Ammonia MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet), Sources, Testing, and Air Cleaning


Complete Ammonia MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet) information, frequently ask questions and answers, common household sources of Ammonia, testing, and air purification information is below.

Though usually not as serious an indoor air pollutant compared to other volatile organic compounds, Ammonia gas can be an inhalation hazard in your home depending on how much of the below sources your home contains plus other factors such as degree of ventilation.

The below information will address any concerns you may have about possible Ammonia odors in or around your home and the possible health effects of the gas, and any control measures you may need to take to limit your exposure.


Household chemical inhalation hazards can be found throughout your homeAmmonia is found in many household chemicals throughout your homeAmmonia is in many household products used for cleaning







The Best Chemical Air Purifier for Ammonia Removal, Odor Control, and Particle Filtration:
IQAir GC Multigas Air Purifier


The best air purifier for controlling Ammonia fumes that may be continuously reintroduced into rooms from source materials such as liter boxes, cigarette smoke, or household products is one that has a high amount of special chemical gas filtering media such as Activated Carbon Potassium Permanganate filtration such as what is in professional gas masks.


Since tiny gas molecules such as Ammonia and Formaldehyde will pass right through HEPA filters, air cleaners for Ammonia removal must contain advanced gas filters besides just efficient air purifier HEPA filters which catch the tiniest of particulates, but not gases.


With this in mind, the best of breed air purifier for Ammonia removal from indoor air is IQAir GC Chemisorber Multigas or VOC. It is proven to be one of the most effective air cleaners on the market today and will likely clean your air of both solids and gases such as Ammonia and Formaldehyde with the highest efficiency compared to other air purifiers.


IQ Air GC Chemisorber contains an impressive 12 pounds of the advanced Carbon-Potassium Permanganate filter media and has a very sophisticated gas filtration cartridge system plus highly efficient HEPA filtration for the removal of the tiniest of solid particulates as well.


IQAir GC Multigas Air Purifier: Powerfully Efficient


  1. Chemical Vapors Such as Ammonia and Formaldehyde Are Destroyed Via Oxidation Inside Active Alumina Pellet Filter Media

  2. Micro-charged Filtration Technology With Charged Fiber Structure for Particle Elimination

  3. Ultra-small Nano-particle Filtration of Solid Indoor Air Pollutants Such as Viruses, Smoke, and Microorganisms

  4. Advanced Activated Carbon Cartridge Filtration for Adsorption of Odors and Volatile Organic Compounds

  5. Efficiently filters out mold spores, pet dander, wildfire / cooking / cigarette smoke, pollen, most odors, chemical molecules such as Benzene, and most general indoor air pollutants.

  6. The IQ Air GC MultiGas is a Top Rated Air Purifier for Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS).











Public Health Statement for Ammonia (Amoníaco)



Contents:

This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions about ammonia. This information is important because this substance may harm you. The effects of exposure to any hazardous substance depend on the dose, the duration, how you are exposed, personal traits and habits, and whether other chemicals are present.

top

Highlights

Ammonia is found throughout the environment in the air, soil, and water, and in plants and animals including humans. Exposure to high levels of ammonia can cause irritation and serious burns on the skin and in the mouth, throat, lungs, and eyes. At very high levels, ammonia can even cause death. Ammonia has been found in at least 137 of the 1,647 current or former National Priority Sites list identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

top

What is ammonia?

Ammonia occurs naturally and is produced by human activity. It is an important source of nitrogen which is needed by plants and animals. Bacteria found in the intestines can produce ammonia.

About 80% is used in fertilizers; it also is used as a refrigerant gas, and in the manufacture of plastics, explosives, pesticides, detergents, and other chemicals. Small amounts of ammonia occur naturally from decomposition of organic matter.

Ammonia is a colorless gas with a very distinct odor. This odor is familiar to many people because ammonia is used in smelling salts, many household and industrial cleaners, and window-cleaning products.

Ammonia gas can be dissolved in water. This kind of ammonia is called aqueous ammonia. Liquid ammonia, on the other hand, is ammonia gas that is condensed to a liquid form, with no water present. Liquid ammonia will readily vaporize to ammonia gas.

Ammonia is applied directly into soil on farm fields, and is used to make fertilizers for farm crops, lawns, and plants. Many household and industrial cleaners contain ammonia.

Ammonia may also be known by the following synonyms: Anhydrous ammonia, Aqua ammonia, Aqueous ammonia [Note: Often used in an aqueous solution], AM-Fol, Ammonia anhydrous, Ammonia gas, Ammoniac [French], Ammoniaca [Italian], Ammoniak Kconzentrierter, Ammoniak [German], Ammoniakgas, Amoniak [Polish], CCRIS 2278, Caswell No. 041, EINECS 231-635-3, EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 005302, HSDB 162, Liquid Ammonia, Nitro-sil, R 717, Spirit of hartshorn, UN 1005 (anhydrous gas or >50% solution), UN 2073 (>44% solution), or UN 2672 (between 12% and 44% solution)




If you are concerned about Ammonia odors or fumes, toxic black mold, toxins from cigarette smoke, or if you would like to know which of over 400 volatile organic compounds such as Ammonia may be contaminating your indoor air, I recommend you test your indoor air using a high quality indoor air quality test kit


top

What happens to ammonia when it enters the environment?

