Mercury MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet), Sources, Testing, Best Air Purifier, and Public Health Information


Extensive Mercury MSDS plus common sources, best air purifier for Mercury, Hg test kits, and important health warnings are all on this page. Don't miss the fascinating video below of Mercury vapor wafting up off of a tooth filling and health consequences to you.

Whether you are a dentist or dental assistant, a factory worker, or a concerned parent, there are many opportunities for exposure to mercury at home at work and at play, no matter who you are or where you are.

From your old tooth fillings off-gasing "Quicksilver" fumes in your mouth, to fluorescent bulbs, old thermometers, your child's made in China toys, and even cans of tuna fish - this page will help you identify many other common sources, evaluate your past exposure, and limit the potential for Mercury poisoning.

Mercury-containing Items

Common sources of Mercury such as batteries, fluorescent light bulbs, and mercury thermometers - see Mercury MSDS below for more sources






Mercury in Fish and Shellfish


Though there are many possible sources of Mercury exposure in household items, according to the EPA, the most common way to be exposed in the U.S. is by eating fish or shellfish contaminated with Methyl-Mercury.

We all have Mercury in our tissues as a result of eating fish and shellfish. But it is not just a problem in ocean shellfish or fish such as Albacore or Yellowfin tuna.

Most people are oblivious to the problem of Mercury in local bodies of water. Just check EPA.gov to find out which of your local U.S. freshwater lakes and rivers are now impaired due to high levels of Mercury. Even rural areas are affected.

Here where I live, in upstate South Carolina at the base of the Blue Ridge Mountains, it is like Water World. There are cold mountain streams, awe-inspiring waterfalls, and expansive deep lakes all around. It is a rural area far from the urban sprawl of Atlanta, GA and Greenville, SC.

The wild and scenic Chattooga River is a few miles to the west, and beautiful lakes Jocassee, Keowee, and Hartwell are just a few miles to the east. These waters offer up a bounty of delicious freshwater fish like trout, bass, crappie, bream, and catfish.

Unfortunately, almost all the waters here are now listed by the EPA as being impaired with Mercury, and some with additional man-made chemical pollutants like PCB.

The problem is so bad the Corp of Engineers has posted fish consumption advisories at many boat ramps and eating ANY fish from some waters is considered a serious health hazard, especially for children and pregnant women.

But how is all this Mercury getting into our waterways and the oceans?

Some is a natural product of the Earth itself. For example, in the 350 foot cold depths of our Lake Jocassee, some Mercury in fish results from the soil and rocks the water covers and some falls from the sky in the form of rain carrying Mercury expelled from volcanoes around the world.

But most Mercury in our SC lakes and rivers probably comes from man-made activities such as coal-fired power plants, landfill leachate, garbage incinerators, agricultural sludge, and waste water systems.



Mercury in Tooth Fillings and Dental Amalgams


In a 2002 study conducted by the National Association of Clean Water Agencies (NACWA) it was concluded that as much as 40% of all Mercury in U.S. wastewater systems likely came from dental offices which remove or use Mercury-containing amalgam for tooth fillings. This level of Mercury discharge into wastewater systems is much greater than all other Mercury sources combined.

This is no surprise considering that in 2008 the EPA estimated that there were between 100,000 and 200,000 U.S. dentists in over 100,000 dental offices where dental amalgam fillings were being used or removed and resulting in almost 4 tons of Mercury being discharged into Publicly-Owned Treatment Works.

According to the Interstate Mercury Education and Reduction Clearinghouse (IMERC), in 2004 over 30 tons of Mercury (almost 30% of all Mercury used in products) was sold as dental amalgam for use in dentistry.

Dental amalgam, or “silver filling” as dentists sometimes call it, is usually made of nearly 50% liquid Mercury with the remainder being a powder of silver, zinc, copper, tin, and other metals.

Though many powerful groups with a vested interest in the dental and amalgam industry would lead you to believe those Mercury fillings in your mouth are safe, the following short video (one of my all time favorites) will not only SHOW you the Mercury vapor wafting off of tooth fillings like cigarette smoke, but it will also offer evidence of the health consequences of that heavy metal in your mouth...



Mercury Video: "Smoking Teeth = Poison Gas"




Ask your dentist about the possibility of having older Amalgam fillings replaced with modern alternatives that may be safer, such as: gold alloys, resin ionomer, porcelain, glass ionomer, or resin composites. I'm sure he will reassure you of the safety of Amalgams or claim Mercury is no longer used. But I personally would not be so trusting.




The Best Chemical Air Purifier for Mercury Removal, Odor Control, and Nano-Particle Filtration in Dental Offices or Home: IQAir Dental Pro



Mercury exposure in dental offices is a major health issue due to Mercury vapor from tooth fillings and amalgams.

In fact, many studies have proven elevated levels of Mercury in blood and urine of most dental workers and reduced fertility in female dental employees. This is suspected to be related to elevated Mercury exposure at work.

The use of high-speed drills and ultrasonic equipment also produces several potential health hazards such as aersolized tissue and fluid droplets with bacteria and viruses that are so tiny they can linger in the air and easily be inhaled.

These dentistry activities also greatly facilitate the release of Mercury from old Amalgam fillings, especially when drilled or disturbed in any way.

Other common inhalation hazards in dental practices are: particles of polishing or abrasion powders, plasticizing compounds, solvents, disinfectants, Formaldehyde, Alcohol, and other Volatile Organic Compounds.

The IQAir Dental Pro Air Purifier has a 5-stage filtration system specifically designed to effectively filter out all the above common air pollutants found in most dental offices.


IQAir Dental Pro Air Purifier: Powerfully Efficient Air Cleaning of Solids and Mercury Vapor


  1. Micro-charged Filtration Technology With Charged Fiber Structure for Eliminating Tiny Particles So the Life of the Gas Phase Filters are Extended

  2. Ultra-small Nano-particle Filtration of Solid Indoor Air Pollutants Such as Allergens, Viruses, Smoke, and Microorganisms

  3. 2 Cartridges for the Adsorption of Odors and Volatile Organic Compounds

  4. 2 Cartridges with Mercury Vapor Control Media

  5. Efficiently filters out Mercury vapor, tooth polishing particles, aerosolized tissue and fluid droplets, bacteria, viruses, combustion particles, odors, chemical disinfectant molecules, and most general dental office or household indoor air pollutants.

  6. The IQAir Dental Pro Air Purifier is a Top-Rated Best of Breed Air Purifier for Use in Dental Offices.











Public Health Statement for Mercury



CONTENTS:

Highlights

What is mercury?

What happens to mercury when it enters the environment?

How might I be exposed to mercury?

How can mercury affect my health?

How likely is mercury to cause cancer?

How does mercury affect children?

How can families reduce the risk of exposure to mercury?

Is there a medical test to show whether I've been exposed to mercury?

Has the federal government made recommendations to protect human health?

References

Contact Information

Mercury MSDS Information

Complete Mercury Toxicology and Chemical Information

HIGHLIGHTS:

Exposure to mercury occurs from breathing contaminated air, ingesting contaminated water and food, and having dental and medical treatments. Mercury, at high levels, may damage the brain, kidneys, and developing fetus. This chemical has been found in at least 714 of 1,467 National Priorities List sites identified by the Environmental Protection Agency

What is mercury?

Mercury, also known by the name Quicksilver, is a naturally occurring metal which has several forms. The metallic mercury is a shiny, silver-white, odorless liquid. If heated, it is a colorless, odorless gas.

Mercury combines with other elements, such as chlorine, sulfur, or oxygen, to form inorganic mercury compounds or "salts," which are usually white powders or crystals. Mercury also combines with carbon to make organic mercury compounds. The most common one, methylmercury, is produced mainly by microscopic organisms in the water and soil. More mercury in the environment can increase the amounts of methylmercury that these small organisms make.

Metallic mercury is used to produce chlorine gas and caustic soda, and is also used in thermometers, dental fillings, and batteries. Mercury salts are sometimes used in skin lightening creams and as antiseptic creams and ointments.

Synonyms for Mercury:

  • CCRIS 1578

  • Caswell No. 546

  • Colloidal mercury

  • EINECS 231-106-7

  • EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 052301

  • HSDB 1208

  • Hydrargyrum

  • KWIK [Dutch]

  • Liquid silver

  • Mercure [French]

  • Mercurio [Italian]

  • Mercury

  • Mercury vapor

  • Mercury, metallic

  • Metallic mercury

  • NCI-C60399

  • Quecksilber [German]

  • Quick silver

  • Quicksilver

  • RCRA waste number U151

  • RTEC [Polish]

  • UN 2024 (liquid compounds)

Industrial Sources of Mercury:

  • MINING, SMELTING, OR METALLURGY: Cinnabar ore mining and crushing operations in Spain, China, Kyrgyzstan and Algeria.; gold extraction (cyanide leaching or amalgamation processes)

  • MANUFACTURING: Thermometers, manometers & barometers; dental amalgam; polyurethane catalyst; switches & rectifiers; dry cell batteries; paints

  • USING OR DISPOSING: Open mercury cells in chloralkali plant for maintenance; use mercury amalgams in dental office

  • RESTRICTED: Paint manufacturers agreed to discontinued the use of mercury in exterior paints after September 1991 and in interior paints after Aug 20, 1990.

back to top

What happens to mercury when it enters the environment?

  • Inorganic mercury (metallic mercury and inorganic mercury compounds) enters the air from mining ore deposits, burning coal and waste, and from manufacturing plants.
  • It enters the water or soil from natural deposits, disposal of wastes, and volcanic activity.
  • Methylmercury may be formed in water and soil by small organisms called bacteria. 
  • Methylmercury builds up in the tissues of fish.  Larger and older fish tend to have the highest levels of mercury.

back to top

How might I be exposed to mercury?

  • Eating fish or shellfish contaminated with methylmercury.
  • Breathing vapors in air from spills, incinerators, and industries that burn mercury-containing fuels.
  • Release of mercury from dental work and medical treatments.
  • Breathing contaminated workplace air or skin contact during use in the workplace (dental, health services, chemical, and other industries that use mercury).
  • Practicing rituals that include mercury.

Household Product listing Mercury as an ingredient:

Quikrete Color-PAK, All Colors except Charcoal No. 1318 Home maintenance powder


Also see the "Mercury-Added Products Database" link below

Industrial Processes with risk of exposure to Mercury:

  • Abrasive Blasting
  • Battery Manufacturing
  • Mining
  • Photographic Processing
  • Using Disinfectants
  • Welding Over Coatings

Activities with risk of exposure to Mercury:

  • Ingesting an herbal remedy
  • Painting

back to top

How can mercury affect my health?

The nervous system is very sensitive to all forms of mercury. Methylmercury and metallic mercury vapors are more harmful than other forms, because more mercury in these forms reaches the brain. Exposure to high levels of metallic, inorganic, or organic mercury can permanently damage the brain, kidneys, and developing fetus. Effects on brain functioning may result in irritability, shyness, tremors, changes in vision or hearing, and memory problems.

Short-term exposure to high levels of metallic mercury vapors may cause effects including lung damage, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, increases in blood pressure or heart rate, skin rashes, and eye irritation.

  • Elemental mercury vapor is toxic predominantly to the lung and central nervous system.
  • Pneumonitis can result from exposure to high concentrations of mercury vapor not likely to occur in current industrial processes.
  • Chronic exposure to inorganic mercury may produce proteinuria as evidence of kidney injury.
  • Elemental mercury is combined with other metals without heating to form amalgams for dental fillings.
  • Ammoniated mercury is a moderate skin sensitizer, and mercuric chloride is a strong sensitizer.
  • The phenyl mercuric salts (used in herbicides, fungicides, antiseptics, and preservatives) are strong skin irritants.
  • Organic mercury compounds are reproductive toxins that can cause CNS malformations and cerebral palsy in humans.
  • There is limited positive data that inorganic mercury can cause spontaneous abortions in humans and birth defects in animals.
  • Test the blood to detect methylmercury.
  • Test the urine to detect elemental or inorganic mercury.
  • Fish consumption is a fairly common cause of elevated blood mercury.
  • Since organic mercury is usually excreted through the biliary system, urine levels are not useful.

Half-life of Mercury:     

The Half-life of Mercury is the time required to reduce by one half the amount of Mercury absorbed by the body. Half-life can be calculated accurately only for those substances eliminated linearly, independent of concentration. For linearly eliminated substances, it takes approximately 3.5 half-lives to eliminate 90% of the substance.

  • Half-life of Metallic and inorganic in whole body: 1-2 months
  • Half-life of Blood: 2 days to 1 month
  • Half-life of Methylmercury in blood: 1 month
  • Half-life of Methylmercury in whole body: 44-79 days
back to top

How likely is mercury to cause cancer?

There are inadequate human cancer data available for all forms of mercury. Mercuric chloride has caused increases in several types of tumors in rats and mice, and methylmercury has caused kidney tumors in male mice. The EPA has determined that mercuric chloride and methylmercury are possible human carcinogens.

back to top

How does mercury affect children?

Very young children are more sensitive to mercury than adults. Mercury in the mother's body passes to the fetus and may accumulate there. It can also can pass to a nursing infant through breast milk. However, the benefits of breast feeding may be greater than the possible adverse effects of mercury in breast milk.

Mercury's harmful effects that may be passed from the mother to the fetus include brain damage, mental retardation, incoordination, blindness, seizures, and inability to speak. Children poisoned by mercury may develop problems of their nervous and digestive systems, and kidney damage.

back to top

How can families reduce the risk of exposure to mercury?

Carefully handle and dispose of products that contain mercury, such as thermometers or fluorescent light bulbs. Do not vacuum up spilled mercury, because it will vaporize and increase exposure. If a large amount of mercury has been spilled, contact your health department. Teach children not to play with shiny, silver liquids.

Properly dispose of older medicines that contain mercury. Keep all mercury-containing medicines away from children.

Pregnant women and children should keep away from rooms where liquid mercury has been used.

Learn about wildlife and fish advisories in your area from your public health or natural resources department.

back to top

Is there a medical test to show whether I've been exposed to mercury?

Tests are available to measure mercury levels in the body. Blood or urine samples are used to test for exposure to metallic mercury and to inorganic forms of mercury. Mercury in whole blood or in scalp hair is measured to determine exposure to methylmercury. Your doctor can take samples and send them to a testing laboratory.



Low Cost Heavy Metals and Mercury Test Kit


With the following Toxic Element Exposure Hair Testing Kit and very small hair sample you can test for Mercury at a much cheaper cost than what your doctor would likely charge. And with the same test kit you will also get results for these 30 other Heavy Metals and potentially toxic elements:


  • Aluminum
  • Antimony
  • Arsenic
  • Barium
  • Beryllium
  • Bismuth
  • Cadmium
  • Cesium
  • Chromium
  • Cobalt
  • Copper
  • Gadolinium
  • Germanium
  • Gold
  • Lead
  • Manganese
  • Mercury
  • Nickel
  • Palladium
  • Platinum
  • Selenium
  • Silver
  • Tellurium
  • Thallium
  • Thorium
  • Tin
  • Titanium
  • Tungsten
  • Uranium
  • Vanadium
  • Zinc



Toxic Element Exposure Hair Testing Kit (Test for 31 Heavy Metals & Toxins)




If you are concerned about other toxic chemicals (such as Formaldehyde), toxic black mold, toxins from cigarette smoke, or if you would like to know which of over 400 volatile organic compounds may be contaminating your indoor air, I recommend this professional-grade indoor air quality test kit direct from the manufacturer (much cheaper than what the experts usually charge).


back to top

Has the federal government made recommendations to protect human health?

The EPA has set a limit of 2 parts of mercury per billion parts of drinking water (2 ppb).

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has set a maximum permissible level of 1 part of methylmercury in a million parts of seafood (1 ppm).

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set limits of 0.1 milligram of organic mercury per cubic meter of workplace air (0.1 mg/m³) and 0.05 mg/m³ of metallic mercury vapor for 8-hour shifts and 40-hour work weeks.

back to top

References

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1999. Managing Hazardous Materials Incidents. Volume III – Medical Management Guidelines for Acute Chemical Exposures: Mercury. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1999. Toxicological Profile for mercury. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service.

back to top

Where can I get more information?

ATSDR can tell you where to find occupational and environmental health clinics. Their specialists can recognize, evaluate, and treat illnesses resulting from exposure to hazardous substances. You can also contact your community or state health or environmental quality department if you have any more questions or concerns. For more information, contact:

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
Division of Toxicology
1600 Clifton Road NE, Mailstop F-32
Atlanta, GA 30333
Phone: 1-888-42-ATSDR (1-888-422-8737)
FAX:   (770)-488-4178
Email: ATSDRIC@cdc.gov



Also consider Northeast Waste Management Officials' Association (NEWMOA.org) who maintains a database listing not only the amounts of intentionally added mercury in consumer products, but also the purpose for which that Mercury was added and information about manufacturers of products that contain Mercury being sold in the eight states of Vermont, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Maine, New Hampshire, Louisiana, Connecticut, and New York.

