Substances are in almost all of the household products throughout your home!



Hazardous Substances are in many of the products we use for housework, gardening, home improvement, and car maintenance. These hazardous substances endanger our health as well as pollute the environment. The average house has an estimated three to 10 gallons of hazardous substances and products.

Collectively, these materials can contaminate our drinking water if they are not stored carefully and disposed of properly. In addition to poisoning our water, inappropriate use and disposal of hazardous household substances and products can cause injuries, poisoning and air pollution.

What Makes A Household Product a Hazardous Substance?

Household products are hazardous if they are:

  • Ignitable - capable of burning or causing a fire

  • Corrosive - capable of eating away materials and destroying living tissue when contact occurs

  • Explosive and/or Reactive - can cause an explosion or release poisonous fumes when exposed to air, water or other chemicals

  • Toxic - poisonous, either immediately (acutely toxic) or over a long period of time (chronically toxic)

  • Radioactive - can damage and destroy cells and chromosomal material (known to cause cancer, mutations and fetal harm)

How Do You Know If A Product is Hazardous?

The Federal Hazardous Substances Act of 1960 established labeling requirements for consumer products containing hazardous substances. If a product has a hazardous substance, the front label must include a warning and a description of the hazard.

Levels of hazards are identified this way:

DANGER - substances which are ex-tremely flammable, corrosive or highly toxic.

POISON - substances which are highly toxic.

WARNING, or CAUTION - substances which are moderately or slightly toxic.

A statement telling you how to avoid the hazard must appear with safe use instructions. Examples might be KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN or USE IN A WELL-VENTILATED AREA.

As a consumer you should make it a habit to read hazardous product labels. These labels must include the following information:

  1. Brand Name

  2. Common and/or Chemical Name (Example: sodium hypochlorite or bleach)

  3. Amount of Contents (example: 16 oz.)

  4. Signal Word - Danger, Poison, Warning or Caution

  5. Instructions for Safe Handling and Use (example: recommended amount to use)

  6. Name and Address of Manufacturer, Distributor, Packer or Seller

  7. Description of Hazard and Precautions (example: Irritant to skin and eyes, harmful if swallowed)

  8. First Aid Instructions, when necessary or appropriate (example: If swallowed, feed milk).

Pesticides Are Different

Regulations concerning pesticides are different. On pesticides, the word "warning" means that the product is moderately toxic. This means that one teaspoon to one ounce can kill an average adult. The word "caution" means that the product is slightly toxic. It would take over one ounce to kill an average adult.

What Don't the Labels Tell?

Label information is directed at "acute" or immediate effects only. You are not given information about "chronic" or long-term hazards of chemical products, such as cancer or birth defects.

There are other concerns about labels, as well. Some products contain ingredients that have not been of officially recognized by the federal government as hazardous but still are cause for concern. "Inert" ingredients are chemicals added as "carriers" for the active ingredients in cleaners and pesticides. Only the percentage of inert ingredients are required on the label, not their identity. Some inert ingredients are hazardous.

There is no standardized list of chemical names. Many chemicals have numerous trade and/or scientific names. This makes it hard for you to compare products. Antidotes listed on the label may be incomplete, out-of-date, or even dangerously wrong. According to a 1984 report by the National Academy of Sciences, less than 2 percent of all new and existing chemicals have been tested sufficiently to allow a complete health hazard assessment.

Also, many labels do not tell you how to dispose of a product safely.

The use of the term "non-toxic" is for advertising only. It has no regulatory definition by the federal government.

It is very important that you know as much as possible about products before you use them so that you can adequately protect yourself. If a product label does not provide ingredients or adequate instructions on safe use, look for another product that has a more complete label.

Types of Hazardous Household Products

Most hazardous household products can be grouped into four major categories:

  • Automotive products which are hazardous include motor oil, brake and transmission fluid, antifreeze and car batteries, gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel, and car wax with solvent.

  • Household cleaners include drain cleaners, oven clean- ers, toilet cleaners, spot removers, silver polishes, furniture polishes, cleansers and powdered cleaners, window cleaners, bleach, liquid cleaners, dyes.