  • Ammonia is found throughout the environment in air, water, soil, animals, and plants.
  • Ammonia does not last very long in the environment. It is rapidly taken up by plants, bacteria, and animals.
  • Ammonia does not build up in the food chain, but serves as a nutrient for plants and bacteria.

top

How might I be exposed to ammonia?

  • Everyone is exposed to low levels of naturally-occurring ammonia in air, food, water, and soil.
  • You may be exposed to higher levels during use of cleaning products containing ammonia.
  • You may be exposed to higher levels if you apply ammonia fertilizers or live near farms where these fertilizers have been applied.
  • You may be exposed to high levels if you go into enclosed buildings that contain lots of animals (such as on farms).

Industrial Processes with risk of exposure from Ammonia:

  • Burning Synthetic Polymers
  • Electroplating
  • Farming (Dusts, Asphyxiants, etc.)
  • Firefighting
  • Fur Dressing and Dyeing
  • Heat Treating
  • Molding and Core Making
  • Petroleum Refining
  • Photographic Processing
  • Pulp and Paper Processing
  • Semiconductor Manufacturing
  • Sewer and Wastewater Treatment
  • Tanning Leather
  • Toxic Gas from Spilling Chemical in Water

Activities with risk of exposure to Ammonia:

  • Smoking cigarettes

Household Products listing Ammonia as an Ingredient:

Below is listed the brand, category, form, and percent Ammonia content.
  • Blue Magic Liquid Metal Auto Polish Auto products liquid
  • Blue Magic Cream Metal Polish Auto products cream
  • Parks Adhesive Remover-09/04/1998 Hobby/Craft liquid <1
  • SOS Ammonia Glass Cleaner Home inside liquid
  • Safeway Window Home inside pump spray
  • Mr Clean Top Job with Ammonia Home inside liquid
  • Brasso Multipurpose Metal Polish Home inside liquid
  • Savogran Dirtex Spray Cleaner Home inside aerosol <1
  • Goddards Long Shine Silver Polish Home inside liquid 2
  • Giant Pure Power Window Cleaner Trigger Spray Home inside spray 1.00
  • Parks Adhesive Remover Home maintenance liquid 2-20
  • Parks Pro Liquid Paint Stripper Home maintenance liquid 2-20
  • Quikrete Concrete Acrylic Fortifier Landscaping/Yard liquid

top

How can ammonia affect my health?

No health effects have been found in humans exposed to typical environmental concentrations of ammonia. Exposure to high levels of ammonia in air may be irritating to your skin, eyes, throat, and lungs and cause coughing and burns. Lung damage and death may occur after exposure to very high concentrations of ammonia. Some people with asthma may be more sensitive to breathing ammonia than others.

Swallowing concentrated solutions of ammonia can cause burns in your mouth, throat, and stomach. Splashing ammonia into your eyes can cause burns and even blindness.

  • Liquid Ammonia causes first degree burns on short exposure
  • Ammonia gas and liquid are corrosive to skin.
  • Ammonia Solutions of 3-5% = strong irritant
  • Ammonia Solutions >5% = corrosive
  • Ammonia is listed as one of "major irritant inhalants"
  • Ammonia may be released if lithium nitride or magnesium diamide are spilled in water.
  • Ammonia solutions with more than 50% ammonia are classified as TIH (Toxic Inhalation Hazard).
  • Ammonia inhalation may cause Chronic Bronchitis.
  • The Half-life of Ammonia - Whole body (following ingestion)= 1-2 days

Ammonia and Chronic Bronchitis - The American Thoracic Society (ATS) criteria for chronic bronchitis is: cough at least 4 X/day, 4 days/week, 3 months/year for 2 years (sputum production on most days for at least 3 months out of the year). Causes include silica, coal dust, grain dusts, cotton dusts, welding fumes, firefighting, and dust in livestock confinement buildings. The length of exposure necessary to cause chronic bronchitis is probably years or decades, not days or months. Chronic bronchitis has been described in boiler cleaners exposed to vanadium pentoxide. Bronchitis and bronchiectasis are the most common causes of hemoptysis.
Symptoms of Ammonia Induced Chronic Bronchitis:
  • cough
  • dyspnea, exertional
  • hemoptysis
  • obstructive defect
  • sputum production

top

How likely is ammonia to cause cancer?

There is no evidence that ammonia causes cancer. The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), the EPA, and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), have not classified ammonia for carcinogenicity.

top

How can ammonia affect children?

Children are less likely than adults to be exposed to concentrated levels of ammonia because most exposures occur at work. The effects on children are likely to be the same as for adults. We do not know if exposure to ammonia causes birth defects, or if it can pass to the fetus across the placenta or to infants via breast milk.

top

How can families reduce the risk of exposure to ammonia?