NEWMOA's "Mercury-Added Products Database" will allow you to drill down and find information about Mercury added to specific products and their manufacturers within the following product categories:

  • appliances
  • batteries
  • computers
  • dental amalgam
  • displays/screens
  • electronics
  • formulated products
  • heating/cooling equipment
  • industrial machinery
  • lamp fixtures
  • lamps
  • measuring devices
  • medical instruments
  • miscellaneous
  • office equipment
  • pumps
  • relays
  • sensors
  • switches
  • thermometers
  • thermostats
  • toys
  • valves
  • vehicles


Search NEWMOA's Hg-Added Products Database

back to top

Mercury MSDS Information

Material Safety Data Sheet

acc. to OSHA and ANSI

  Printing date 05/17/2006 Reviewed on 05/04/2006  

  •   1 Identification of substance:

    • Product details:

    • Product name: Mercury

    • Stock number: 00522

    • Manufacturer/Supplier:
      Alfa Aesar, A Johnson Matthey Company
      Johnson Matthey Catalog Company, Inc.
      30 Bond Street
      Ward Hill, MA 01835-8099
      Emergency Phone: (978) 521-6300
      CHEMTREC: (800) 424-9300
      Web Site: www.alfa.com

    • Information Department: Health, Safety and Environmental Department
    • Emergency information:
      During normal hours the Health, Safety and Environmental Department. After normal hours call Chemtrec at (800) 424-9300.
  •   2 Composition/Data on components:

    • Chemical characterization:
                 Description: (CAS#)                                        
      Mercury (CAS# 7439-97-6): 100%
    • Identification number(s):
    • EINECS Number: 231-106-7
    • EU Number: 080-001-00-0
  •   3 Hazards identification

    • Hazard description:
      T Toxic
      N Dangerous for the environment
    • Information pertaining to particular dangers for man and environment
      R 23    Toxic by inhalation.
      R 33    Danger of cumulative effects.
      R 50/53 Very toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment
    • Classification system
    • HMIS ratings (scale 0-4)

        (Hazardous Materials Identification System)

      Health (acute effects) = 3
      Flammability = 0
      Reactivity = 0
  •   4 First aid measures

    • General information
      Immediately remove any clothing soiled by the product.
      Remove breathing apparatus only after contaminated clothing has been completely removed.
      In case of irregular breathing or respiratory arrest provide artificial respiration.
    • After inhalation
      Supply fresh air. If required, provide artificial respiration. Keep patient warm.
      Seek immediate medical advice.
    • After skin contact
      Immediately wash with water and soap and rinse thoroughly.
      Seek immediate medical advice.
    • After eye contact
      Rinse opened eye for several minutes under running water. Then consult a doctor.
    • After swallowing Seek immediate medical advice.
  •   5 Fire fighting measures

    • Suitable extinguishing agents
      Product is not flammable. Use fire fighting measures that suit the surrounding fire.
    • Special hazards caused by the material, its products of combustion or
        resulting gases:
      In case of fire, the following can be released:
      Toxic metal oxide fume
    • Protective equipment:
      Wear self-contained respirator.
      Wear fully protective impervious suit.
  •   6 Accidental release measures

    • Person-related safety precautions:
      Wear protective equipment. Keep unprotected persons away.
      Ensure adequate ventilation
    • Measures for environmental protection:
      Do not allow material to be released to the environment without proper governmental permits.
    • Measures for cleaning/collecting:
      Absorb with liquid-binding material (sand, diatomite, acid binders, universal binders, sawdust).
      Dispose contaminated material as waste according to item 13.
      Ensure adequate ventilation.
    • Additional information:
      See Section 7 for information on safe handling
      See Section 8 for information on personal protection equipment.
      See Section 13 for disposal information.
  •   7 Handling and storage


    • Handling
    • Information for safe handling:
      Keep container tightly sealed.
      Store in cool, dry place in tightly closed containers.
      Ensure good ventilation at the workplace.
      Open and handle container with care.
    • Information about protection against explosions and fires:
      The product is not flammable

    • Storage
    • Requirements to be met by storerooms and receptacles:
      No special requirements.
    • Information about storage in one common storage facility:
      Store away from oxidizing agents.
    • Further information about storage conditions:
      Keep container tightly sealed.
      Store in cool, dry conditions in well sealed containers.
  •   8 Exposure controls and personal protection

    • Additional information about design of technical systems:
      Properly operating chemical fume hood designed for hazardous chemicals and having an average face velocity of at least 100 feet per minute.

      Components with limit values that require monitoring at the workplace:

      Mercury, inorganic compounds (as Hg)
                          mg/m3
      ACGIH TLV            0.025 (skin)
                           Not classified as a human carcinogen
      Austria MAK          0.05
      Belgium TWA          0.1 (skin)
      Denmark TWA          0.05 (skin)
      Finland TWA          0.05
      France VME           0.05 (skin)(vapor)
      Germany MAK          0.1
      Hungary TWA          0.02; 0.04-STEL
      Japan OEL            0.05
      Korea TLV            0.025 (vapor) (skin)
      Netherlands MAC-TGG  0.05; 0.5-MAC-K
      Norway TWA           0.05
      Poland TWA           0.025 (vapors); 0.2-STEL (vapors)
      Sweden NGV           0.05
      Switzerland MAK-W    0.01 (skin)
      United Kingdom TWA   0.025
      USA PEL              0.1-Ceiling
    • Additional information: No data

    • Personal protective equipment
    • General protective and hygienic measures
      The usual precautionary measures for handling chemicals should be followed.
      Keep away from foodstuffs, beverages and feed.
      Remove all soiled and contaminated clothing immediately.
      Wash hands before breaks and at the end of work.
      Store protective clothing separately.
    • Breathing equipment:
      Use suitable respirator when high concentrations are present.
    • Protection of hands:
      Check protective gloves prior to each use for their proper condition.
      Impervious gloves
    • Material of gloves
      The selection of suitable gloves not only depends on the material, but also on quality.  Quality will vary from manufacturer to manufacturer.
    • Eye protection: Safety glasses
    • Body protection: Protective work clothing.
  •   9 Physical and chemical properties:

    • General Information

    • Form: Liquid
    • Color: Silver-colored
    • Odor: Odorless
    •                                      Value/Range  Unit    Method      
    • Change in condition
    • Melting point/Melting range:                -38.87 ° C
    • Boiling point/Boiling range:                 356.9 ° C
    • Sublimation temperature / start:   Not determined

    • Flash point:                       Not determined

    • Ignition temperature:              Not determined

    • Decomposition temperature:         Not determined

    • Danger of explosion:
      Product does not present an explosion hazard.

    • Explosion limits:
    • Lower:                             Not determined
    • Upper:                             Not determined

    • Vapor pressure:                    Not determined

    • Density:               at   20 ° C          13.456 g/cm³

    • Solubility in / Miscibility with
    • Water:                             Not miscible or difficult to mix
  •  10 Stability and reactivity

    • Thermal decomposition / conditions to be avoided:
      Decomposition will not occur if used and stored according to specifications.
    • Materials to be avoided: Oxidizing agents
    • Dangerous reactions No dangerous reactions known
    • Dangerous products of decomposition: Toxic metal oxide fume
  •  11 Toxicological information

    • Acute toxicity:
    • Primary irritant effect:
    • on the skin: Irritant to skin and mucous membranes.
    • on the eye: Irritating effect.
    • Sensitization: No sensitizing effects known.
    • Other information (about experimental toxicology):
      Tumorigenic effects have been observed on tests with laboratory animals.
      Reproductive effects have been observed on tests with laboratory animals.
      Mutagenic effects have been observed with humans.
    • Subacute to chronic toxicity:
      Acute and chronic exposure to inorganic mercury can cause salivation with metallic taste, pain on chewing, gingevitis, colitis, stomatitis, kidney damage, and central nervous system damage.  The latter can cause tremors, convulsive or shaking movements and psychic disturbances such as memory loss, insomnia, loss of confidence, irritability and depression.  Excessive exposure may result in death.
    • Subacute to chronic toxicity:
      The Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) reports the following effects in laboratory animals:
      Skin and Appendages - dermatitis, other (after systemic exposure).
      Skin and Appendages - dermatitis, allergic (after systemic exposure).
      Skin and Appendages - sweating.
      Cardiac - pulse rate increase, without fall in BP.
      Peripheral Nerve and Sensation - paresthesis.
      Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - dyspnea.
      Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - pulmonary emboli.
      Brain and Coverings - other degenerative changes.
      Kidney, Ureter, Bladder - other changes.
      Kidney, Ureter, Bladder - proteinuria.
      Biochemical - Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels - other enzymes.
      Behavioral - tremor.
      Behavioral - muscle weakness.
      Behavioral - wakefulness.
      Behavioral - anorexia (human).
      Behavioral - headache.
      Behavioral - alteration of classical conditioning.
      Behavioral - alteration of operant conditioning.
      Gastrointestinal - hypermotility, diarrhea.
      Sense Organs and Special Senses (Ear) - tinnitus.
      Nutritional and Gross Metabolic - body temperature increase.
      Liver - jaundice, other or unclassified.
      Liver - other changes.
      Reproductive - Paternal Effects - spermatogenesis.
      Reproductive - Fertility - post-implantation mortality (e.g. dead/or resorbed implants per total number of implants).
      Reproductive - Effects on Embryo or Fetus - fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus).
      Reproductive - Specific Developmental Abnormalities - Central Nervous System.
      Reproductive - Paternal Effects - other effects on male.
      Tumorigenic - equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria.
      Tumorigenic - tumors at site of application.
    • Additional toxicological information:
      To the best of our knowledge the acute and chronic toxicity of this substance is not fully known.
      EPA-D: Not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity: inadequate human and animal evidence of carcinogenicity or no data are available.
      IARC-3: Not classifiable as to carcinogenicity to humans.
      ACGIH A4: Not classifiable as a human carcinogen: Inadequate data on which to classify the agent in terms of its carcinogenicity in humans and/or animals.
  •  12 Ecological information:

    • Ecotoxical effects:
    • Remark: Very toxic for fish
    • General notes:
      Also poisonous for fish and plankton in water bodies.
      Do not allow material to be released to the environment without proper governmental permits.
      Very toxic for aquatic organisms
  •  13 Disposal considerations


    • Product:
    • Recommendation
      Consult state, local or national regulations to ensure proper disposal.

    • Uncleaned packagings:
    • Recommendation:
      Disposal must be made according to official regulations.
  •  14 Transport information


    • DOT regulations:
    • Hazard class:             8
    • Identification number:    UN2809
    • Packing group:            III
    • Proper shipping name (technical name):
                                MERCURY
    • Label                     8

    • Land transport ADR/RID  (cross-border)
    • ADR/RID class:            8 (C9) Corrosive substances
    • Danger code (Kemler):     80
    • UN-Number:                2809
    • Packaging group:          III
    • Description of goods:     2809 MERCURY

    • Maritime transport IMDG:
    • IMDG Class:               8
    • UN Number:                2809
    • Label                     8
    • Packaging group:          III
    • Proper shipping name:     MERCURY

    • Air transport ICAO-TI and IATA-DGR:
    • ICAO/IATA Class:          8
    • UN/ID Number:             2809
    • Label                     8
    • Packaging group:          III
    • Proper shipping name:     MERCURY
  •  15 Regulations


    • Product related hazard informations:

    • Hazard symbols:
      T Toxic N Dangerous for the environment

    • Risk phrases:
      23    Toxic by inhalation.
      33    Danger of cumulative effects.
      50/53 Very toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment

    • Safety phrases:
      7     Keep container tightly closed.
      45    In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately.
      60    This material and its container must be disposed of as hazardous waste.
      61    Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions/Safety data sheets

    • National regulations
      All components of this product are listed in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxic Substances Control Act Chemical substance Inventory.
      This product contains a chemical known to the state of California to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.

    • Information about limitation of use:
      For use only by technically qualified individuals.
      This product contains mercury and is subject to the reporting requirements of section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act of 1986 and 40CFR372.
  •  16 Other information:

      Employers should use this information only as a supplement to other information gathered by them, and should make independent judgement of suitability of this information to ensure proper use and protect the health and safety of employees.  This information is furnished without warranty, and any use of the product not in conformance with this Material Safety Data Sheet, or in combination with any other product or process, is the responsibility of the user.

    • Department issuing MSDS: Health, Safety and Environmental Department.
    • Contact: Darrell R. Sanders
    • back to top

      Complete Mercury Toxicology and Chemical Information

      FULL RECORD
        Human Health Effects
            Toxicity Summary
            Evidence for Carcinogenicity
            Human Toxicity Excerpts
            Medical Surveillance
            Probable Routes of Human Exposure
            Average Daily Intake
        Emergency Medical Treatment
            Antidote and Emergency Treatment
        Animal Toxicity Studies
            Toxicity Summary
            Evidence for Carcinogenicity
            Non-Human Toxicity Excerpts
            Ecotoxicity Values
        Metabolism/Pharmacokinetics
            Metabolism/Metabolites
            Absorption, Distribution & Excretion
            Biological Half-Life
            Mechanism of Action
            Interactions
        Pharmacology
            Therapeutic Uses
            Interactions
        Environmental Fate & Exposure
            Probable Routes of Human Exposure
            Average Daily Intake
            Natural Pollution Sources
            Artificial Pollution Sources
            Environmental Fate
            Environmental Biodegradation
            Environmental Bioconcentration
            Volatilization from Water/Soil
            Sediment/Soil Concentrations
            Atmospheric Concentrations
        Environmental Standards & Regulations
            CERCLA Reportable Quantities
            RCRA Requirements
            Atmospheric Standards
            Clean Water Act Requirements
            Federal Drinking Water Standards
            Federal Drinking Water Guidelines
            State Drinking Water Guidelines
        Chemical/Physical Properties
            Molecular Formula
            Molecular Weight
            Color/Form
            Odor
            Boiling Point
            Melting Point
            Corrosivity
            Critical Temperature & Pressure
            Density/Specific Gravity
            Heat of Vaporization
            Solubilities
            Spectral Properties
            Surface Tension
            Vapor Pressure
            Viscosity
            Other Chemical/Physical Properties
        Chemical Safety & Handling
            DOT Emergency Guidelines
            Toxic Combustion Products
            Hazardous Reactivities & Incompatibilities
            Prior History of Accidents
            Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health
            Protective Equipment & Clothing
            Preventive Measures
            Stability/Shelf Life
            Shipment Methods and Regulations
            Storage Conditions
            Cleanup Methods
            Disposal Methods
        Occupational Exposure Standards
            OSHA Standards
            Threshold Limit Values
            Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health
            Other Occupational Permissible Levels
        Manufacturing/Use Information
            Major Uses
            Manufacturers
            Methods of Manufacturing
            General Manufacturing Information
            Formulations/Preparations
            Impurities
            Consumption Patterns
            U. S. Production
            U. S. Imports
            U. S. Exports
        Laboratory Methods
            Analytic Laboratory Methods
            Sampling Procedures
        Special References
            Special Reports
        Synonyms and Identifiers
            Related Records
            Synonyms
            Formulations/Preparations
            Shipping Name/ Number DOT/UN/NA/IMO
            Standard Transportation Number
            EPA Hazardous Waste Number
       

      MERCURY, ELEMENTAL


      CASRN: 7439-97-6
      This record contains information for mercury in its zero valence state only. For general toxicology and environmental fate of the mercury ions and inorganic mercury compounds, refer to the MERCURY COMPOUNDS record; for compound-specific information, refer to the appropriate individual records, e.g., mercuric oxide, mercurous oxide, etc.
      For other data, click on the Table of Contents

      Human Health Effects:

      Toxicity Summary:

      IDENTIFICATION: In its elemental form, mercury is a heavy silvery liquid at room temperature and has a very high vapour pressure. Mercury vapor is more soluble in plasma, whole blood, and hemoglobin than in distilled water, where it dissolves only slightly. The major natural sources of mercury are degassing of the earth's crust, emissions from volcanoes, and evaporation from natural bodies of water. (The world-wide mining of mercury is estimated to yield about 10,000 tons per year. The activities lead to some losses of mercury and direct discharges to the atmosphere). Other important sources are fossil fuel combustion, metal sulfide ore smelting, gold refining, cement production, refuse incineration, and industrial applications of metals. A major use of mercury is as a cathode in the electrolysis of sodium chloride. Mercury is used in the electrical industry, in control instruments in the home and industry, and in laboratory and medical instruments. A very large amount of mercury is used for the extraction of gold. Dental silver amalgam for tooth filling contains large amounts of mercury. Use of skin-lightening soap and creams can give rise to substantial mercury exposure. Occupational exposure to inorganic mercury has been investigated in chloralkali plants, mercury mines, thermometer factories, refineries, and in dental clinics. High mercury levels have been reported for all these occupational exposure situations, although levels vary according to work environment conditions. HUMAN EXPOSURE: The general population is primarily exposed to mercury through the diet and dental amalgam. Acute inhalation exposure to mercury vapor may be followed by chest pains, dyspnea, coughing, hemoptysis, and sometimes interstitial pneumonitis leading to death. (The ingestion of mercuric compounds, in particular mercuric chloride, has caused ulcerative gastroenteritis and acute tubular necrosis causing death from anuria where dialysis was not available). The central nervous system is the critical organ for mercury vapor exposure. Subacute exposure has given rise to psychotic reactions characterized by delerium, hallucinations, and suicidal tendency. Occupational exposure has resulted in erethism as the principal feature of a broad ranging functional disturbance. The kidney is the critical organ following the ingestion of inorganic divalent mercury salts. Occupational exposure to metallic mercury has long been associated with the development of proteinuria. Both metallic mercury vapor and mercury compounds have given rise to contact dermatitis. Mercurial pharmaceuticals have been responsible for Pink disease (acrodynia) in children, and mercury vapor exposure may be a cause of "Kawasaki" disease. Results of both human and animal studies indicate that about 80% of inhaled metallic mercury vapour is retained by the body, whereas liquid metallic mercury is poorly absorbed via the gastrointestinal tract. ANIMAL STUDIES: Evidence of damage to brain, kidney, heart, and lungs have been reported in rabbits exposed acutely to metallic mercury vapor at certain concentrations. Both reversible and irreversible toxic effects may be caused by mercury and its compounds. In two studies, tremor and behavioural effects were observed in rabbits and rats after several weeks of exposure to metallic mercury vapour. Depending upon the animal strain tested, either auto-immunity or immunosuppression is observed. The most sensitive adverse effect caused by mercuric mercury is the formation of mercuric-mercury-induced auto-immune glomerulonephritis. Mercuric chloride was found to induce gene mutations in mouse lymphoma cells and DNA damage in rat and mouse fibroblasts. The World Health Organization reported no evidence that inorganic mercury is carcinogenic. The neurotoxic effect seen after exposure to metallic mercury vapour is attributable to the divalent mercury ion formed through oxidation in the brain tissue. Significantly more mercury is transported to the brain of mice and monkeys after the inhalation of elemental mercury than after the intravenous injection of equivalent doses of the mercuric form.
      [World Health Organization/International Programme on Chemical Safety. Environmental Health Criteria 118 Inorganic Mercury. pp. 13-21, 68-83 (1991)]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Evidence for Carcinogenicity:

      CLASSIFICATION: D; not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity. BASIS FOR CLASSIFICATION: Based on inadequate human and animal data. Epidemiologic studies failed to show a correlation between exposure to elemental mercury vapor and carcinogenicity; the findings in these studies were confounded by possible or known concurrent exposures to other chemicals, including human carcinogens, as well as lifestyle factors (e.g., smoking). Findings from genotoxicity tests are severely limited and provide equivocal evidence that mercury adversely affects the number or structure of chromosomes in human somatic cells. HUMAN CARCINOGENICITY DATA: Inadequate. ANIMAL CARCINOGENICITY DATA: Inadequate.
      [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) on Mercury (Inorganic ) (7439-97-6) Available from: http://www.epa.gov/ngispgm3/iris on the Substance File List as of March 15, 2000]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Evaluation: There is inadequate evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of mercury and mercury compounds. There is inadequate evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of metallic mercury. There is limited evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of mercuric chloride. There is sufficient evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of methylmercury chloride. In making the overall evaluation, the Working Group took into account evidence that methylmercury compounds are similar with regard to absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, genotoxicity and other forms of toxicity. Overall evaluation: Methylmercury compounds are possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B). Metallic mercury and inorganic mercury compounds are not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity to humans. (Group 3). /Mercury and mercury compounds/
      [IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work)., p. V58 324 (1993)]**PEER REVIEWED**

      A4: Not classifiable as a human carcinogen. /Mercury, elemental and inorganic forms, as Hg/
      [ American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists TLVs and BEIs. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. Cincinnati, OH, 2005, p. 37]**QC REVIEWED**

      Human Toxicity Excerpts:

      Aneuploidy and other chromosomal aberrations have been observed in lymphocytes from whole blood cultures of workers occupationally exposed to mercury, including people working with mercury amalgams.
      [USEPA; Mercury Health Effects Update p.5-11 (1984) EPA 600/8-84-019F]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Humans exposed occupationally to metallic mercury cmpd or Hg amalgams had significantly increased occurrence of lymphocytic aneuploidy but not structural chromosome aberrations relative to controls.
      [Nat'l Research Council Canada; Effect of Mercury in the Canadian Environment p.115 (1979) NRCC No. 16739]**PEER REVIEWED**

      The case of a 25 yr old woman with previous metallic mercury skin deposits treated by excision of the affected area and oral administration of 125 mg penicillamine 2 times/day, is reported. Symptoms of metallic mercury intoxication were not shown. Biopsy of the lumps produced a salmon pink fluid containing globules of metallic mercury. One yr after the incident no signs of long term intoxication were shown.
      [Grounds RM; J R Soc Med 77: 611-13 (1984)]**PEER REVIEWED**

      CHRONIC ABSORPTION FROM HANDLING OF MERCURY OR EXPOSURE TO ITS VAPORS HAS LED TO A CHARACTERISTIC DISCOLORATION OF THE FRONT SURFACE OF THE LENS. ... ROSE-BROWN OR PINKISH HOMOGENEOUS REFLEX IS SEEN ... IN SOME CASES INVOLVING WHOLE ANTERIOR SURFACE ... SOMETIMES ... ANTERIOR SUBCAPSULAR DISC.
      [Grant, W.M. Toxicology of the Eye. 3rd ed. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publisher, 1986., p. 583]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Neonates have absorbed significant amounts of mercury after the breakage of elemental mercury switches in their incubators.
      [Ellenhorn, M.J. and D.G. Barceloux. Medical Toxicology - Diagnosis and Treatment of Human Poisoning. New York, NY: Elsevier Science Publishing Co., Inc. 1988., p. 1048]**PEER REVIEWED**

      67 patients with oral lichen plantus of the atrophic-erosive or reticular plaque type were examined. Dental amalgam in contact with mucosal lesions was present in 64 patients, and gold fillings in 33. Patch testing with a standard procedure was performed with components of dental fillings. 11 patients (16%) reacted to at least one of the mercury compounds as compared to 8% in a reference group. Most positive reactions were caused by elemental mercury and ammoniated mercury.
      [Mobacken H et al; Contact Dermatitis 10 (1): 11-5 (1984)]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Increased metabolic rate increases ... food consumption and exposure to mercury through the food chain.
      [USEPA; Ambient Water Quality Criteria Doc: Mercury p.12 (1984) EPA 440/5-84-026]**PEER REVIEWED**

      AMONG INORG CMPD, ELEMENTAL MERCURY & DIVALENT MERCURY SALT ARE ... OF TOXICOLOGICAL INTEREST. IT IS DOUBTFUL WHETHER MERCUROUS MERCURY HAS ANY SURVIVAL IN THE ORGANISM, ALTHOUGH AT PRESENT POSSIBILITY ... THAT MERCUROUS MERCURY MAY BE INT IN REDOX TRANSFORMATION OF ELEMENTAL & MERCURIC MERCURY OR VICE VERSA IN BODY.
      [Friberg, L., Nordberg, G.F., Kessler, E. and Vouk, V.B. (eds). Handbook of the Toxicology of Metals. 2nd ed. Vols I, II.: Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., 1986., p. 389]**PEER REVIEWED**

      DISTURBANCES OF EYES IN MERCURY POISONING CONSISTS OF DISCOLORATION OF CORNEA & LENS, TREMOR OF EYELIDS, & POSSIBLY ... DISTURBANCES OF VISION & EXTRAOCULAR MUSCLES. ... IN VERY YOUNG CHILDREN ACRODYNIA. ... CHARACTERTISTIC BY OCULAR SYMPTOMS ... PHOTOPHOBIA ... CONJUNCTIVITIS, ITCHING ... KERATITIS ...
      [Grant, W.M. Toxicology of the Eye. 3rd ed. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publisher, 1986., p. 583]**PEER REVIEWED**

      CHRONIC ABSORPTION ... HANDLING MERCURY OR EXPOSURE TO ITS VAPORS HAS LED TO A CHARACTERISTIC DISCOLORATION OF THE FRONT SURFACE OF THE LENS. ... ROSE-BROWN OR PINKISH HOMOGENEOUS REFLEX IS SEEN ... IN SOME CASES INVOLVING WHOLE ANTERIOR SURFACE ... SOMETIMES ... ANTERIOR SUBCAPSULAR DISC. /MERCURY/
      [Grant, W.M. Toxicology of the Eye. 3rd ed. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publisher, 1986., p. 583]**PEER REVIEWED**

      AMONG INORG CMPD, ELEMENTAL MERCURY & DIVALENT MERCURY SALT ARE THE CMPD OF TOXICOLOGICAL INTEREST. IT IS DOUBTFUL WHETHER MERCUROUS MERCURY HAS ANY SURVIVAL IN THE ORGANISM, ALTHOUGH AT PRESENT POSSIBILITY ... THAT MERCUROUS MERCURY MAY BE INTERMEDIATE IN REDOX TRANSFORMATION OF ELEMENTAL & MERCURIC MERCURY OR VICE VERSA IN BODY.
      [Friberg, L., Nordberg, G.F., Kessler, E. and Vouk, V.B. (eds). Handbook of the Toxicology of Metals. 2nd ed. Vols I, II.: Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., 1986., p. 389]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Six of 75 workers exposed to 0.05 to 0.1 mg Hg/cu m of mercury vapor in a glass manufacturing plant reported insomnia, and one had tremors. Hyperexcitability was observed in 33 percent of the workers exposed to mercury vapor at concentrations above 0.05 mg Hg/cu m, whereas only 8 percent of the workers exposed below this concentration were hyperexcitable. Tremors were observed in 20 percent of the workers in both groups. Occupational mercury exposures resulting in tremors are associated with urinary mercury concentrations ranging from 50 to 200 ug/g creatinine. /Mercury vapor/
      [Clayton, G.D., F.E. Clayton (eds.) Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volumes 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F: Toxicology. 4th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1993-1994., p. 2133]**PEER REVIEWED**

      When 84 mercury exposed workers in a thermometer factory were compared to 79 workers not exposed to mercury, the exposed workers were found to have a higher prevalence of static tremor, abnormal Romberg test, and dysdiadochokinesia. There was a correlation between urinary mercury Hg and NAG suggestive of recent mercury toxicity, whereas the CNS signs and symptoms were considered a result of chronic toxicity. No differences existed between the groups of workers with regard to beta-microglobulin and retinol-binding protein, which are considered markers of proximal renal tubule function.
      [Clayton, G.D., F.E. Clayton (eds.) Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volumes 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F: Toxicology. 4th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1993-1994., p. 2133]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Forty one male mercury exposed workers were examined for serum concentration levels of immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, IgM), alpha-1-antitrypsin (AIAT), alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M), ceruloplasmin (CPL), and orosomucoid (ORO). In the period preceding this investigation the mercury concentrations in workplace air ranged from 0.106 to 0.783 mg/cu m; the range of urinary mercury concentrations was from 0.029 to 0.545 mg/l. All but two (IgG and AIAT) of the immune parameters tested were at levels much higher than those found in a control group of 55 workers matched by age to the exposed workers and who lived in a relatively clean area. Almost 80% of the workers in the control group demonstrated no value out of the range of normal physiological limits, but only 36.6% of the exposed workers showed normal values.
      [Clayton, G.D., F.E. Clayton (eds.) Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volumes 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F: Toxicology. 4th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1993-1994., p. 2136]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Medical Surveillance:

      The assessment of mercury exposure can be accomplished through measurement of mercury, which is useful for assessment of recent exposure to any of the three forms of mercury. ... Whole Blood Reference Ranges: Normal - mean level in the general population <8 ug/l; Exposed - BEI (sampling time at end of shift at end of workweek, measured as total inorganic mercury) 15.0 ug/l. BAT (biological tolerance value for a working material) for metallic and inorganic compounds (sampling time not fixed) 50 ug/l; BAT for organic compounds (sampling time not fixed) 100 ug/l. /Mercury/
      [Ryan, R.P., C.E. Terry (eds.). Toxicology Desk Reference 4th ed. Volumes 1-3. Taylor & Francis, Washington, D.C. 1997., p. 1577]**PEER REVIEWED**

      The assessment of mercury exposure can be accomplished through measurement of mercury, which is useful for assessment of recent exposure to any of the three forms of mercury. ... Whole Blood Reference Ranges: Toxic - 0.3 ug/100 ml, memory disturbances, impaired eye-hand coordination; 0.5-3 ug/100 ml, altered electroencephalograms (EEGs); <1 - >10 ug/deciliter, increased tremors; 1.4 ug/ ml, decreased immunoglogin G (IgG) and immunoglobin A (IgA) levels; >1.5 ug/100 ml, disturbances in tests on verbal intelligence and memory; 1-2 ug/100 ml, increased prevalence of abnormal psychomotor scores; 1-2 ug/ 100 ml, increased tremors, impaired eye-hand coordination; >3 ug/100 ml, (estimated threshold level): increased urinary excretion of beta-galactosidase and high molecular weight proteins. /Mercury/
      [Ryan, R.P., C.E. Terry (eds.). Toxicology Desk Reference 4th ed. Volumes 1-3. Taylor & Francis, Washington, D.C. 1997., p. 1577]**PEER REVIEWED**

      The assessment of mercury exposure can be accomplished through measurement of mercury. However, measurement of mercury in ... /serum or plasma/ is insensitive because mercury is found primarily in the red blood cells. Serum or Plasma Reference Ranges: Normal - not established; Exposed - not established; Toxic - not established. /Mercury/
      [Ryan, R.P., C.E. Terry (eds.). Toxicology Desk Reference 4th ed. Volumes 1-3. Taylor & Francis, Washington, D.C. 1997., p. 1578]**PEER REVIEWED**

      The assessment of mercury exposure can be accomplished through measurement of mercury ... Urine Reference Ranges: Normal - <20.0 ug/l; Exposed - BEI (sampling time is preshift, measured as total inorganic mercury) 35.0 ug/g creatinine; Toxic - 3-53 ug/g creatinine, memory disturbances, impaired eye-hand coordination; 4-53 ug/g creatinine, altered EEGs; 3-272 ug/g creatinine, increased anti-laminin antibodies (implicated in the etiology of autoimmune glomerulo-nephritis); 44 ug/g creatinine, decreased Iga and IgG levels; 73 ug/g creatinine, increased static tremors, difficulty with heel-to-toe gait; 50-100 ug/g creatinine, increased tremors, impaired eye-hand coordination; >50 ug/g creatinine (estimated threshold level), increased urinary excretion of beta-galactosidase and high molecular weight proteins; 7-1,101 ug/24 hr, abnormal memory tests, decreased tibial nerve velocity, increased median nerve latency in both motor and sensory nerves; 0-510 ug/l, short term memory loss; 5-1,000 ug/l, increased tremor frequency and reaction time, impaired eye-hand coordination; <10->1,000 ug/l, increased tremors; 20-450 ug/l, increased motor and sensory nerve latency; >56 ug/l, disturbances in tests on verbal intelligence and memory; 100-250 ug/l, increased acetyl beta-d-glucosaminidase (NAG) enzyme levels in urine; >200 ug/l, increased tremors, impaired eye-hand coordination; 300-1,400 ug/l, nephrotic syndrome, albuminuria, hypercholesterolemia; 56 ug/g creatinine, no effect level for proteinuria. /Mercury/
      [Ryan, R.P., C.E. Terry (eds.). Toxicology Desk Reference 4th ed. Volumes 1-3. Taylor & Francis, Washington, D.C. 1997., p. 1578]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Urine Albumin: Albuminuria has been shown to be a specific marker of glomerular dysfunction. Tubular damage, however, can also result in increased levels of albumin in the urine. /Metallic, inorganic and organic mercury/
      [Ryan, R.P., C.E. Terry (eds.). Toxicology Desk Reference 4th ed. Volumes 1-3. Taylor & Francis, Washington, D.C. 1997., p. 1580]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Urinary Beta-2-Microglobulin and/or Retinal Binding Protein: Measurements for the presence of either of these low molecular weight proteins are useful in detection of early impairment of proximal tubular function. However, beta-2-microglobulin is unstable at urinary pH less than 6, and may degrade in the bladder prior to collection and subsequent neutralization of the urine sample. Measurement of retinal binding protein appears to be a better marker for early tubular dysfunction due to its stability in the urine subsequent to collection and analysis. However, retinal binding protein is produced in the liver and not a constitutive protein of the kidney, so that its presence in the kidney provides only indirect evidence of tubular damage. /Metallic, inorganic and organic mercury/
      [Ryan, R.P., C.E. Terry (eds.). Toxicology Desk Reference 4th ed. Volumes 1-3. Taylor & Francis, Washington, D.C. 1997., p. 1580]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Urinary Alpha () and Pi () Isoenzymes of Glutathione S-Transferase: Radio-immunological and Elisa techniques have been developed for quantitation of and isoenzymes of glutathione S-transferase, which are constitutive proteins in the kidney." The isoenzyme is located only in the proximal tubule, while the isoenzyme is located in the distal convoluted tubule, the loop of Henle, and the collecting ducts of the kidney. Damage to epithelial cell membranes can result in the increased excretion of these isoenzymes in the urine. This test for assessing renal tubular damage appears to have many advantages over other available tests, such as: (1) the and isoenzymes are constitutive proteins in the kidney; (2) these isoenzymes are stable in the urine; (3) the test is simple and reproducible; and (4) due to selective localization of the isoenzymes, differential diagnosis of specific tubular damage is possible. In addition, increased levels of these isoenzymes were seen in patients previously exposed to nephrotoxicants where'conventional tests for kidney function were normal, indicating a high degree of sensitivity. /Metallic, inorganic and organic mercury/
      [Ryan, R.P., C.E. Terry (eds.). Toxicology Desk Reference 4th ed. Volumes 1-3. Taylor & Francis, Washington, D.C. 1997., p. 1581]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Urinary Enzyme N-Acetylglucosaminidase: This lysosomal enzyme has shown promise in assessment of subclinical nephrotoxic injury. This enzyme is not normally filtered at the glomerulus due to its high molecular weight. In the absence of glomerular injury, this enzyme will be detected in the urine as a result of leakage or exocytosis from damaged, stimulated, or exfoliated renal cells. The sensitivity of measurement for this enzyme has not been thoroughly studied, but it's usefulness has shown some promise. However, this enzyme is unstable at urinary pH greater than 8, which could diminish the sensitivity of the measurement due to enzyme degradation. /Metallic, inorganic and organic mercury/
      [Ryan, R.P., C.E. Terry (eds.). Toxicology Desk Reference 4th ed. Volumes 1-3. Taylor & Francis, Washington, D.C. 1997., p. 1581]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Routine Urinalysis: Performing a routine urinalysis including parameters such as specific gravity, glucose, and microscopic examination may be useful for assessing renal toxicity. /Metallic, inorganic and organic mercury/
      [Ryan, R.P., C.E. Terry (eds.). Toxicology Desk Reference 4th ed. Volumes 1-3. Taylor & Francis, Washington, D.C. 1997., p. 1581]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Evaluation of Peripheral Neuropathy: Nerve conduction study; Electromyography; Quantitative sensory testing; Thermography. /Metallic, inorganic and organic mercury/
      [Ryan, R.P., C.E. Terry (eds.). Toxicology Desk Reference 4th ed. Volumes 1-3. Taylor & Francis, Washington, D.C. 1997., p. 1584]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Evaluation of Central Nervous System Effects: Evaluation of CNS effects can be performed through neuropsychological assessment, which consists of a clinical interview and administration of standardized personality and neuropsychological tests. The areas that the neuropsychology test batteries focus on include the domains of memory and attention; visuoperceptual, visual scanning, visuospatial, and visual memory; and motor speed and reaction time. There is limited data on which components of the test batteries are best indicators of early CNS effects. /Metallic, inorganic and organic mercury/
      [Ryan, R.P., C.E. Terry (eds.). Toxicology Desk Reference 4th ed. Volumes 1-3. Taylor & Francis, Washington, D.C. 1997., p. 1584]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Evaluation of Cranial Neuropathies: Evaluation of cranial nerve damage, as evidenced by symptoms such as loss of balance, visual function, smell, taste, or sensation on the face, can be accomplished through a physical examination focusing on tests such as: Smell Assessment ... Visual Assessment ... Facial and Trigeminal Nerve Assessment ... Vestibular Assessment ... Hearing Assessment. /Metallic, inorganic and organic mercury/
      [Ryan, R.P., C.E. Terry (eds.). Toxicology Desk Reference 4th ed. Volumes 1-3. Taylor & Francis, Washington, D.C. 1997., p. 1584]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Liver Function Tests: Biochemical tests - Enzymes that reflect cholestasis: alkaline phosphatase (AP), 5'-nucleotidase (5'-NT) and leucine aminopeptidase (LAP); Enzymes that detect direct hepatic damage: aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Clearance tests - indocyanine green, antipyrine test and serum bile acids.
      [Ryan, R.P., C.E. Terry (eds.). Toxicology Desk Reference 4th ed. Volumes 1-3. Taylor & Francis, Washington, D.C. 1997., p. 1582]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Complete Blood Count: Mercury has been shown to cause hematological changes, which can be assessed by performing a complete blood count.
      [Ryan, R.P., C.E. Terry (eds.). Toxicology Desk Reference 4th ed. Volumes 1-3. Taylor & Francis, Washington, D.C. 1997., p. 1580]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Respiratory Symptom Questionnaires: Questionnaires have been published by the American Thoracic Society and the British Medical Research Council. These questionnaires have been found to be useful in identification of people with chronic bronchitis, however certain pulmonary function tests such as FEV1 have been found to be better predictors of chronic airflow obstruction.
      [Ryan, R.P., C.E. Terry (eds.). Toxicology Desk Reference 4th ed. Volumes 1-3. Taylor & Francis, Washington, D.C. 1997., p. 1583]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Chest Radiography: This test is widely used for assessing pulmonary disease. Chest radiographs have been found to be useful for detection of early lung cancer in asymptomatic people, especially for detection of peripheral tumors such as adenocarcinomas. However, even though OSHA mandates this test for exposure to some toxicants such as asbestos, there are conflicting views on its efficacy in detection of pulmonary disease.
      [Ryan, R.P., C.E. Terry (eds.). Toxicology Desk Reference 4th ed. Volumes 1-3. Taylor & Francis, Washington, D.C. 1997., p. 1583]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Pulmonary Function Tests: The tests that have been found to be practical for population monitoring include: Spirometry and expiratory flow-volume curves; Determination of lung volumes; Diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide; Single-breath nitrogen washout; Inhalation challenge tests; Serial measurements of peak expiratory flow; Exercise testing.
      [Ryan, R.P., C.E. Terry (eds.). Toxicology Desk Reference 4th ed. Volumes 1-3. Taylor & Francis, Washington, D.C. 1997., p. 1583]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Sputum Cytology: Sputum cytology along with chest radiographs have been the standard procedures for detecting early lung cancer in asymptomatic patients. Sputum cytology has been found to be useful for detection of central tumors, especially squamous carcinomas.
      [Ryan, R.P., C.E. Terry (eds.). Toxicology Desk Reference 4th ed. Volumes 1-3. Taylor & Francis, Washington, D.C. 1997., p. 1583]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Probable Routes of Human Exposure:

      ONE OF MAJOR SOURCES OF ... EXPOSURE IS IN CHLOR-ALKALI PLANTS ... /OTHER SOURCES ARE/ MINING & REFINING OF MERCURY ... FROM PROCESSING OF CINNABAR (HGS) ... MFR & USE OF LIQ HG-CONTAINING INSTRUMENTS ... AN OFTEN UNREALIZED SOURCE OF EXPOSURE THROUGH BREAKAGE, SPILLAGE, OR CARELESS HANDLING.
      [Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982., p. 1770]**PEER REVIEWED**

      ... MOTHERS EXPOSED TO ELEMENTAL MERCURY THROUGH THEIR DENTAL WORK PLACE ... /SHOWED/ SIGNIFICANTLY INCREASED MERCURY CONTENT IN THEIR BABIES' PLACENTA & MEMBRANES. ... EXPOSURE LIMITS FOR WOMEN OF CHILDBEARING AGE & LEVELS AT WHICH TOXICITY MIGHT BE EXPECTED /HAVE BEEN SUGGESTED/. FOR FETUS & NEWBORN, THE TOXIC LEVEL IS GIVEN AS 3 UG HG/G.
      [Shepard, T.H. Catalog of Teratogenic Agents. 4th ed. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1983., p. 278]**PEER REVIEWED**

      INHALATION OF VAPOR BY LABORATORY WORKERS IN CLOSED SPACE LED TO BRONCHIAL IRRITATION /& CHARACTERISTIC MERCURY POISONING SYMPTOMS/ ... CHRONIC MERCURIALISM IN FUR-CUTTING & FELT-HAT INDUSTRIES /IS REPORTED/. ALTHOUGH MERCURIC NITRATE WAS MATERIAL USED TO TREAT FUR FROM WHICH FELT WAS MADE, MERCURY WAS GRADUALLY RELEASED FROM FUR & FELT IN FORM OF METALLIC MERCURY VAPOR. ... THE WORKERS HAD MIXED EXPOSURE TO DUST OF MERCURY CMPD (ESP THE NITRATE) & TO VAPOR OF ELEMENT. ... POISONING WAS SIMILAR TO THAT OBSERVED ... /WITH/ METALLIC MERCURY ONLY.
      [Hayes, Wayland J., Jr. Pesticides Studied in Man. Baltimore/London: Williams and Wilkins, 1982., p. 12]**PEER REVIEWED**

      NIOSH, IN ITS CRITERIA DOCUMENT ... CONCLUDED THAT THE STD SHOULD BE AT LEAST AS LOW AS 0.05 MG/CU M ... /BECAUSE/ ERETHISM, RATHER THAN TREMOR, MAY BE THE MOST CHARACTERISTIC SYMPTOM OF CHRONIC MERCURIALISM /OCCURRING IN 33% OF WORKERS ABOVE 0.05 MG/CU M & IN 8% OF WORKERS BELOW THIS LEVEL/. ... /STUDIES OF WORKPLACES REVEAL/ THAT MUCH HIGHER EXPOSURES TO MERCURY VAPOR ... /OCCUR WHEN MEASURED/ BY PERSONAL SAMPLING DEVICES (0.016 TO 0.687 MG/CU M). THESE DIFFERENCES HAVE BEEN ATTRIBUTABLE TO MERCURY CONTAMINATION OF CLOTHING, WHICH MAY CAUSE SIGNIFICANT EXPOSURE AFTER WORK HOURS.
      [American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 5th ed. Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 1986., p. 358]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Acute poisoning is major threat in home & on farm, but, because mercury is a cumulative poison, subacute & chronic intoxications are recognized, particularly in industry.
      [Gosselin, R.E., R.P. Smith, H.C. Hodge. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1984., p. III-262]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Prior to 1991, phenylmercuric compounds were used as biocides in 25-30% of interior and exterior latex paint; however, this use of mercury was voluntarily discontinued for interior paint in 1990 and for exterior paint in 1991(1). The use of phenylmercury resulted in the exposure of house painters and residents to mercury vapors in the homes where interior and exterior latex paint was applied(1). Although the use of mercury biocides in latex paint has been discontinued, it is possible that people who use old latex paint in their homes will be exposed to mercury for a considerable time(1). Furthermore, although phenylmercury use in exterior latex paints was discontinued in 1991, paint companies were allowed to continue to produce and sell paint containing phenylmercury until the existing stocks of phenylmercury were exhausted(1).
      [(1) ATSDR; Toxicological Profile for Mercury p. 312. Research Triangle Institute 205-93-0606 (1998)]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Average Daily Intake:

      Assuming an ambient air level of 50 ng/cu m, the average daily intake of metallic mercury vapor would amount to 1 ug/day due to inhalation. ... The average daily intake of those sub-groups of the general population living in specially polluted areas is difficult to estimate with any accuracy. ... Daily intake from occupational exposure is almost impossible to estimate because of the wide variation in exposure conditions in industry.
      [WHO; Environ Health Criteria: Mercury p.64 (1976)]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Emergency Medical Treatment:

      Emergency Medical Treatment:


      Antidote and Emergency Treatment:

      Basic Treatment: Establish a patent airway. Suction if necessary. Watch for signs of respiratory insufficiency and assist ventilations if necessary. Administer oxygen by nonrebreather mask at 10 to 15 L/min. Monitor for pulmonary edema and neat if necessary ... . Monitor for shock and treat if necessary ... . Anticipate seizures and treat if necessary ... . For eye contamination, flush eyes immediately with available water. Irrigate each eye continuously with normal saline during transport ... . Do not use emetics. For ingestion, rinse mouth and administer 5 ml/kg up to 200 ml of water for dilution if the patient can swallow, has a strong gag reflex, and does not drool. Administer activated charcoal ... . /Mercury and related compounds/
      [Bronstein, A.C., P.L. Currance; Emergency Care for Hazardous Materials Exposure. 2nd ed. St. Louis, MO. Mosby Lifeline. 1994., p. 368-9]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Advanced Treatment: Consider orotracheal or nasotracheal intubation for airway control in the patient with severe pulmonary edema or respiratory arrest. Positive pressure ventilation techniques with a bag valve mask device may be beneficial. Monitor cardiac rhythm and treat arrhythmias if necessary ... . Start an IV with D5W Use lactated Ringer's if signs of hypovolemia are present. Watch for signs of fluid overload. Consider drug therapy for pulmonary edema ... . For hypotension with signs of hypovolemia, administer fluid cautiously. Consider vasopressors if hypotensive with a normal fluid volume. Watch for signs of fluid overload ... . Treat seizures with diazepam (Valium) ... . Use proparacaine hydrochloride to assist eye irrigation ... . /Mercury and related compounds/
      [Bronstein, A.C., P.L. Currance; Emergency Care for Hazardous Materials Exposure. 2nd ed. St. Louis, MO. Mosby Lifeline. 1994., p. 369]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Animal Toxicity Studies:

      Toxicity Summary:

      IDENTIFICATION: In its elemental form, mercury is a heavy silvery liquid at room temperature and has a very high vapour pressure. Mercury vapor is more soluble in plasma, whole blood, and hemoglobin than in distilled water, where it dissolves only slightly. The major natural sources of mercury are degassing of the earth's crust, emissions from volcanoes, and evaporation from natural bodies of water. (The world-wide mining of mercury is estimated to yield about 10,000 tons per year. The activities lead to some losses of mercury and direct discharges to the atmosphere). Other important sources are fossil fuel combustion, metal sulfide ore smelting, gold refining, cement production, refuse incineration, and industrial applications of metals. A major use of mercury is as a cathode in the electrolysis of sodium chloride. Mercury is used in the electrical industry, in control instruments in the home and industry, and in laboratory and medical instruments. A very large amount of mercury is used for the extraction of gold. Dental silver amalgam for tooth filling contains large amounts of mercury. Use of skin-lightening soap and creams can give rise to substantial mercury exposure. Occupational exposure to inorganic mercury has been investigated in chloralkali plants, mercury mines, thermometer factories, refineries, and in dental clinics. High mercury levels have been reported for all these occupational exposure situations, although levels vary according to work environment conditions. HUMAN EXPOSURE: The general population is primarily exposed to mercury through the diet and dental amalgam. Acute inhalation exposure to mercury vapor may be followed by chest pains, dyspnea, coughing, hemoptysis, and sometimes interstitial pneumonitis leading to death. (The ingestion of mercuric compounds, in particular mercuric chloride, has caused ulcerative gastroenteritis and acute tubular necrosis causing death from anuria where dialysis was not available). The central nervous system is the critical organ for mercury vapor exposure. Subacute exposure has given rise to psychotic reactions characterized by delerium, hallucinations, and suicidal tendency. Occupational exposure has resulted in erethism as the principal feature of a broad ranging functional disturbance. The kidney is the critical organ following the ingestion of inorganic divalent mercury salts. Occupational exposure to metallic mercury has long been associated with the development of proteinuria. Both metallic mercury vapor and mercury compounds have given rise to contact dermatitis. Mercurial pharmaceuticals have been responsible for Pink disease (acrodynia) in children, and mercury vapor exposure may be a cause of "Kawasaki" disease. Results of both human and animal studies indicate that about 80% of inhaled metallic mercury vapour is retained by the body, whereas liquid metallic mercury is poorly absorbed via the gastrointestinal tract. ANIMAL STUDIES: Evidence of damage to brain, kidney, heart, and lungs have been reported in rabbits exposed acutely to metallic mercury vapor at certain concentrations. Both reversible and irreversible toxic effects may be caused by mercury and its compounds. In two studies, tremor and behavioural effects were observed in rabbits and rats after several weeks of exposure to metallic mercury vapour. Depending upon the animal strain tested, either auto-immunity or immunosuppression is observed. The most sensitive adverse effect caused by mercuric mercury is the formation of mercuric-mercury-induced auto-immune glomerulonephritis. Mercuric chloride was found to induce gene mutations in mouse lymphoma cells and DNA damage in rat and mouse fibroblasts. The World Health Organization reported no evidence that inorganic mercury is carcinogenic. The neurotoxic effect seen after exposure to metallic mercury vapour is attributable to the divalent mercury ion formed through oxidation in the brain tissue. Significantly more mercury is transported to the brain of mice and monkeys after the inhalation of elemental mercury than after the intravenous injection of equivalent doses of the mercuric form.
      [World Health Organization/International Programme on Chemical Safety. Environmental Health Criteria 118 Inorganic Mercury. pp. 13-21, 68-83 (1991)]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Evidence for Carcinogenicity:

      CLASSIFICATION: D; not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity. BASIS FOR CLASSIFICATION: Based on inadequate human and animal data. Epidemiologic studies failed to show a correlation between exposure to elemental mercury vapor and carcinogenicity; the findings in these studies were confounded by possible or known concurrent exposures to other chemicals, including human carcinogens, as well as lifestyle factors (e.g., smoking). Findings from genotoxicity tests are severely limited and provide equivocal evidence that mercury adversely affects the number or structure of chromosomes in human somatic cells. HUMAN CARCINOGENICITY DATA: Inadequate. ANIMAL CARCINOGENICITY DATA: Inadequate.
      [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) on Mercury (Inorganic ) (7439-97-6) Available from: http://www.epa.gov/ngispgm3/iris on the Substance File List as of March 15, 2000]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Evaluation: There is inadequate evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of mercury and mercury compounds. There is inadequate evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of metallic mercury. There is limited evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of mercuric chloride. There is sufficient evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of methylmercury chloride. In making the overall evaluation, the Working Group took into account evidence that methylmercury compounds are similar with regard to absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, genotoxicity and other forms of toxicity. Overall evaluation: Methylmercury compounds are possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B). Metallic mercury and inorganic mercury compounds are not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity to humans. (Group 3). /Mercury and mercury compounds/
      [IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work)., p. V58 324 (1993)]**PEER REVIEWED**

      A4: Not classifiable as a human carcinogen. /Mercury, elemental and inorganic forms, as Hg/
      [ American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists TLVs and BEIs. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. Cincinnati, OH, 2005, p. 37]**QC REVIEWED**

      Non-Human Toxicity Excerpts:

      DROPLET OF MERCURY METAL INJECTED INTO ANTERIOR CHAMBER OF RABBIT OR INTO CORNEAL STROMA CAUSES PURULENT REACTION AROUND DROPLET, FORMING ABSCESS IN ADJACENT CORNEA, LEADING ULTIMATELY TO EXPULSION OF FOREIGN MATERIAL. ... MERCURY METAL WAS INJECTED ... INTO VITREOUS HUMOR OF RABBITS, & PURULENT REACTION WITH SHRINKAGE OF VITREOUS, DETACHMENT OF RETINA, & SHRINKAGE & ATROPHY OF EYE WAS OBSERVED. ... /WHILE/ IN CONTACT WITH CONJUNCTIVA, METALLIC MERCURY PRODUCED NO CLINICAL SIGNS OF CONJUNCTIVITIS, HISTOLOGICALLY AN INFLAMMATORY REACTION HAS BEEN DEMONSTRABLE ... EXTERNAL CONTACT WITH MERCURY VAPOR HAS REPEATEDLY BEEN OBSERVED TO INDUCE CHARACTERISTIC DISCOLORATION OF CRYSTALLINE LENS (MERCURIALENTIS).
      [Grant, W.M. Toxicology of the Eye. 3rd ed. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publisher, 1986., p. 587]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Threshold of effect opercular rhythm on Micropterus salmoides (largemouth bass) 10 ug/l/21 days.
      [Morgan WSG; J Water Pollut Control Fed 51: 580 (1979) as cited in USEPA; Ambient Water Quality Criteria Doc: Mercury p.62 (1985) EPA 440/5-84-026]**PEER REVIEWED**