  • Paints and solvents include latex, oil-based, auto and model paint, paint stripper, primer, rust remover, turpentine, varnish, wood preservative, mineral spirits, glues.

  • Pesticides. (For more information on pesticides, see How to Choose and Use Household Insecticides, AG-392, by R.C. Hillmann.)

Other hazardous products include: aerosol products, dry cell and disc or button batteries, hearing aid batteries, moth balls and flakes, shoe polish, photographic chemicals, smoke detectors and air fresheners and deodorizers.

Let's take a closer look at indoor air pollution sources, their hazardous ingredients, and how they effect people.

Indoor Air Quality in Your Home: What Causes Indoor Air Problems?

Indoor pollution sources that release gases or particles into the air are the primary cause of indoor air quality problems in homes. Inadequate ventilation can increase indoor pollutant levels by not bringing in enough outdoor air to dilute emissions from indoor sources and by not carrying indoor air pollutants out of the home. Today's homes are particularly air tight due to greater energy efficient construction standards, thus lack of ventilation in modern homes is a major contributor to increased indoor air pollution. High temperature and humidity levels within homes can also increase concentrations of some indoor air pollutants such as mold spores, bacteria, and viruses.

Pollutant Sources

There are many sources of indoor air pollution in any home. These include combustion sources such as oil, gas, kerosene, coal, wood, and tobacco products; building materials and furnishings as diverse as deteriorated, asbestos-containing insulation, wet or damp carpet, and cabinetry or furniture made of certain pressed wood products; products for household cleaning and maintenance, personal care, or hobbies; central heating and cooling systems and humidification devices; and outdoor sources such as radon, pesticides, and outdoor air pollution.

The relative importance of any single source depends on how much of a given pollutant it emits and how hazardous those emissions are. In some cases, factors such as how old the source is and whether it is properly maintained are significant. For example, an improperly adjusted gas stove can emit significantly more carbon monoxide than one that is properly adjusted.

Some sources, such as building materials, furnishings, and household products like air fresheners, release pollutants more or less continuously. Other sources, related to activities carried out in the home, release pollutants intermittently. These include smoking, the use of unvented or malfunctioning stoves, furnaces, or space heaters, the use of solvents in cleaning and hobby activities, the use of paint strippers in redecorating activities, and the use of cleaning products and pesticides in housekeeping. High pollutant concentrations can remain in the air for long periods after some of these activities.

Here are some specific examples of common household products / chemicals, their potentially hazardous ingredients, and the potential health effects that may result:

Air fresheners and Deodorizers
Formaldehyde - Toxic; carcinogen; irritant to eyes, nose, throat and skin; may cause nausea, headaches, nose bleeds, dizziness, memory loss, and shortness of breath

Antifreeze
Ethylene glycol - Very toxic; 3 ounces can be fatal to adult; damage to cardiovascular system, blood, skin and kidneys
Methanol - Moderately toxic; ingestion may cause coma or respiratory damage

Bleach
Sodium hypochlorite - Corrosive; irritates or burns skin, eyes, respiratory tract; may cause pulmonary edema or vomiting and coma if ingested; contact with other chemicals may cause chlorine fumes

Car Wax, Polish
Petroleum distillates - Associated with skin and lung cancer; irritant to skin, eyes, nose, lungs; entry into lungs may cause fatal pulmonary edema

Disinfectants
Sodium hypochlorite - Corrosive; irritates or burns skin, eyes; may cause pulmonary edema or vomiting and coma if ingested
Phenols - Flammable; very toxic; respiratory, circulatory or cardiac damage
Ammonia Vapor - irritating to eyes, respiratory tract and skin; possible chronic irritation

Drain Cleaner
Sodium or potassium hydroxide (Lye) - Caustic; irritant; inhibits reflexes; burns to skin, poisonous if swallowed due to severe tissue damage
Hydrochloric acid - Corrosive, irritant; damage to kidney, liver and digestive system
Trichloromethane - Irritant to nose and eyes; central nervous system depression, liver and kidney damage if ingested