      The uptake of mercury (Hg) and toxic effect of the metal on some biochemical parameters in the plant Pistia stratiotes were studied. The uptake of Hg by the plants gradually increased with incr in concn of Hg in the culture medium. Max accumulation of Hg was noted within a day. Max removal (approx 90%) of Hg was < 20 ppm Hg. Accumulation of Hg in roots was approx 4 times higher than that in shoots. At 20 ppm, Hg promoted senescence of the plants by decreasing chlorophyll, protein, RNA, dry wt, and the activities of catalase and protease as well as increasing free amino acid content, peroxidase activity, and the ratio of acid to alkaline pyrophosphatase activity over control values. At Hg concn < 20 ppm, these constituents were least affected.
      [De AK et al; Water, Air, Soil Pollut 24 (4): 351-60 (1985)]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Microscopically detectable changes have been seen in the organs of dogs, rabbits, and rats exposed to concn of elemental mercury vapor ranging from about 100 to 30,000 ug/m3 for different periods of time. Severe damage was noted in kidneys and brains at mercury levels in air of about 900 ug/m3 after an exposure period of about 12 wk. After exposure of dogs to 100 ug mercury/m3, for 7 hr/day, 5 days/wk over a period of 83 wk, no microscopically detectable effects were seen, and tests revealed no abnormalities in kidney function.
      [WHO; Environmental Health Criteria 118: Inorganic Mercury p. 68 (1991)]**PEER REVIEWED**

      ... Reported the effects of elemental mercury vapor exposure on pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were exposed to elemental mercury vapor at concn of 100, 500, or 1000 ug/m3 during the entire gestational period (chronic exposure) or duing the period of organogenesis (days 10-15, acute exposure). ... Acute exposure to 500 ug/m3 resulted in an incr in the number of resoptions (5/41), and chronic exposure at this concn resulted in two fetuses (out of 84 that were examined) with cranial defects. ... Acute exposure at 1000 ug/m3 resulted in an incr in the rate of resorptions (8/71), and chronic exposure at this dose level produced a decr in maternal and fetal weights ... and an incr in the number of resorptions (7/28).
      [WHO; Environmental Health Criteria 118: Inorganic Mercury p. 76 (1991)]**PEER REVIEWED**

      The toxicity threshold of mercury on the growth of S obliquus is 0.02-0.05 mg/l. The min concn which induces a complete growth inhibition, is in the range of 1-2 mg/l. The length of the lag phase during growth depends on Hg content. Concn of 0.05-1 mg/l Hg caused inhibition of autospore formation and disturbance of the mode of autospore formation and development. Cellular abnormalities including increased cell size and cells with irregular shapes were observed. The degree of abnormalities and duration were directly related to Hg concn. There were no visible changes of morphol at 2 mg/l but a gradual depigmentation of the chloroplast was noted. Hg at 0.01-1 mg/l caused decreases in the photosynthetic activity to approx 20-80% of control values within 24 hr. At the end of expts (48 hr) photosynthesis was almost restored when treated with < 1 mg/l Hg. Thus, the growth inhibition is due to an inhibition of photosynthesis and autospore formation.
      [Han H; Huanjing Kexue Xuebao 4 (2): 157-64 (1984)]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Ecotoxicity Values:

      LC50 Catfish 0.35 mg/l/96 hr. /Conditions of bioassay not specified/
      [Spehar RL et al; J Water Pollution Control Federation 53 (6): 1028-1076 (1981) as cited in Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Mercury (Draft) p.35 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

      LC50 Modiolus carvalhoi (mollusk) 0.5 ppm/48 hr; 0.19 ppm/96 hr /Conditions of bioassay not specified/
      [Ekanth AE, Menon NR; Fish Technol 20 (2): 84-9 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

      LC50 Rana hexadactyla (tadpoles) 0.051 ppm/96 hr /Conditions of bioassay not specified/
      [Khangurot BS et al; Acta Hydrochim Hydrobiol 13 (2): 259-63 (1985)]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Metabolism/Pharmacokinetics:

      Metabolism/Metabolites:

      ... ONE OF THE ... PATHWAYS, IF NOT THE ONLY PATHWAY, BY WHICH ELEMENTAL MERCURY (HG(0+)) IS ABSORBED ... /& CONVERTED IN VIVO/ IS BY ITS OXIDATION /IN ERYTHROCYTES/ TO HG(2+). ... STUDIES WITH ACATALASEMIC RED BLOOD CELLS (RBCS) /SHOW/ THAT CATALASE-HYDROGEN PEROXIDE SYSTEM PLAYS A DETERMINANT ROLE IN MERCURY UPTAKE THROUGH THIS CATALYTIC OXIDATION SYSTEM; HUMAN ACATALASEMIC RBCS HAD ONLY 1/100 TO 6/100 THE UPTAKE OF MERCURY VAPOR FOUND IN NORMAL RBCS WITH HYDROGEN PEROXIDE.
      [Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982., p. 1784]**PEER REVIEWED**

      The oxidation of metallic mercury vapor to divalent ionic mercury ... takes place very soon after absorption, but some elemental mercury remains dissolved in the blood long enough (a few min) for it to be carried to the blood-brain barrier and the placenta ... Recent in vitro studies on the oxidation of mercury by the blood ... indicate that because of the short transit time from the lung to the brain almost all the mercury vapor (97%) arrives at the brain unoxidized. Its lipid solubility and high diffusibility allow rapid transit across these barriers. Oxidation of the mercury vapor in brain and fetal tissues converts it to the ionic form, which is much less likely to cross the blood-brain and placental barriers.
      [WHO; Environmental Health Criteria 118: Inorganic Mercury p. 52 (1991)]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Absorption, Distribution & Excretion:

      Several studies have correlated the number of dental amalgam fillings or amalgam surfaces with the mercury content in brain and kidney tissue from human autopsy. Subjects with no dental amalgam had a mean mercury level of 6.7 ng/g (2.4-12.2) in the occipital cortex; whereas, subjects with amalgams had a mean level of 12.3 ng/g (4.8-28.7) ... Amalgam-free subjects had a mean mercury level in kidneys of 49 ng/g (21-105), whereas subjects with amalgam fillings had a corresponding level of 433 ng/g (48-810). /Mercury alloy/
      [WHO; Environmental Health Criteria 118: Inorganic Mercury p. 38 (1991)]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Biological Half-Life:

      The biological half-life of mercury in fish is approx 2 to 3 yr.
      [USEPA; Ambient Water Quality Criteria Doc: Mercury p.10 (1984) EPA 440/5-84-026]**PEER REVIEWED**

      The whole body half-time of mercury in man is approximately 50 to 70 days. A rapid component in blood has a half-time of about three days, and a slower component has a half-time of about 30 days. A rapid component in the brain has a half-time of about 21 days. There is evidence of a much slower component in brain with a half-time on the order of several years.
      [USEPA; Mercury Health Effects Update p.2-4 (1984) EPA 600/8-84-019F]**PEER REVIEWED**

      For pike, mercury (Hg) concn in muscle after 70-90 days were 1000-1500 times that in water. ... The half-life for elimination of Hg from contaminated pike placed in clean water was 65-70 days.
      [Nat'l Research Council Canada; Effects of Mercury in the Canadian Environment p.89 (1979) NRCC No. 16739]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Mechanism of Action:

      UPTAKE OF MERCURY BY BRAIN AFTER IV INJECTION OF ELEMENTAL MERCURY WAS INVESTIGATED IN RAT, AFTER DEPLETION OF GLUTATHIONE OR INHIBITION OF GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE IN BRAIN TISSUE. WHEN GLUTATHIONE IN BRAIN WAS DEPLETED 76% BY INTRAVENTRICULAR INJECTION OF DIETHYLMALEATE, A 13% INCR IN MERCURY UPTAKE WAS OBSERVED. AFTER INTRAVENTRICULAR INJECTION OF IODOACETATE, ACTIVITY OF GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE IN BRAIN WAS INHIBITED 19% & CONTENT OF REDUCED GLUTATHIONE WAS DECR 20%. IN THESE ANIMALS MERCURY UPTAKE BY BRAIN INCR 66% RELATIVE TO CONTROLS.
      [EIDE I, SYVERSEN TL; TOXICOL LETT 17 (3-4): 209 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

      The neurotoxic effect seen after exposure to metallic mercury vapor is attributable to the divalent mercury ion formed through oxidation in the brain tissue. Interference with enzyme function by binding to sulfhydryl groups is one possible mechanism ... Transport through the cell membrane via the formation of carrier complexes /sodium and calcium channels/ would also be a possibility, although this has not been demonstrated.
      [WHO; Environmental Health Criteria 118: Inorganic Mercury p. 80 (1991)]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Interactions:

      IT HAS BEEN FOUND ... THAT ETHANOL DEPRESSES CONVERSION OF INHALED ELEMENTAL MERCURY INTO IONIC FORM IN BLOOD. IN ADDN, ETHANOL ENHANCES PULMONARY EXHALATION OF ABSORBED MERCURY, WITH RESULTANT EFFECT OF SUPPRESSING LUNG RETENTION OF MERCURY TOGETHER WITH LOWERING BLOOD MERCURY CONTENT.
      [Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982., p. 1784]**PEER REVIEWED**

      ... Concn of NTA in surface waters had no interaction with barium, antimony, molybdenum, strontium, chromium, silver, tin, iron, lead, cadmium, copper, and mercury ... and not enough with nickel, zinc, manganese, cobalt, magnesium, and calcium ... to be of environmental concern.
      [Nat'l Research Council Canada; NTA (Nitrilotriacetic Acid)-An Ecological Appraisal p.20 (1976) NRCC No. 15023]**PEER REVIEWED**

      The oxidation of elemental mercury vapor in the body ... can be reduced considerably (to about 50% of normal values) by moderate amt of alcohol. In an in vivo study, the uptake of labelled mercury into human red cells was reduced by a factor of ten by ethanol, while there was an incr in liver mercury concn ... .
      [WHO; Environmental Health Criteria 118: Inorganic Mercury p. 52 (1991)]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Pharmacology:

      Therapeutic Uses:

      MEDICATION (VET): Has been used as a laxative. /Former use/ Cathartic
      [The Merck Index. 10th ed. Rahway, New Jersey: Merck Co., Inc., 1983., p. 843]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Antimicrobial agent /Former use/
      [Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 3rd ed., Volumes 1-26. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, 1978-1984., p. 13(81) 235]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Interactions:

      IT HAS BEEN FOUND ... THAT ETHANOL DEPRESSES CONVERSION OF INHALED ELEMENTAL MERCURY INTO IONIC FORM IN BLOOD. IN ADDN, ETHANOL ENHANCES PULMONARY EXHALATION OF ABSORBED MERCURY, WITH RESULTANT EFFECT OF SUPPRESSING LUNG RETENTION OF MERCURY TOGETHER WITH LOWERING BLOOD MERCURY CONTENT.
      [Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982., p. 1784]**PEER REVIEWED**

      ... Concn of NTA in surface waters had no interaction with barium, antimony, molybdenum, strontium, chromium, silver, tin, iron, lead, cadmium, copper, and mercury ... and not enough with nickel, zinc, manganese, cobalt, magnesium, and calcium ... to be of environmental concern.
      [Nat'l Research Council Canada; NTA (Nitrilotriacetic Acid)-An Ecological Appraisal p.20 (1976) NRCC No. 15023]**PEER REVIEWED**

      The oxidation of elemental mercury vapor in the body ... can be reduced considerably (to about 50% of normal values) by moderate amt of alcohol. In an in vivo study, the uptake of labelled mercury into human red cells was reduced by a factor of ten by ethanol, while there was an incr in liver mercury concn ... .
      [WHO; Environmental Health Criteria 118: Inorganic Mercury p. 52 (1991)]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Environmental Fate & Exposure:

      Probable Routes of Human Exposure:

      ONE OF MAJOR SOURCES OF ... EXPOSURE IS IN CHLOR-ALKALI PLANTS ... /OTHER SOURCES ARE/ MINING & REFINING OF MERCURY ... FROM PROCESSING OF CINNABAR (HGS) ... MFR & USE OF LIQ HG-CONTAINING INSTRUMENTS ... AN OFTEN UNREALIZED SOURCE OF EXPOSURE THROUGH BREAKAGE, SPILLAGE, OR CARELESS HANDLING.
      [Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982., p. 1770]**PEER REVIEWED**

      ... MOTHERS EXPOSED TO ELEMENTAL MERCURY THROUGH THEIR DENTAL WORK PLACE ... /SHOWED/ SIGNIFICANTLY INCREASED MERCURY CONTENT IN THEIR BABIES' PLACENTA & MEMBRANES. ... EXPOSURE LIMITS FOR WOMEN OF CHILDBEARING AGE & LEVELS AT WHICH TOXICITY MIGHT BE EXPECTED /HAVE BEEN SUGGESTED/. FOR FETUS & NEWBORN, THE TOXIC LEVEL IS GIVEN AS 3 UG HG/G.
      [Shepard, T.H. Catalog of Teratogenic Agents. 4th ed. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1983., p. 278]**PEER REVIEWED**

      INHALATION OF VAPOR BY LABORATORY WORKERS IN CLOSED SPACE LED TO BRONCHIAL IRRITATION /& CHARACTERISTIC MERCURY POISONING SYMPTOMS/ ... CHRONIC MERCURIALISM IN FUR-CUTTING & FELT-HAT INDUSTRIES /IS REPORTED/. ALTHOUGH MERCURIC NITRATE WAS MATERIAL USED TO TREAT FUR FROM WHICH FELT WAS MADE, MERCURY WAS GRADUALLY RELEASED FROM FUR & FELT IN FORM OF METALLIC MERCURY VAPOR. ... THE WORKERS HAD MIXED EXPOSURE TO DUST OF MERCURY CMPD (ESP THE NITRATE) & TO VAPOR OF ELEMENT. ... POISONING WAS SIMILAR TO THAT OBSERVED ... /WITH/ METALLIC MERCURY ONLY.
      [Hayes, Wayland J., Jr. Pesticides Studied in Man. Baltimore/London: Williams and Wilkins, 1982., p. 12]**PEER REVIEWED**

      NIOSH, IN ITS CRITERIA DOCUMENT ... CONCLUDED THAT THE STD SHOULD BE AT LEAST AS LOW AS 0.05 MG/CU M ... /BECAUSE/ ERETHISM, RATHER THAN TREMOR, MAY BE THE MOST CHARACTERISTIC SYMPTOM OF CHRONIC MERCURIALISM /OCCURRING IN 33% OF WORKERS ABOVE 0.05 MG/CU M & IN 8% OF WORKERS BELOW THIS LEVEL/. ... /STUDIES OF WORKPLACES REVEAL/ THAT MUCH HIGHER EXPOSURES TO MERCURY VAPOR ... /OCCUR WHEN MEASURED/ BY PERSONAL SAMPLING DEVICES (0.016 TO 0.687 MG/CU M). THESE DIFFERENCES HAVE BEEN ATTRIBUTABLE TO MERCURY CONTAMINATION OF CLOTHING, WHICH MAY CAUSE SIGNIFICANT EXPOSURE AFTER WORK HOURS.
      [American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 5th ed. Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 1986., p. 358]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Acute poisoning is major threat in home & on farm, but, because mercury is a cumulative poison, subacute & chronic intoxications are recognized, particularly in industry.
      [Gosselin, R.E., R.P. Smith, H.C. Hodge. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1984., p. III-262]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Prior to 1991, phenylmercuric compounds were used as biocides in 25-30% of interior and exterior latex paint; however, this use of mercury was voluntarily discontinued for interior paint in 1990 and for exterior paint in 1991(1). The use of phenylmercury resulted in the exposure of house painters and residents to mercury vapors in the homes where interior and exterior latex paint was applied(1). Although the use of mercury biocides in latex paint has been discontinued, it is possible that people who use old latex paint in their homes will be exposed to mercury for a considerable time(1). Furthermore, although phenylmercury use in exterior latex paints was discontinued in 1991, paint companies were allowed to continue to produce and sell paint containing phenylmercury until the existing stocks of phenylmercury were exhausted(1).
      [(1) ATSDR; Toxicological Profile for Mercury p. 312. Research Triangle Institute 205-93-0606 (1998)]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Average Daily Intake:

      Assuming an ambient air level of 50 ng/cu m, the average daily intake of metallic mercury vapor would amount to 1 ug/day due to inhalation. ... The average daily intake of those sub-groups of the general population living in specially polluted areas is difficult to estimate with any accuracy. ... Daily intake from occupational exposure is almost impossible to estimate because of the wide variation in exposure conditions in industry.
      [WHO; Environ Health Criteria: Mercury p.64 (1976)]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Natural Pollution Sources:

      Mercury is recovered almost entirely from cinnabar (alpha-HgS), 86.2% Hg, although elemental mercury occurs in some ores.
      [Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982., p. 1769]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Joint FAO/WHO expert committee on Food Additives (1972) quotes the major source of mercury (Hg) as the natural degassing of the earth's crust ... in the range of 25,000-150,000 ton of Hg/yr.
      [WHO; Environ Health Criteria: Mercury p.43 (1976)]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Mercury is released into the environment from volcanoes and hot springs.
      [Miller DR, Buchanan JM; Atmos Trans of Mercury: Exposure Commitment and Uncertainty Calculations. MARC Report #14 p.1 (1979)]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Artificial Pollution Sources:

      Cu, Fe, Zn and many other metals precipitate metallic Hg from neutral or slightly acid soln of mercury salts.
      [Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 1005]**PEER REVIEWED**

      In ... the mercury liberated from the working and smelting of ores of copper, gold, lead, silver and zinc which normally contain traces of mercury.
      [Jonasson IR, Boyle RW; Bull Can Inst Min Metal 65: 32-9 (1972) as cited in Nat'l Research Council Canada; Effects of Mercury in the Canadian Environment p.62 (1979) NRCC No. 16739]**PEER REVIEWED**

      ... The average emissions of mercury stack losses for USA cinnabar (HgS) roasting operations was 2-3%.
      [Stahl QR; Dept of Health, Education and Welfare p.30 (1969) as cited in Nat'l Research Council Canada; Effects of Mercury in the Canadian Environment p.62 (1979) NRCC No. 16739]**PEER REVIEWED**

      ... Maximum ground-level concn of Hg for 12 USA coal-fired power plants were 0.035-6.9 ug/cu m.
      [Vaugh WP, Fuller SR; Illinois Institute for Environmental Quality Rep ILEQ 71-3 (1971) as cited in Nat'l Research Council Canada; Effects of Mercury in the Canadian Environment p.66 (1979) NRCC No. 16739]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Mercury (Hg) loss est from Canada fuel consumption and other Canadian sources: In 1974, approximately 12 ton Hg were discharged to the environment as a result of coal combustion. Approximately 90% was discharged to air as vapor, 9% was adsorbed onto fine particulate (controllable by particle-collecting devices) and approximately 1% remained in the bottom or grate ash.
      [Nat'l Research Council Canada; Effects of Mercury in the Canadian Environment p.66 (1979) NRCC No. 16739]**PEER REVIEWED**

      In general, industrial and domestic products, such as thermometers, batteries, and electrical switches which account for a significant loss of mercury to the environment, ultimately become solid waste in major urban areas.
      [British Dept of Environment; Pollution Paper No. 10 p.75 (1977) as cited in Nat'l Research Council Canada; Effects of Mercury in the Canadian Environment p.77 (1979) NRCC No. 16739]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Anthropogenic sources of airborne mercury (Hg) may arise from the operation of metal smelters or cement manufacture. Water borne pollution may originate in sewage, metal refining operations, or most notably, from chloralkali plants.
      [Nat'l Research Council Canada; Effects of Mercury in the Canadian Environment p.84 (1979) NRCC No. 16739]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Twenty thousand tons of mercury are released into the environment each year by human activities such as combustion of fossil fuels and other industrial release.
      [Friberg, L., Nordberg, G.F., Kessler, E. and Vouk, V.B. (eds). Handbook of the Toxicology of Metals. 2nd ed. Vols I, II.: Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., 1986., p. 387]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Concentrated local discharges associated with industrial activities and waste disposal. Diffuse discharges generally associated with combustion of fuels containing mercury impurities. Mercury is released in various chemical forms.
      [Miller DR, Buchanan JM; MARC Report: Atmos Trans of Mercury: Exposure Commitment and Uncertainty Calculations #14 p.1 (1979)]**PEER REVIEWED**

      ... INADEQUATE & IMPROPER DISPOSAL OF INDUSTRIAL MERCURY WASTES INCR MERCURY LEVELS IN WATER & ATMOSPHERE. ... MICROORGANISMS CONVERT ELEMENTAL MERCURY INTO METHYL MERCURY SALT (CH3HGCL) & DIMETHYL MERCURY, WHICH ... ESCAPE INTO THE ATMOSPHERE. MOST OF THESE REACTIONS TAKE PLACE IN SEDIMENTS OF RIVER & OCEAN BEDS. ... MAJOR SOURCE OF MERCURY CONTAMINATION IS DISPOSAL OF INDUSTRIAL MERCURY WASTES INTO WATER WHERE THE WASTES SETTLE AS SEDIMENT, ONLY TO BE RECYCLED INTO THE WATER & AIR.
      [Venugopal, B. and T.D. Luckey. Metal Toxicity in Mammals, 2. New York: Plenum Press, 1978., p. 87]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Environmental Fate:

      ENVIRONMENTAL ACCUMULATION: TWO CHARACTERISTICS, VOLATILITY & BIOTRANSFORMATION, MAKE HG SOMEWHAT UNIQUE AS ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICANT. ITS VOLATILITY ACCOUNTS FOR HIGH ATMOSPHERIC CONCN, 20 TO 200 UG/CU M NEAR AREAS CONTAINING HIGH SOIL LEVELS (10 PPM) AS COMPARED TO NORMAL ATMOSPHERIC CONCN OF 5 UG/CU M. ... GROUND WATER CONCN IN USA ... BELOW 1 PPB.
      [Doull, J., C.D. Klaassen, and M. D. Amdur (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. 2nd ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1980., p. 422]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Environmental Biodegradation:

      METHYLMERCURY IS FORMED NATURALLY IN AQUATIC AND TERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENTS FROM ELEMENTAL MERCURY. ... METHYLATION IS LIKELY TO OCCUR IN UPPER SEDIMENTARY LAYERS OF SEA OR LAKE BOTTOMS.
      [Friberg, L., Nordberg, G.F., Kessler, E. and Vouk, V.B. (eds). Handbook of the Toxicology of Metals. 2nd ed. Vols I, II.: Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., 1986., p. 393]**PEER REVIEWED**

      ... Certain bacteria, particularly of the genus Pseudomonas, can convert divalent mercury into metallic mercury.
      [WHO; Environ Health Criteria: Mercury p.49 (1976)]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Environmental Bioconcentration:

      Upon entering an aqueous system, virtually any mercurial cmpd may be microbially converted to methylmercury. /Mercurial cmpd/
      [Callahan, M.A., M.W. Slimak, N.W. Gabel, et al. Water-Related Environmental Fate of 129 Priority Pollutants. Volume I. EPA-440/4 79-029a. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, December 1979., p. 14-9]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Specimens (195) of higher fungi and their substrata collected in the mercury mining area of Amiata and around Siena (central Italy), were analyzed for their total mercury (Hg) content. Wood decomposers and many species of mycorrhizal fungi accumulated the metal at a very low rate; some mycorrhizal species and all the humus decomposers may accumulate up to 100 ug/g/l dry weight of Hg and in the least contaminated sites, up to 63 times as much Hg as the substratum. In mineralized areas, the concn factor rarely exceeded 1. The methylmercury content of 35 /specimens/ (almost all edible), ranged between 0.01 and 3.7 mug/g/l dry weight.
      [Bargagli R, Baldi F; Chemosphere 13 (9): 1059-72 (1984)]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Volatilization from Water/Soil:

      Much of the mercury deposited on land, appears to revaporize within a day or two, at least in areas substantially heated by sunlight.
      [Nat'l Research Council Canada; Effects of Mercury in the Canadian Environment p.78 (1979) NRCC No. 16739]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Volatilization of mercury from land and lakes was estimated to enhance the atmosphere concn over continental land masses by a factor of 45.
      [Miller DR, Buchanan JM; Atmospheic Transport of Mercury: Exposure Commitment and Uncertainty Calculations. MARC Report #14 p.67 (1979)]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Sediment/Soil Concentrations:

      Volcanic exhalations: Soil air over mercury deposits 0-2000 ng/cu m.
      [Jonasson IR, Boyle RW; Bull Can Inst Min Metal 65: 32-9 (1972) as cited in Nat'l Research Council Canada; Effects of Mercury in the Canadian Environment p.39 (1979) NRCC No. 16739]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Atmospheric Concentrations:

      Mercury vapor concn in the stack gas of large coal-fired power generating stations in Ontario were found to range from 40 to 80 ug/cu m. ...
      [Booth MR; Ont Hydro Res Q 23 (2): 1 (1971) as cited in Nat'l Research Council Canada; Effects of Mercury in the Canadian Environment p.66 (1979) NRCC No. 16739]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Environmental Standards & Regulations:

      CERCLA Reportable Quantities:

      Persons in charge of vessels or facilities are required to notify the National Response Center (NRC) immediately, when there is a release of this designated hazardous substance, in an amount equal to or greater than its reportable quantity of 1 lb or 0.454 kg. The toll free number of the NRC is (800) 424-8802; In the Washington D.C. metropolitan area (202) 426-2675. The rule for determining when notification is required is stated in 40 CFR 302.4 (section IV. D.3.b).
      [40 CFR 302.4 (7/1/99)]**PEER REVIEWED**

      RCRA Requirements:

      U151; As stipulated in 40 CFR 261.33, when mercury, as a commercial chemical product or manufacturing chemical intermediate or an off-specification commercial chemical product or a manufacturing chemical intermediate, becomes a waste, it must be managed according to Federal and/or State hazardous waste regulations. Also defined as a hazardous waste is any residue, contaminated soil, water, or other debris resulting from the cleanup of a spill, into water or on dry land, of this waste. Generators of small quantities of this waste may qualify for partial exclusion from hazardous waste regulations (40 CFR 261.5).
      [40 CFR 261.33 (7/1/99)]**PEER REVIEWED**

      D009; A solid waste containing mercury may or may not become characterized as a hazardous waste when subjected to the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure listed in 40 CFR 261.24, and if so characterized, must be managed as a hazardous waste. /Mercury/
      [40 CFR 261.24 (7/1/99]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Atmospheric Standards:

      Listed as a hazardous air pollutant (HAP) generally known or suspected to cause serious health problems. The Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990, directs EPA to set standards requiring major sources to sharply reduce routine emissions of toxic pollutants. EPA is required to establish and phase in specific performance based standards for all air emission sources that emit one or more of the listed pollutants. Mercury is included on this list.
      [Clean Air Act as amended in 1990, Sect. 112 (b) (1) Public Law 101-549 Nov. 15, 1990]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Emissions to the atmosphere from mercury ore processing facilities and mercury cell chlor-alkali plants shall not exceed 2300 grams of mercury per 24-hour period. /Mercury/
      [40 CFR 61.52(a) (7/1/99)]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Emissions to the atmosphere from sludge incineration plants, sludge drying plants, or a combination of these that process wastewater treatment plant sludges shall not exceed 3200 grams of mercury per 24-hour period. /Mercury/
      [40 CFR 61.52(b) (7/1/99)]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Clean Water Act Requirements:

      Toxic pollutant designated pursuant to section 307(a)(1) of the Clean Water Act and is subject to effluent limitations. /Mercury and cmpd/
      [40 CFR 401.15 (7/1/99)]**QC REVIEWED**

      Federal Drinking Water Standards:

      EPA 2 ug/l
      [USEPA/Office of Water; Federal-State Toxicology and Risk Analysis Committee (FSTRAC). Summary of State and Federal Drinking Water Standards and Guidelines (11/93), p. ]**QC REVIEWED**

      Federal Drinking Water Guidelines:

      EPA 2 ug/l
      [USEPA/Office of Water; Federal-State Toxicology and Risk Analysis Committee (FSTRAC). Summary of State and Federal Drinking Water Standards and Guidelines (11/93), p. ]**QC REVIEWED**

      State Drinking Water Guidelines:

      (AZ) ARIZONA 3 ug/l
      [USEPA/Office of Water; Federal-State Toxicology and Risk Analysis Committee (FSTRAC). Summary of State and Federal Drinking Water Standards and Guidelines (11/93), p. ]**QC REVIEWED**

      Chemical/Physical Properties:

      Molecular Formula:

      Hg
      **PEER REVIEWED**

      Molecular Weight:

      200.59
      [Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 1006]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Color/Form:

      Silver-white, heavy, mobile, liquid metal; solid mercury is tin-white
      [Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 1006]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Metal: silver-white, heavy liquid.
      [Ashford, R.D. Ashford's Dictionary of Industrial Chemicals. London, England: Wavelength Publications Ltd., 1994., p. 560]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Odor:

      Odorless
      [Weiss, G.; Hazardous Chemicals Handbook. 1986, Noyes Data Corporation, Park Ridge, NJ 1986., p. 662]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Boiling Point:

      356.73 deg C
      [Lide, D.R. (ed.). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 79th ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 1998-1999., p. 4-70]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Melting Point:

      -38.87 deg C
      [Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 1006]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Corrosivity:

      The high mobility and tendency to dispersion exhibited by mercury, and the ease with which it forms alloys (amalga) with many laboratory and electrical contact metals, can cause severe corrosion problems in laboratories.
      [Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 3rd ed. Boston, MA: Butterworths, 1985., p. 1218]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Special precautions: Mercury can attack copper and copper alloy materials.
      [Mackison, F. W., R. S. Stricoff, and L. J. Partridge, Jr. (eds.). NIOSH/OSHA - Occupational Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards. DHHS(NIOSH) Publication No. 81-123 (3 VOLS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Jan. 1981., p. 2]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Critical Temperature & Pressure:

      1462 deg C and 1587 atm
      [Weiss, G.; Hazardous Chemicals Handbook. 1986, Noyes Data Corporation, Park Ridge, NJ 1986., p. 662]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Density/Specific Gravity:

      13.534 @ 25 deg C
      [Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 1006]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Heat of Vaporization:

      14.652 kcal/mole @ 25 deg C
      [Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 1006]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Solubilities:

      0.28 umoles/l of water at 25 deg C
      [Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 1006]**PEER REVIEWED**

      SOL IN NITRIC ACID; INSOL IN THE FOLLOWING: DILUTE HYDROCHLORIC ACID, HYDROGEN BROMIDE, HYDROGEN IODIDE, COLD SULFURIC ACID
      [Weast, R.C. (ed.) Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 68th ed. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press Inc., 1987-1988., p. B-106]**PEER REVIEWED**

      DISSOLVES TO SOME EXTENT IN LIPIDS
      [American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 5th ed. Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 1986., p. 358]**PEER REVIEWED**

      2.7 MG/L IN PENTANE
      [Doull, J., C.D. Klaassen, and M. D. Amdur (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. 2nd ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1980., p. 422]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Spectral Properties:

      Index of refraction: 1.6 to 1.9 @ 20 deg C
      [Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present., p. V16 (95) 214]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Surface Tension:

      470 dynes/cm @ 20 deg C
      [Weiss, G.; Hazardous Chemicals Handbook. 1986, Noyes Data Corporation, Park Ridge, NJ 1986., p. 662]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Vapor Pressure:

      2X10-3 mm Hg @ 25 deg C
      [Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 1006]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Viscosity:

      1.55 mPa.sec (15.5 millipoise) at 20 deg C
      [Considine DM Ed; Chemical and Processing Technology Encyclopedia (1974) as cited in Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Mercury (Draft) p.3 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Other Chemical/Physical Properties:

      Ductile malleable mass which may be cut with a knife; atomic number 80; valences 1 and 2; group 2B element of periodic table; natural isotopes 202 (29.80%), 200 (23.13%), 199 (16.84%), 201 (13.22%), 198 (10.02%), 204 (6.85%) and 196 (0.146%); electrical resistivity 95.76 microohm cm at 20 deg C; forms alloys with most metals except iron and combines with sulfur at ordinary temp; reacts with HNO3, hot concn H2SO4, and ammonia solutions to form Hg2NOH (Millon's base); std electrode reduction potential: eo (aq) Hg/Hg2+ equals -0.854 volts; eo (aq) 2 Hg/2Hg2+ equals -0.789 volts
      [Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 1006]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Heat capacity at constant pressure: 6.687 cal/mole at 25 deg C
      [Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 1006]**PEER REVIEWED**

      FORMS CMPD WITH ORG RADICALS, NORMALLY LINKING COVALENTLY TO CARBON ATOM
      [National Research Council. Drinking Water & Health Volume 1. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1977., p. 273]**PEER REVIEWED**

      SATURATED ATMOSPHERE AT 24 DEG C CONTAINS APPROX 18 MG/CU M; THE VAPOR EXISTS IN A MONOATOMIC STATE
      [Doull, J., C.D. Klaassen, and M. D. Amdur (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. 2nd ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1980., p. 422]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Heat of fusion: 2.7 cal/g
      [Weiss, G.; Hazardous Chemicals Handbook. 1986, Noyes Data Corporation, Park Ridge, NJ 1986., p. 662]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Mercury salts, when heated with Na2CO3, yield metallic Hg and are reduced to metal by H2O2 in the presence of alkali hydroxide. Cu, Fe, Zn and many other metals precipitate metallic Hg from neutral or slightly acid soln of mercury salts.
      [Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 1006]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Chemical Safety & Handling:

      DOT Emergency Guidelines:

      /GUIDE 172: GALLIUM AND MERCURY/ Health: Inhalation of vapors or contact with substance will result in contamination and potential harmful effects. Fire will produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases.
      [U.S. Department of Transportation. 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook. A Guide book for First Responders During the Initial Phase of a Dangerous Goods/Hazardous Materials Incident. Washington, D.C. 2004G-172]**QC REVIEWED**

      /GUIDE 172: GALLIUM AND MERCURY/ Fire or Explosion: Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may react upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Runoff may pollute waterways.
      [U.S. Department of Transportation. 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook. A Guide book for First Responders During the Initial Phase of a Dangerous Goods/Hazardous Materials Incident. Washington, D.C. 2004G-172]**QC REVIEWED**

      /GUIDE 172: GALLIUM AND MERCURY/ Public Safety: CALL Emergency Response Telephone Number ... . As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area for at least 50 meters (150 feet) in all directions. Stay upwind. Keep unauthorized personnel away.
      [U.S. Department of Transportation. 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook. A Guide book for First Responders During the Initial Phase of a Dangerous Goods/Hazardous Materials Incident. Washington, D.C. 2004G-172]**QC REVIEWED**

      /GUIDE 172: GALLIUM AND MERCURY/ Protective Clothing: Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Structural firefighters' protective clothing will only provide limited protection.
      [U.S. Department of Transportation. 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook. A Guide book for First Responders During the Initial Phase of a Dangerous Goods/Hazardous Materials Incident. Washington, D.C. 2004G-172]**QC REVIEWED**

      /GUIDE 172: GALLIUM AND MERCURY/ Evacuation: Large spill: Consider initial downwind evacuation for at least 100 meters (330 feet). Fire: When any large container is involved in a fire, consider initial evacuation for 500 meters (1/3 mile) in all directions.
      [U.S. Department of Transportation. 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook. A Guide book for First Responders During the Initial Phase of a Dangerous Goods/Hazardous Materials Incident. Washington, D.C. 2004G-172]**QC REVIEWED**

      /GUIDE 172: GALLIUM AND MERCURY/ Fire: Use extinguishing agent suitable for type of surrounding fire. Do not direct water at the heated metal.
      [U.S. Department of Transportation. 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook. A Guide book for First Responders During the Initial Phase of a Dangerous Goods/Hazardous Materials Incident. Washington, D.C. 2004G-172]**QC REVIEWED**