Flea Powder
Carbaryl - Very toxic; interferes with human nervous system; may cause skin, respiratory system, cardiovascular system damage
Dichlorophene - Skin irritation; may damage liver, kidney, spleen and central nervous system
Chlordane and other chlorinated hydrocarbons - Very slow biodegradation; accumulates in food chain; may damage eyes, lungs, liver, kidneys and skin

Floor Cleaner / Wax
Diethylene Glycol - Toxic, causes central nervous system depression and kidney, liver lesions
Petroleum Solvents - Highly flammable; associated with skin and lung cancer, irritant to skin, eyes, nose, throat, lungs
Ammonia Vapor - irritation to eyes, respiratory tract and skin; possible chronic irritation

Furniture Polish
Petroleum distillates or Mineral spirits - Highly flammable, moderately toxic, associated with skin and lung cancer, irritant to skin, eyes, nose, throat, lungs, entry into lungs may cause pulmonary edema

Oven Cleaner
Sodium or potassium hydroxide (Lye) - Caustic; irritant, inhibits reflexes; burns to skin, eyes; poisonous if swallowed due to severe tissue damage

Paint Thinner
Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons - Slow decomposition; liver and kidney damage
Esters - Toxicity varies with specific chemical; causes eye, nose and throat irritation and anesthesia
Alcohols - Volatile and flammable; eye, nose and throat irritation
Chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons - Flammable; toxicity varies with specific chemical; may cause respiratory ailments
Ketones - Flammable; skin irritant; benzene is a carcinogen; possible liver and kidney damage

BEWARE of Household Solvents: Paint Stripper, Furniture stripper, Turpentine, Charcoal lighter fluid, Drycleaning fluids, Paint thinner, Nail polish remover, Degreasers, Lubricating Oils, and Fuels are generally 100% organic solvent!

Paints
Aromatic hydrocarbon thinners - Flammable; skin irritant; benzene is a carcinogen; possible liver and kidney damage
Mineral spirits - Highly flammable; skin, eye, nose, throat, lung irritant; very high air concentrations may cause unconsciousness, death

Motor Oil / Gasoline
Petroleum hydrocarbons (benzene) - Highly flammable; associated with skin and lung cancer; irritant to skin, eyes, nose, throat, lungs; pulmonary edema; benzene is a carcinogen
Lead - Damage to digestive, genitourinary, neuro-muscular and central nervous system; anemia and brain damage

Spot Removers
Perchlorethylene or trichloromethane - Slow decomposition; liver and kidney damage; perchlorethylene is a suspected carcinogen
Ammonium hydroxide - Corrosive; vapor extremely irritable to skin, eyes and respiratory passages; ingestion causes tissue burns
Sodium hypochlorite - Corrosive, irritates skin, eyes, respiratory tract; may cause pulmonary edema and skin burns

Toilet Bowl Cleaner
Sodium acid sulfate, oxalate or hypochloric acid - Corrosive; burns from skin contact or inhalation; ingestion may be fatal
Chlorinated phenols - Flammable; very toxic; respiratory, circulatory or cardiac damage

Window Cleaners
Diethylene glycol - Toxic; causes central nervous system depression and degenerative lesions in liver and kidneys
Ammonia Vapor - irritating to eyes; respiratory tract and skin; possible chronic irritation

Wood Stain / Varnish
Mineral spirits, gasoline - Highly flammable; associated with skin and lung cancer; irritant to skin, eyes, nose, throat, lungs; entry into lungs may cause fatal pulmonary edema
Benzene - Flammable; carcinogen; accurnulates in fat, bone narrow, liver tissues
Lead - Damage to digestive genitourinary, neuro-muscular and central nervous system; anemia and brain damage

Search our Famous Household Chemical Encyclopedia which has chapters on over 100 Hazardous Substances commonly found throughout your home.
We've made it easy for you to find answers to the following important questions:

  • What are the chemical ingredients and their percentage in specific brands of household products?
  • Which household products contain specific chemical ingredients?
  • Who manufactures a specific brand of household product? How do I contact this manufacturer?
  • What are the acute and chronic effects of chemical ingredients in a specific brand of household product?