      /GUIDE 172: GALLIUM AND MERCURY/ Spill or Leak: Do not touch or walk through spilled material. Do not touch damaged containers or spilled material unless wearing appropriate protective clothing. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. Do not use steel or aluminum tools or equipment. Cover with earth, sand, or other non-combustible material followed with plastic sheet to minimize spreading or contact with rain. For mercury, use a mercury spill kit. Mercury spill areas may be subsequently treated with calcium sulphide/calcium sulfide or with sodium thiosulphate/sodium thiosulfate wash to neutralize any residual mercury.
      [U.S. Department of Transportation. 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook. A Guide book for First Responders During the Initial Phase of a Dangerous Goods/Hazardous Materials Incident. Washington, D.C. 2004G-172]**QC REVIEWED**

      /GUIDE 172: GALLIUM AND MERCURY/ First Aid: Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Give artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. In case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. Keep victim warm and quiet. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved and take precautions to protect themselves.
      [U.S. Department of Transportation. 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook. A Guide book for First Responders During the Initial Phase of a Dangerous Goods/Hazardous Materials Incident. Washington, D.C. 2004G-172]**QC REVIEWED**

      Toxic Combustion Products:

      DANGEROUS WHEN HEATED, IT EMITS HIGHLY TOXIC FUMES.
      [Sax, N.I. Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 4th ed. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1975., p. 900]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Hazardous Reactivities & Incompatibilities:

      Ground mixtures of sodium carbide and mercury, aluminum, lead, or iron can react vigorously.
      [Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997., p. 491-118]**PEER REVIEWED**

      A violent exothermic reaction or possible explosion occurs when mercury comes in contact with lithium and rubidium.
      [Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990, p. 1315]**PEER REVIEWED**

      CHLORINE DIOXIDE & LIQUID HG, WHEN MIXED, EXPLODE VIOLENTLY.
      [Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997., p. 491-118]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Mercury undergoes hazardous reactions in the presence of heat and sparks or ignition.
      [ITII. Toxic and Hazarous Industrial Chemicals Safety Manual. Tokyo, Japan: The International Technical Information Institute, 1982., p. 314]**PEER REVIEWED**

      HG & AMMONIA CAN PRODUCE EXPLOSIVE CMPD. ... METHYL AZIDE IN PRESENCE OF HG WAS SHOWN TO BE POTENTIALLY EXPLOSIVE.
      [Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997., p. 491-118]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Incompatible with boron diiodophosphide; ethylene oxide; metals; methyl azide; methylsilane, oxygen; oxidants; tetracarbonylnickel, oxygen.
      [Sax, N.I. Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 6th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1984., p. 1750]**PEER REVIEWED**

      A mercury manometer used with ammonia became blocked by deposition of a grey-brown solid, which exploded during attempts to remove it mechanically or on heating. The solid appeared to be a dehydration product of Millon's base and was freely soluble in sodium thiosulfate solution. This method of cleaning is probably safer than others, but the use of mercury manometers with ammonia should be avoided as intrinsically unsafe. Although pure dry ammonia and mercury do not react even under pressure at 340 kbar and 200 deg C, the presence of traces of water leads to the formation of an explosive compound, which may explode during depressurization of the system. Explosions in mercury-ammonia systems had been reported previously.
      [Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990, p. 1270]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Presence of mercury in methyl azide markedly reduces the stability towards shock or electrical discharge.
      [Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990, p. 167]**PEER REVIEWED**

      A mixture of the dry carbonyl and oxygen will explode on vigorous shaking with mercury (presumably catalysed by mercury or its oxide).
      [Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990, p. 509]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Insoluble, explosive acetylide is formed with mercury.
      [Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997., p. 491-118]**PEER REVIEWED**

      When thrown into mercury vapor, boron phosphodiiodide ignites at once.
      [Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997., p. 491-118]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Flame forms with chlorine jet over mercury surface at 200 deg to 300 deg C.
      [Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997., p. 118]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Methyl azide in the presence of mercury was shown to be potentially explosive.
      [Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997., p. 491-118]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Prior History of Accidents:

      Several bottles, containing mercury, broke and spilled their contents as a delivery truck carrying the chemicals entered the loading dock of a university. Mercury was spilled all over the flatbed (wooden) of the truck and some of it seeped through cracks and fell onto the concrete. As the mercury fell onto the concrete thousands of mercury beads were formed. Approximately 10 kg of mercury was spilled. Cleanup crews arrived at the site and immediately barricaded the area to prevent public access. The delivery truck was moved to a leveled area to reduce spillage and was later moved to a waste management facility for decontamination. The crews wore protective clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus as personal protection. Since the cleanup of mercury from the concrete was requiring more time than what was expected. The self-contained breathing apparatus /equipment/ were depleting rapidly and a central air supply (with appropriate hoses and suits) was used to continuously supply clean air to the cleanup personnel. The beads of mercury on the concrete were picked up using mercury spill kits and a mercury vacuum cleaner. The cleanup took approximately 15 hr to complete. No environmental effects of damage occurred from the spill.
      [Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Mercury (Draft) p.63 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health:

      10 mg/cu m (as Hg)
      [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997., p. 192]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Protective Equipment & Clothing:

      Recommendations for respirator selection. Max. concn for use: 2.5 mg/cu m. Respirator Class(es): Any chemical cartridge respirator with a full facepiece and cartridge(s) providing protection against the compound of concern. End of service life indicator (ESLI) required. Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator (gas mask) with a chin-style, front- or back-mounted canister providing protection against the compound of concern. End of service life indicator (ESLI) required. Any supplied-air respirator that has a tight-fitting facepiece and is operated in a continuous-flow mode. Any powered, air-purifying respirator with a tight-fitting facepiece and cartridge(s) providing protection against the compound of concern. End of service life indicator (ESLI) required. (Canister) Any self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece. Any supplied-air respirator with a full facepiece. /Mercury [except (organo) alkyls] (as Hg), mercury vapor/
      [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997., p. 193]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Recommendations for respirator selection. Max. concn for use: 10 mg/cu m. Respirator Class(es): Any supplied-air respirator operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode. /Mercury [except (organo) alkyls] (as Hg), mercury vapor/
      [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997., p. 193]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Recommendations for respirator selection. Condition: Emergency or planned entry into unknown concentrations or IDLH conditions: Respirator Class(es): Any self-contained breathing apparatus that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive pressure-mode. Any supplied-air respirator that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self-contained breathing apparatus operated in pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode. /Mercury [except (organo) alkyls] (as Hg), mercury vapor/
      [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997., p. 193]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Recommendations for respirator selection. Condition: Escape from suddenly occurring respiratory hazards: Respirator Class(es): Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator (gas mask) with a chin-style, front- or back-mounted canister providing protection against the compound of concern. End of service life indicator (ESLI) required. Any appropriate escape-type, self-contained breathing apparatus. /Mercury [except (organo) alkyls] (as Hg), mercury vapor/
      [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997., p. 193]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Recommendations for respirator selection. Max. concn for use: 1 mg/cu m. Respirator Class(es): Any chemical cartridge respirator with cartridge(s) providing protection against the compound of concern. End of service life indicator (ESLI) required. Any supplied-air respirator. /Mercury [except (organo) alkyls] (as Hg), other non (organo) alkyl mercury compounds/
      [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997., p. 193]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Recommendations for respirator selection. Max. concn for use: 2.5 mg/cu m. Respirator Class(es): Any supplied-air respirator operated in a continuous-flow mode. Any powered, air-purifying respirator with cartridge(s) providing protection against the compound of concern. End of service life indicator (ESLI) required. (Canister) /Mercury [except (organo) alkyls] (as Hg), other non (organo) alkyl mercury compounds/
      [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997., p. 193]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Recommendations for respirator selection. Max. concn for use: 5 mg/cu m. Respirator Class(es): Any chemical cartridge respirator with a full facepiece and cartridge(s) providing protection against the compound of concern. End of service life indicator (ESLI) required. Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator (gas mask) with a chin-style, front- or back-mounted canister providing protection against the compound of concern. End of service life indicator (ESLI) required. Any supplied-air respirator that has a tight-fitting facepiece and is operated in a continuous-flow mode. Any powered, air-purifying respirator with a tight-fitting facepiece and cartridge(s) providing protection against the compound of concern. End of service life indicator (ESLI) required. (Canister) Any self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece. Any supplied-air respirator with a full facepiece. /Mercury [except (organo) alkyls] (as Hg), other non (organo) alkyl mercury compounds/
      [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997., p. 193]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Recommendations for respirator selection. Max. concn for use: 10 mg/cu m. Respirator Class(es): Any supplied-air respirator operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode. /Mercury [except (organo) alkyls] (as Hg), other non (organo) alkyl mercury compounds/
      [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997., p. 193]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Recommendations for respirator selection. Condition: Emergency or planned entry into unknown concentrations or IDLH conditions: Respirator Class(es): Any self-contained breathing apparatus that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive pressure-mode. Any supplied-air respirator that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self-contained breathing apparatus operated in pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode. /Mercury [except (organo) alkyls] (as Hg), other non (organo) alkyl mercury compounds/
      [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997., p. 193]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Recommendations for respirator selection. Condition: Escape from suddenly occurring respiratory hazards: Respirator Class(es): Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator (gas mask) with a chin-style, front- or back-mounted canister providing protection against the compound of concern. End of service life indicator (ESLI) required. Any appropriate escape-type, self-contained breathing apparatus. /Mercury [except (organo) alkyls] (as Hg), other non (organo) alkyl mercury compounds/
      [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997., p. 193]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Protective equipment: In areas where the exposures are excessive., respiratory protection was provided either by full face canister type mask or supplied air respirator, depending on the concentration of 3 mercury fumes. Above 50 mg Hg/m requires supplied air positive pressure full face respirators. Full body work clothes including shoes or shoe covers and hats should be supplied and clean work clothes should be supplied daily. Work clothes should not be stored with street clothes in the same locker. /Inorganic mercury/
      [Prager, J.C. Environmental Contaminant Reference Databook Volume 2. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1996., p. 559]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Preventive Measures:

      If material not on fire and not involved in fire: Keep sparks, flames, and other sources of ignition away. Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Build dikes to contain flow as necessary. Attempt to stop leak if without undue personnel hazard. /Mercury compound, liquid, NOS/
      [Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1994., p. 678]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Personnel protection: Avoid breathing dusts, and fumes from burning material. Keep upwind. Avoid bodily contact with the material. ... Do not handle broken packages unless wearing appropriate personal protective equipment. Wash away any material which may have contacted the body with copious amounts of water or soap and water. ... If contact with the material anticipated, wear appropriate chemical protective clothing. /Mercury compound, solid, NOS/
      [Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1994., p. 678]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Personnel protection: Keep upwind. Avoid breathing vapors. ... Do not handle broken packages unless wearing appropriate personal protective equipment. /Mercury compounds, liquid, NOS/
      [Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1994., p. 678]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Preventative measure: adequate ventilation; careful attention to good housekeeping, e.g., avoidance of spills, and prompt and proper cleaning if a spill occurs; all containers of mercury and its compounds should be kept tightly closed; should be washed on a regular basis with dilute calcium sulfide solution or other suitable reactant; floors should be nonporous; all workers directly involved in the plant operation should shower thoroughly each day before leaving. /Mercury compounds/
      [Prager, J.C. Environmental Contaminant Reference Databook Volume 2. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1996., p. 559]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Stability/Shelf Life:

      SLIGHTLY VOLATILE AT ORDINARY TEMP; WHEN PURE, DOES NOT TARNISH ON EXPOSURE TO AIR AT ORDINARY TEMP, BUT WHEN HEATED TO NEAR BOILING POINT, SLOWLY OXIDIZES TO MERCURIC OXIDE (HGO)
      [The Merck Index. 10th ed. Rahway, New Jersey: Merck Co., Inc., 1983., p. 842]**PEER REVIEWED**

      IN MOIST AIR, IT MAY OXIDIZE SLOWLY FORMING MERCUROUS OXIDE (HG2O)
      [Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982., p. 1771]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Shipment Methods and Regulations:

      No person may /transport,/ offer or accept a hazardous material for transportation in commerce unless that person is registered in conformance ... and the hazardous material is properly classed, described, packaged, marked, labeled, and in condition for shipment as required or authorized by ... /the hazardous materials regulations (49 CFR 171-177)./
      [49 CFR 171.2; U.S. National Archives and Records Administration's Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Available from: http://www.gpoaccess.gov/ecfr/ as of February 15, 2006 ]**QC REVIEWED**

      The International Air Transport Association (IATA) Dangerous Goods Regulations are published by the IATA Dangerous Goods Board pursuant to IATA Resolutions 618 and 619 and constitute a manual of industry carrier regulations to be followed by all IATA Member airlines when transporting hazardous materials.
      [International Air Transport Association. Dangerous Goods Regulations. 47th Edition. Montreal, Quebec Canada. 2006., p. 215]**QC REVIEWED**

      The International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code lays down basic principles for transporting hazardous chemicals. Detailed recommendations for individual substances and a number of recommendations for good practice are included in the classes dealing with such substances. A general index of technical names has also been compiled. This index should always be consulted when attempting to locate the appropriate procedures to be used when shipping any substance or article.
      [International Maritime Organization. International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code. London, UK. 2004., p. 136]**QC REVIEWED**

      Storage Conditions:

      Storage temperature: Ambient; Venting: Open
      [U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Transportation. CHRIS - Hazardous Chemical Data. Volume II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984-5., p. ]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Cleanup Methods:

      The following treatment processes have shown possible applicability for spill countermeasures: clarification/sedimentation >99% removal; clarification/ sedimentation with chemical addition: (alum) >62% removal, (alum, polymer) 88% removal, (lime) >96% removal, (BaCl2) 87% removal, and (polymer) 99% removal.
      [USEPA; Treatability Manual Vol 5 Summary (1980) EPA 600/8-80-042E as cited in Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Mercury (Draft) p.59 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

      In mining and primary metal recovery operations, it has been a standard practice to liberally dust mercury spills with flowers (microcrystalline) of sulfur or preferably calcium polysulfide, to encourage the formation of a surface coating of mercuric sulfide which would reduce the rate of Hg vapor loss during the period of cleanup.
      [Nat'l Research Council Canada; Effects of Mercury in the Canadian Environment p.183 (1979) NRCC No. 16739]**PEER REVIEWED**

      The chloralkali industry has long relied upon wet operation, that is maintaining a water flow over the concrete floors underlying the electrolytic mercury (Hg) cells to reduce Hg vapor loss in this way. Sumps in the underfloor drainage systems were used to collect Hg from spills which were flushed into them, but the design of these was not highly effective. To reduce Hg losses via this route, water use for this purpose is now kept to a minimum necessity and the sump discharge is either fed into the brine circuit or treated for Hg removal prior to discharge.
      [Nat'l Research Council Canada; Effects of Mercury in the Canadian Environment p.183 (1979) NRCC No. 16739]**PEER REVIEWED**

      A small aspirator-driven vacuum trap with a "mercury sweeper", an amalgamated copper roller operating in a small, tin-plate "dustpan" or "mercury scoop" is effective. This can be followed, if necessary, (and with an appropriate choice, for the surface on which the spill took place) by washes with dilute nitric acid (approx 1 M), concentrated sulfuric acid, or bleach washes, and then by clear water rinses.
      [Nat'l Research Council Canada; Effects of Mercury in the Canadian Environment p.184 (1979) NRCC No. 16739]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Precautions for the hospital use of mercury have been outlined together with cleanup and special procedures to control mercury (Hg) vapor. Among these, use of an emulsified oil containing calcium polysulfide, or of an organic sulfur cmpd in a proprietary mixture have been suggested after the bulk of the spill has been recovered by conventional means. Helpful post-cleanup procedures are the application of an impervious paint film to suppress volatilization, and in floor maintenance measures the use of a wax containing 3-5% flowers of sulfur.
      [Stock CJ; J Am Med Technol 35: 164-7 (1973) as cited in Nat'l Research Council Canada; Effects of Mercury in the Canadian Environment p.184 (1979) NRCC No. 16739]**PEER REVIEWED**

      After the use of a vacuum trap to recover the bulk of the metal, a fine copperwire or plated carbon fiber brush is recommended as the optimum cleanup utensil, particularly when the spill occurs on metal surfaces susceptible to amalgamation.
      [Chadwick MD; Materials Prot Perform 8: 21-2 (1979) as cited in Nat'l Research Council Canada; Effects of Mercury in the Canadian Environment p.184 (1979) NRCC No. 16739]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Mercury spills should be cleaned up immediately by use of a special vacuum cleaner. Then the area should be washed with a dilute calcium sulfide solution. Small quantities of mercury can be picked up by mixing with copper metal granules. ... /Mercury/
      [Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 3rd ed., Volumes 1-26. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, 1978-1984., p. 15(81) 167]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Mercury removal from waste water can be accomplished by these processes: BMS process; Chlorine is added to the waste water, oxidizing any mercury present to the ionic state. The BMS adsorbent (an activated carbon concentrate of sulfur cmpd on its surface) is used to collect ionic mercury. The spent adsorbent is then distilled to recover the mercury, leaving a carbon residue for reuse or disposal. TMR IMAC Process; Waste water is fed into a reactor, whereby a slight excess of chlorine is maintained, oxidizing any mercury present to ionic mercury. The liquid is then passed through the TMR IMAC ion-exchange resin where mercury ions are adsorbed. The mercury is then stripped from the spent resin with hydrochloric acid solution. /Mercury cmpds/
      [Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Mercury (Draft) p.59 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