Exposure to Hazardous Products

Hazardous substances may enter your body in three ways ingestion, inhalation and absorption through the skin.

Toxins can be ingested by eating or drinking hazardous substances or contaminated food and water. Ingestion is a major cause of poisoning in children 6 and under. Keep the hazardous products out of the reach of children and in a locked area.

When you are working with hazardous products, avoid putting anything in your mouth. Don't eat, don't smoke, don't drink, don't even place things that enter your mouth in the work area. When you're finished remove any contaminated clothing and wash your hands (and other exposed body parts) with soap and water. Then you can put something in your mouth.

Toxins can be inhaled. Gases, vapors, and sprays pass directly through the lungs and enter the blood. That is why good ventilation is essential. When you are working inside, use a fan to direct air away from the work area to open windows. Air conditioners do not provide sufficient ventilation since they recirculate air, even when set on "vent." Thus they do not remove contaminants. If you can smell a toxic chemical, your ventilation is not sufficient (although some harmful chemicals have no odor). Use a mask or respirator to protect yourself.

Toxins can be absorbed through the skin. Hazardous products containing irritants or corrosives will injure the skin and then are absorbed. Some hazardous chemical can be absorbed without causing any damage to the skin. Wear gloves and/or protective clothing. Your eyes also are vulnerable to injury. Many hazardous products can cause eye damage if splashed into the eye. Oven cleaners, drain cleaners, and paint thinners are just three examples.

Wear goggles when working with these products. Regular eyeglasses do not provide enough protection. Do not wear contact lenses (especially soft lenses) when working with hazardous products. The lenses absorb the vapors and then hold the irritant against your eye. Safety goggles are inexpensive and can be purchased at hardware, automotive supply and farm equipment stores.

Selection, Use and Storage Of Hazardous Household Products

Select the right product . . .

When you go shopping for products, your selection can be your first step toward minimizing danger. Follow these guidelines:

  • Read the label. Make sure you want the product. Are the ingredients safe to use in and around your home?

  • Make sure the product will do the job you need to have done.

  • Buy the least hazardous product for the job. Let the signal words (Poison, Danger, Warning, Caution) be your guide.

  • Check the label to see if a product has several uses. Then you can avoid buying a different product for each job.

  • Avoid aerosol products. Aerosol products may contain hazardous or toxic propellants, and the fine mist that they produce may be more easily inhaled. Pressurized cans cause problems or explode when they are crushed, punctured or burned.

  • Make sure you know how to properly dispose of the container.

  • Remember, the word "non-toxic" is for advertising only. It does not mean the product meets any federal regulations for non-toxicity.

Use it safely . . .

It may be impossible to totally eliminate hazardous products in your home. The following guidelines will help you when using hazardous substances and products to keep your home and environment safe.

  • Read the directions on the label and follow them. Twice as much doesn't mean twice the results.

  • Use the product only for the tasks listed on the label.

  • Wear protective equipment recommended by the manufacturer.

  • Handle the product carefully to avoid spills and splashing. Close the lid as soon as the product is used. This will control vapors and reduce chances of spills. Secure lids tightly.

  • Use products in well-ventilated areas to avoid inhaling fumes. Work outdoors if possible. When working indoors, open windows. Use a fan to circulate the air toward the outside. Take plenty of fresh-air breaks. If you feel dizzy, headachy or nauseous take a break and go outside.

  • Do not eat, drink or smoke while using hazardous substances and products. Traces of hazardous chemicals can be carried from hand to mouth. Smoking can start a fire if the product is flammable.

  • Do not mix products unless directions indicate that you can safely do so. This can cause explosive or poisonous chemical reactions. Even different brands of the same product may contain incompatible ingredients.

  • Use it all up.

  • If pregnant, avoid toxic chemical exposure as much as possible. Many toxic products have not been tested for their effect on unborn infants.

  • Avoid wearing soft contact lenses when working with solvents and pesticides. They can absorb vapors and hold the chemical near your eyes.

  • Carefully and tightly seal products when you have finished. Escaping fumes can be harmful and spills can occur.

Most important of all: Use common sense.

Store it safely in your home . . .

  • Follow label directions for proper storage conditions.

  • Leave the product in its original container with original label attached.

  • Never store hazardous products in food or beverage containers.

  • Make sure lids and caps are tightly sealed.

  • Store hazardous products on high shelves or in locked cabinets out of reach of children and animals.

  • Store incompatibles separately Keep flammables away from corrosives.

  • Store volatile products—those that warn of vapors and fumes in a well-ventilated area, out of reach of children and pets.

  • Keep containers dry to prevent corrosion.

  • Store rags used with flammable products (furniture stripper, paint remover, etc.) in a sealed marked container.

  • Keep flammable products away from heat, sparks or sources of anything that could ignite them.

  • Know where flammable materials in your home are located and know how to extinguish them.

In Summary

An astounding array of hazardous products can be found in and around our homes. They are in common, everyday household products as well as in pesticides. While we cannot eliminate all contact with toxic materials we can minimize the contact.

  • Make informed decisions about the selection, use and storage of hazardous products.

  • Remember hazardous products may be: flammable, explosive/reactive, corrosive/caustic, toxic/poisonous or reactive.

  • Learn to read the labels. Look for the signal words. POISON means highly toxic. DANGER means extremely flammable or corrosive or highly toxic. WARNING or CAUTION means less toxic.

  • Lastly, use common sense when using and storing hazardous products to decrease the potential health hazards and pollution.




Handling Wastes: Household
Fluorescent Lighting and PCB Ballasts

by Shirley Niemeyer, Extension Specialist, Home Environment
Wayne Woldt, Extension Specialist, Waste Management

Household waste such as fluorescent lighting with PCB ballasts or mercury may need special handling practices to handle them responsibly. The Federal Government does not specify the method for consumer disposal of household lighting ballasts (except if the ballasts are leaking PCBs). The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) does encourage environmentally responsible disposal or recycling of lighting wastes.

PCB Ballasts

Because of PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) toxicity, persistence and potential ecological damage via water pollution, manufacture of PCB was discontinued in the U.S. in the late 1970s.

Identifying Ballasts Containing PCB

Most older fluorescent light ballasts have small capacitors that contain high concentrations of PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls). Disposal of pre-1979 light ballasts requires some knowledge of ballasts. Nearly all ballasts manufactured before 1979 contain PCBs. All ballasts manufactured after July 1, 1978 that do not contain PCBs are required to be clearly marked "No PCBs". Look for the "No PCBs" label and check the date stamp to see if the ballast was made after 1979. Unmarked ballasts or ballasts without a date code should assumed to be PCB ballasts.

PCBs are toxic chemicals according to U.S. EPA. While there is only a small amount, about one ounce, of PCBs in each light ballast capacitor, there is a large number of ballasts in the U.S. About half of the one billion ballasts, estimated as currently installed, were manufactured before 1979 and usually contain PCBs.

Regulations

The primary purpose of the PCB regulations is to get PCBs permanently out of the environment. Regulations (Toxic Substances Control Act) about disposal of PCB ballasts indicate that it is permissible to dispose of non-leaking ballasts in a permitted landfill. Under this Act, lighting ballasts containing a Small PCB Capacitor are unregulated for disposal unless the Small Capacitor or ballast is leaking PCBs. Even though it is legal in most areas to dispose of residential ballasts in a permitted landfill, the EPA encourages disposers of large quantities of PCB ballasts to treat them as if they were a regulated PCB waste. The intent of the Small Capacitor disposal rule was to allow random disposal in landfills by householders and other infrequent disposers. For larger quantities of Small PCB Capacitors used by commercial and industrial sectors, the EPA encourages voluntary collection and disposal of Small PCB Capacitors in chemical waste landfills, ballast decap recycling processing, or high-temperature incinerators.

The Superfund Law (CERCLA) prohibits the disposal of more than one pound of PCBs (12-16 or more ballasts) in a 24-hour period in a permitted sanitary landfill.