      SPILLED MERCURY CMPD OR SOLN CAN BE CLEANED UP BY ANY METHOD THAT DOES NOT CAUSE EXCESSIVE AIRBORNE CONTAMINATION OR SKIN CONTACT. /MERCURY COMPOUNDS/
      [National Research Council. Prudent Practices for Handling Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1981., p. 53]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Environmental considerations: For land spill; Dig a pit, pond, lagoon, or holding area to contain liquid or solid material. /SRP: If time permits, pits, ponds, lagoons, soak holes, or holding areas should be sealed with an impermeable flexible membrane liner./ Cover solids with a plastic sheet to prevent dissolving in rain or fire fighting water. /Mercury/
      [Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, D.C.: Assoc. of American Railroads, Hazardous Materials Systems (BOE), 1987., p. 440]**PEER REVIEWED**

      1) Ventilate area of spill. 2) Collect spilled material for reclamation using commercially available mercury vapor depressants or specialized vacuum cleaners. /Inorganic mercury/
      [Mackison, F. W., R. S. Stricoff, and L. J. Partridge, Jr. (eds.). NIOSH/OSHA - Occupational Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards. DHHS(NIOSH) Publication No. 81-123 (3 VOLS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Jan. 1981., p. 4]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Disposal Methods:

      Generators of waste (equal to or greater than 100 kg/mo) containing this contaminant, EPA hazardous waste number D009, must conform with USEPA regulations in storage, transportation, treatment and disposal of waste.
      [40 CFR 240-280, 300-306, 702-799 (7/1/96)]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Generators of waste (equal to or greater than 100 kg/mo) containing this contaminant, EPA hazardous waste number U151, must conform with USEPA regulations in storage, transportation, treatment and disposal of waste.
      [40 CFR 240-280, 300-306, 702-799 (7/1/96)]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Mercury is a poor candidate for incineration.
      [USEPA; Engineering Handbook for Hazardous Waste Incineration p.3-14 (1981) EPA 68-03-3025]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Mercury (Hg) bearing brine purification muds from Hg cell process in chlorine production or Hg bearing wastewater treatment sludges from the production of Hg sulfide pigment is a poor candidate for incineration.
      [USEPA; Engineering Handbook for Hazardous Waste Incineration p.3-18 (1981) EPA 68-03-3025]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Chemical Treatability of Mercury; Concentration Process: Activated carbon; Chemical Classification: Metals; Scale of Study: Literature review; Type of Wastewater Used: Unknown; Results of Study: 80% reduction by PAC and Alum coagulation.
      [Dryden FE et al; Priority Pollutant Treatability Review EPA Contract No. 68-03-2579 (1978) as cited in USEPA; Management of Hazardous Waste Leachate, EPA Contract No. 68-03-2766 p. E-165 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Occupational Exposure Standards:

      OSHA Standards:

      Permissible Exposure Limit: Table Z-2 Acceptable ceiling concentration: 1 mg/10 cu m. /Mercury/
      [29 CFR 1910.1000 (7/1/99)]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Threshold Limit Values:

      8 hr Time Weighted Avg (TWA): 0.025 mg/cu m, skin /Mercury, elemental and inorganic forms, as Hg/
      [ American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists TLVs and BEIs. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. Cincinnati, OH, 2005, p. 37]**QC REVIEWED**

      Excursion Limit Recommendation: Excursions in worker exposure levels may exceed 3 times the TLV-TWA for no more than a total of 30 minutes during a work day, and under no circumstances should they exceed 5 times the TLV-TWA, provided that the TLV-TWA is not exceeded. /Mercury, elemental and inorganic forms, as Hg/
      [ American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists TLVs and BEIs. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. Cincinnati, OH, 2005, p. 5]**QC REVIEWED**

      A4: Not classifiable as a human carcinogen. /Mercury, elemental and inorganic forms, as Hg/
      [ American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists TLVs and BEIs. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. Cincinnati, OH, 2005, p. 37]**QC REVIEWED**

      Biological Exposure Index (BEI): Determinant: total inorganic mercury in urine; Sampling Time: Prior to shift; BEI: 35 ug/g creatine. The determinant may be present in biological specimens collected from subjects who have not been occupationally exposed, at a concentration which could affect interpretation of the result. Such background concentrations are incorporated in the BEI value. /Mercury/
      [ American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists TLVs and BEIs. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. Cincinnati, OH, 2005, p. 93]**QC REVIEWED**

      Biological Exposure Index (BEI): Determinant: total inorganic mercury in blood; Sampling Time: end of shift at end of workweek; BEI: 15 ug/L. The determinant may be present in biological specimens collected from subjects who have not been occupationally exposed, at a concentration which could affect interpretation of the result. Such background concentrations are incorporated in the BEI value. /Mercury/
      [ American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists TLVs and BEIs. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. Cincinnati, OH, 2005, p. 93]**QC REVIEWED**

      Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health:

      10 mg/cu m (as Hg)
      [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997., p. 192]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Other Occupational Permissible Levels:

      Water: Health and Welfare Canada recommends 0.001 mg/l Hg as a maximum acceptable concn in water; Air: The Ontario limit for airborne environmental Hg is 5 ug/cu m.
      [Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Mercury (Draft) p.34 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Manufacturing/Use Information:

      Major Uses:

      For Elemental Mercury (USEPA/OPP PC Code: 052301) there are 0 labels match. /SRP: Not registered for current use in the U.S./
      [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency/Office of Pesticide Program's Chemical Ingredients Database on Elemental Mercury (7439-97-6). Available from the Database Query page at http://www.cdpr.ca.gov/docs/epa/epamenu.htm as of June 14, 2000.]**PEER REVIEWED**

      In barometers, thermometers, hydrometers, pyrometers; in mercury arc lamps producing ultraviolet rays, in switches, fluorescent lamps; in mercury boilers; mfr all mercury salts, mirrors; catalyst in oxidn of org cmpd; extracting gold and silver from ores; electric rectifiers; making mercury fulminate; for Millon's reagent; as cathode in electrolysis, electroanalysis
      [Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 1006]**PEER REVIEWED**

      COMPONENT OF BATTERIES (EG, ZINC-CARBON & MERCURY CELLS), INDUSTRIAL & CONTROL INSTRUMENTS (EG, METERS), & AMALGAMS (EG, FOR DENTAL PREPARATIONS); AGENT IN MFR OF WIRE & SWITCHING DEVICES (EG, OSCILLATORS); CATHODE IN ELECTROLYTIC MFR OF CHLORINE & CAUSTIC SODA; CATALYST FOR URETHANE & EPOXY RESINS; LABORATORY REAGENT; LUBRICANT (EG, IN TURBINES)
      **PEER REVIEWED**

      Metallic mercury (quicksilver) has been employed in India to fumigate and protect grain in closed containers from ... insect infestation.
      [Farm Chemicals Handbook 2000. Willoughby, OH: Meister Pu Co. p. C 251 (2000)]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Used in ... agricultural chemicals /discontinued use/, antifouling paints, /SRP: as a wet chemistry method/
      [Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 1006]**PEER REVIEWED**

      MEDICATION
      **PEER REVIEWED**

      MEDICATION (VET)
      **PEER REVIEWED**

      Used as a neutron absorber in nuclear power plants.
      [Lewis, R.J., Sr (Ed.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 13th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1997., p. 715]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Manufacturers:

      In 1998, refining of recylced mercury was dominated by three companies - Bethlehem Apparatus Col, Hellertown, PA, D.F.G. Mercury Corp., Evanston, IL, and Mercury Waste Solutions, Inc., Minneapolis, MN.
      [USGS; Minerals Yearbook. Mercury. 1998. Available from: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/mercury/430498.pdf as of June, 2000]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Methods of Manufacturing:

      CONDENSATION OF MERCURY VAPOR FROM MERCURY ORE ROASTING OR FROM HEATING SECONDARY MERCURY-EG, FROM BATTERIES OR SLUDGES & WASTES
      **PEER REVIEWED**

      Obtained by roasting cinnabar (mercuric sulfide).
      [Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 1006]**PEER REVIEWED**

      By heating cinnabar with lime and condensing the vapor.
      [Lewis, R.J., Sr (Ed.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 13th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1997., p. 714]**PEER REVIEWED**

      General Manufacturing Information:

      Found in Spain, Yugoslavia, Mexico, Canada, and Algeria.
      [Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present., p. V16 (95) 226]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Partial decomp of mercurous iodide to mercury (Hg) and mercury iodide (HgI2) at 290 deg C when rapidly heated; cold ammonia, its soln or alkali iodide, decomp mercurous iodide into mercury and mercuric iodide
      [Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 1006]**PEER REVIEWED**

      A number of studies have documented mercury's availability for purchase in many /religious supply stores known as/ botanicas. Mercury is used to attract luck, love, or money; to protect against evil; or speed the action of spells through a variety of recommended uses, including wearing as amulets, sprinkling on the floor, or adding to a candle or oil lamp. It is sometimes taken internally to treat gastrointestinal disorders, or added to detergent or cosmetic products. ... Its widespread availability in botanicas suggests that indoor mercury exposure may be a problem for some users and their families.
      [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency/Office of Emergency and Remedial Response; Task Force on Ritualistic Uses of Mercury Report; OSWER 9285.4-07, EPA/540-R-01-005, p.vii (December 2002) ]**QC REVIEWED**

      Formulations/Preparations:

      Blue pill; blue mass. Contains 32-34% metallic mercury. The rest is honey, licorice, althea, glycerol, and some mercury oleate.
      [Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 1006]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Grades or Purity: Pure
      [Weiss, G.; Hazardous Chemicals Handbook. 1986, Noyes Data Corporation, Park Ridge, NJ 1986., p. 662]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Available in commercial, instrument, redistilled, technical, and triple distilled grades.
      [Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Mercury (Draft) p.1 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Typical commercial grade: 99.9% mercury
      [Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Mercury (Draft) p.3 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

      USP mercury conforms to US Pharmacopeia specifications. Triple distilled mercury conforms to American Dental Association & National Formulary requirements and reagent grade conforms to the ACS specifications.
      [CONSIDINE. CHEMICAL AND PROCESS TECHNOL ENCYC 1974 p.730]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Impurities:

      Base metals and precious metals (gold, silver).
      [Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present., p. V16 (95) 219]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Consumption Patterns:

      MFR OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS, 56%; MFR OF CHLORINE & CAUSTIC SODA (REPLENISHMENT OF MERCURY LOST IN PROCESS & NOT RECYCLED), 13%; MFR OF INDUSTRIAL & CONTROL INSTRUMENTS, 7%; DENTAL AMALGAMS, 2%; OTHER USES (MOSTLY AS CHEM INT, ALSO INCLUDES OTHER AMALGAMS & MERCURY USED IN PRODN OF NEW CHLORINE/CAUSTIC SODA PLANTS), 22% (1982)
      **PEER REVIEWED**

      Electrical products such as dry-cell batteries, fluorescent light bulbs, switches, and other control equipment account for 50% of mercury used. Mercury is also used in substantial quantities in electrolytic preparation of chlorine and caustic soda (chlor-alkali industry, mercury cell process; 25%), paint manufacture (12%), and dental preparations (3%). Lesser quantities are used in industrial catalyst manufacture (2%), pesticides manufacture (1%), general laboratory use (1%), and pharmaceuticals (0.1%).
      [Kayser, R., D. Sterling, D. Viviani (eds.). Intermedia Priority Pollutant Guidance Documents. Washington, DC: U.S.Environmental Protection Agency, July 1982., p. 3-1]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Electrical, 56%; electrolytic production of chlorine and caustic soda, 12%; paints, 10%; industrial and control instruments, 6%; and other, 16% (1986)
      [BUREAU OF MINES. MINERAL COMMODITY SUMMARIES 1987 p.100]**PEER REVIEWED**

      It was estimated that approximately 35% of the mercury consumed domestically was used in the manufacture of chlorine and caustic soda and 30% for electrical and electronic applications. The remaining 35% was used for applications such as measuring and control instruments and dental amalgams.
      [USGS; Mineral Commodity Summaries. Mercury. 2000. Available from: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/mercury/430300.pdf on mercury (7439-97-6) as of June, 2000]**PEER REVIEWED**

      U. S. Production:

      (1977) 1.17X10+9 G
      **PEER REVIEWED**

      (1982) 1.04X10+9 G
      **PEER REVIEWED**

      (1986) Greater than 3.49x10+9 g /Mine production data was withheld to avoid disclosing proprietary data/
      [BUREAU OF MINES. MINERAL COMMODITY SUMMARIES 1987 p.100]**PEER REVIEWED**

      (1989) 414 tons; (1990) 562 tons; (1991) 58 tons; (1992) 64 tons
      [Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present., p. V16 (95) 218]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Since late 1990, no domestic mine has produced mercury as its primary product. Nearly all the mercury produced in the United States was derived from secondary sources, including spent batteries, mercury vapor and fluorescent lamps, switches, dental amalgams, measuring devices, control instruments, and laboratory and electrolytic refining wastes. The secondary processors typically use high-temperature retorting to recover mercury from compounds and distillation to purify the contaminated liquid mercury metal.
      [USGS; Minerals Yearbook. Mercury. 1998. Available from: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/mercury/430498.pdf as of June, 2000]**PEER REVIEWED**

      The secondary production of mercury in 1994, 1995, 1996, and 1997 was 466, 534, 446 and 389 metric tons, respectively.
      [USGS; Minerals Yearbook. Mercury. 1998. Available from: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/mercury/430498.pdf as of June, 2000]**PEER REVIEWED**

      World production through mining operations in 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, and 1998 was 1,960, 3,250, 2,580, 2,470, and 2,320 metric tons, respectively.
      [USGS; Minerals Yearbook. Mercury. 1998. Available from: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/mercury/430498.pdf as of June, 2000]**PEER REVIEWED**

      U. S. Imports:

      (1977) 9.91X10+8 G
      **PEER REVIEWED**

      (1982) 3.07X10+8 G
      **PEER REVIEWED**

      (1986) 6.56x10+8 g
      [BUREAU OF MINES. MINERAL COMMODITY SUMMARIES 1987 p.100]**PEER REVIEWED**

      U.S. import of mercury in 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, and 1998 was 129, 377, 340, 164, and 128 metric tons, respectively.
      [USGS; Minerals Yearbook. Mercury. 1998. Available from: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/mercury/430498.pdf as of June, 2000]**PEER REVIEWED**

      U. S. Exports:

      (1977) 3.3X10+7 G
      **PEER REVIEWED**

      700 tons exported in 1992 to Norway
      [Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present., p. V16 (95) 218]**PEER REVIEWED**

      U.S. exports of mercury in 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, and 1998 was 316, 179, 45, 134, and 63 metric tons.
      [USGS; Minerals Yearbook. Mercury. 1998. Available from: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/mercury/430498.pdf as of June, 2000]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Laboratory Methods:

      Analytic Laboratory Methods:

      NIOSH Method 6009. Determination of Mercury by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption (detection limit = 0.03 ug). The working range uses 0.01 to 0.5 mg/cu m for a 10 L air sample. The sorbent material irreversibly collects elemental mercury. A prefilter can be used to exclude particulate mercury species from the sample.
      [U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods. 4th ed. Methods A-Z & Supplements. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Aug 1994., p. ]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Sampling Procedures:

      NIOSH Method 6009. Mercury. Analyte: elemental mercury; Matrix: air; Sampler: solid sorbent tube (Hopcalite in single section, 200 mg); Flow rate: 0.15 to 0.25 L/min; vol: 2 L @ 0.5 mg/cu m, max 100 L; Stability: 30 days @ 25 deg C
      [U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods. 4th ed. Methods A-Z & Supplements. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Aug 1994., p. ]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Special References:

      Special Reports:

      USEPA/Office of Emergency and Remedial Response; Task Force on Ritualistic Uses of Mercury Report (December 2002) EPA/540-R-01-005

      Synonyms and Identifiers:

      Related HSDB Records:

      6943 [MERCURY COMPOUNDS]

      Synonyms:

      COLLOIDAL MERCURY
      **PEER REVIEWED**

      Hydrargyrum
      **PEER REVIEWED**

      KWIK (DUTCH)
      **PEER REVIEWED**

      LIQUID SILVER
      **PEER REVIEWED**

      MERCURE (FRENCH)
      **PEER REVIEWED**

      MERCURIO (ITALIAN)
      **PEER REVIEWED**

      MERCURY
      **PEER REVIEWED**

      MERCURY, METALLIC
      **PEER REVIEWED**

      NCI-C60399
      **PEER REVIEWED**

      QUECKSILBER (GERMAN)
      **PEER REVIEWED**

      QUICKSILVER
      **PEER REVIEWED**

      Formulations/Preparations:

      Blue pill; blue mass. Contains 32-34% metallic mercury. The rest is honey, licorice, althea, glycerol, and some mercury oleate.
      [Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 1006]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Grades or Purity: Pure
      [Weiss, G.; Hazardous Chemicals Handbook. 1986, Noyes Data Corporation, Park Ridge, NJ 1986., p. 662]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Available in commercial, instrument, redistilled, technical, and triple distilled grades.
      [Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Mercury (Draft) p.1 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Typical commercial grade: 99.9% mercury
      [Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Mercury (Draft) p.3 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

      USP mercury conforms to US Pharmacopeia specifications. Triple distilled mercury conforms to American Dental Association & National Formulary requirements and reagent grade conforms to the ACS specifications.
      [CONSIDINE. CHEMICAL AND PROCESS TECHNOL ENCYC 1974 p.730]**PEER REVIEWED**

      Shipping Name/ Number DOT/UN/NA/IMO:

      UN 2809; Mercury

      IMO 8; Mercury

      Standard Transportation Number:

      49 443 25; Mercury, metallic

      EPA Hazardous Waste Number:

      U151; A toxic waste when a discarded commercial chemical product or manufacturing chemical intermediate or an off-specification commercial chemical product.

      D009; Mercury. A waste containing mercury may or may not be characterized as a hazardous waste following testing by the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure as prescribed by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations. /Mercury/






      Top of Page


      Return to Home Page of Home Air Purifier Expert from Mercury MSDS Information


      Best Indoor Air Quality Test Kit


      New! Comments

      Have your say about what you just read! Leave me a comment in the box below.