Thirteen states ban PCB ballasts from permitted landfills, and another 17 states have special policies or requirements regarding disposal of PCB ballasts.

Handling

Contact your area's permitted sanitary landfill for information regarding regulations on PCB ballast disposal and additional information. Although very few ballasts leak, those that are leaking can usually be identified. Try to determine if a ballast is leaking before removing it from the fixture. Most PCB leaks are visible. If you see clear or yellow oil on the surface of a ballast, you probably have a leaking ballast. Wear chemically resistant gloves when handling the ballast and don't throw used ballasts around as leaks could result. Place the ballast in a heavy plastic bag. Technically, if PCB ballasts are leaking, they must be disposed of as regulated hazardous waste (TSCA).

Mercury in Fluorescent Lamps

Fluorescent lightbulbs are usually more energy efficient and have a longer use life than incandescent lightbulbs. However, there are some environmental issues to consider in use and disposal of light bulbs.

EPA has tested fluorescent lightbulbs based on the new Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure. In this testing, about 50 percent of the fluorescent lightbulbs tested as a hazardous waste. The mercury used in the lightbulbs represents a small part of the total mercury potentially entering the environment. According to the National Electrical Manufacturers Association, the fluorescent lightbulbs account for about 0.2 % (or about 34 tons) of the total mercury releases. About 700 million mercury-containing lamps are purchased each year (1994). New procedures for handling fluorescent lightbulbs are being developed, and interest in recycling has increased.

The National Electrical Manufacturers Association recommends that fluorescent lightbulbs not be put into a solid waste incinerator. Manufacturers are working to reduce the mercury content of fluorescent lightbulbs to the lowest feasible level. However, lightbulbs containing mercury have a high energy efficiency, and mercury free lightbulbs are not technically feasible at this time. The mercury levels affect the lightbulb's life--generally the higher the mercury per lamp, the longer the life.

Firms that do recycle the fluorescent lightbulbs may separate out mercury and the phosphor powder, the glass, metal, and other materials. About 99 percent of the mercury is recovered. To locate firms that recycle fluorescent lights, contact the Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality at (402) 471-4210. If fluorescent lightbulbs must be stored for recycling, store them in their cardboard tubes and in boxes protected from damage. When a fluorescent lamp is broken, the mercury can evaporate at room temperature. (There are no known health hazards from exposure to lamps that are intact.)

Spent lightbulbs may be hazardous waste and should be handled appropriately. Industry goals for management include environmentally responsible management of the spent lightbulb, reduced mercury content to the lowest feasible level, development of an infrastructure to manage disposal recommendations, and careful evaluation of reclamation technologies. The National Electrical Manufacturers Association suggest that disposal of spent lightbulbs from consumer sources in modern, quality permitted landfills appears to be a responsible short term management option until other options are studied or become more readily available. Some states (CA,MN,WI and FL) have banned mercury-contained lamps from their landfills. In some European countries such as Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Norway, Germany, The Netherlands, Switzerland, and Austria collection and recycling is either recommended or legislated.

Recommendations for disposal of fluorescent lamps and ballasts may change in the future. Search out new information.


Resource

National Electric Manufacturers Association
2101 L St NW
Washington DC 20037


References

 

Duxbury, D. (1992, December). U.S. Fluorescent Light Recycling Activities in Proceedings of

the seventh national USEPA conference on household hazardous waste management. pp 176-180.

 

Grimm, B. (1992, December). Fluorescent Lamps: Lamp Maker Initiatives in Proceedings of the

seventh national USEPA conference on household hazardous waste management p 181.

 

The Practical Guide to Ballast Disposal. August, 1993, FulCircle Ballast Recyclers.

 

US EPA (1992, February). Lighting Upgrade Waste Disposal.

University of Nebraska Cooperative Extension

Acknowledgments:

Kelly Danielson, David Wisch and Teri Swarts, Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality.
Thomas Kimmel, DYNEX Environmental, Inc. Market Development Manager
Ginger Stewart, Nebraska State Recycling Association
Harry F. Dingman, PE, Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality



Our Household Hazardous Waste References and Resources Page lists many more sources of information about:

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