  • Keep products that contain ammonia out of the reach of children.
  • Make sure there is adequate ventilation when you use cleaners that contain ammonia, and wear proper clothing and eye protection.
  • Never store cleaning solutions in containers that children might find attractive, like soda bottles.
  • Avoid farm fields after they have been treated with ammonia or ammonia-containing fertilizers.
  • Minimize exposure to ammonia in the workplace by wearing proper safety clothes and equipment, and by following safety rules.

top

Is there a medical test to show whether I've been exposed to ammonia?

There are tests to measure ammonia in blood and urine. These tests can not definitely determine whether you have been exposed because ammonia is normally found in our bodies.

top

Has the federal government made recommendations to protect human health from Ammonia exposure?

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has salts typically found in foods do not pose a risk to human health.

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set an acceptable eight-hour exposure limit at 25 parts of ammonia per one million parts of air (ppm) and a short-term (15 minutes) exposure level at 35 ppm.

top

References

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 2004. Toxicological Profile for Ammonia. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service.

top

Where can I get more information?

ATSDR can tell you where to find occupational and environmental health clinics. Their specialists can recognize, evaluate, and treat illnesses resulting from exposure to hazardous substances. You can also contact your community or state health or environmental quality department if you have any more questions or concerns.

For more information, contact:

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
Division of Toxicology and Environmental Medicine
1600 Clifton Road NE, Mailstop F-32
Atlanta, GA 30333
Phone: 1-888-42-ATSDR (1-888-422-8737)
FAX:   (770)-488-4178
Email: ATSDRIC@cdc.gov


top



Ammonia MSDS Information


SECTION I - Material Identity
Item Name...............................ANHYDROUS AMMONIA
Part Number/Trade Name..................ANHYDROUS AMMONIA
National Stock Number...................6830006169184
CAGE Code...............................0EXY4
Part Number Indicator...................A
MSDS Number.............................115526
HAZ Code................................C

SECTION II - Manufacturer's Information
Manufacturer Name.......................HILL BROTHERS CHEMICAL CO.
P.O. Box................................NA
Street..................................1675 NORTH MAIN STREET
City....................................ORANGE
State...................................CA
Country.................................US
Zip Code................................92667
Emergency Phone.........................CHEMTREC 800-424-9300
Information Phone.......................714-998-8800 OUTSIDE CA800-821-7234

MSDS Preparer's Information
MSDS Preparer Name......................NK
Street..................................1675 NORTH MAIN STREET
City....................................ORANGE
State...................................CA
Zip Code................................92667
Date MSDS Prepared/Revised..............14NOV86
Date of Technical Review................01NOV89
Active Indicator........................N
Item Manager............................GSA

Alternate Vendors
Vendor #5 CAGE..........................BHDRR

SECTION III - Physical/Chemical Characteristics
Specification Number....................NK
Specification Type/Grade/Class..........NK
NRC License Number......................NK
Net Propellant Weight (Ammo)............NK
Appearance/Odor............COLORLESS GAS OR LIQ W/EXTREMELY
PUNGENT ODOR
Boiling Point...........................-33C -28F
Melting Point...........................-77C -107F
Vapor Pressure..........................2327@0C32F
Vapor Density...........................NK
Specific Gravity........................0.68@-33C -28F
Decomposition Temperature...............NK
Evaporation Rate........................NK
Solubility in Water.....................100%
Percent Volatiles by Volume.............100%
Chemical pH.............................13+
Corrosion Rate..........................NK
Container Type..........................L
Container Pressure Code.................4
Temperature Code........................8
Product State Code......................U

SECTION IV - Fire and Explosion Hazard Data
Flash Point Method......................NA
Lower Explosion Limit...................25% BY VOL
Upper Explosion Limit...................16% BY VOL
Extinguishing Media.....................WATER SPRAY OR WATER FOG
Special Fire Fighting Procedures........STOP FLOW OF GAS. USE WTR FOG TO KEEP FIRE-EXPOSED CNTS COOL & TO PROTECT THE MEN EFFECTING THE SHUT-OFF. WEAR SCBA & ENCAPSULATING CHEMICAL PROTECTIVE CLOTHING.
Unusual Fire/Explosion Hazards..........IF INVOLVED IN FIRE, 16-25% AMMONIA MIXTURE / AIR MAY EXPLODE. KEEP CNT COOL TO PREVENT BURSTING OR RELEASE OF GAS. PRESENCE OF OIL OR COMB WILL INCREASE FIRE HAZARD

SECTION V - Reactivity Data
Stability...............................YES
Stability Conditions to Avoid...........HEAT, OPEN FLAMES
Materials to Avoid......................CONTACT W/OXIDIZING GASES, CHLORINE, BROMINE, IODINE, HALOGENS, CALCIUM, & STRONG MINERAL ACIDS. CONTACT W/ COPPER, SILVER, ZINC*
Hazardous Decomposition Products........COMBUSTION WILL YIELD NITROGEN & WATER.
Hazardous Polymerization................NO
Polymerization Conditions to Avoid......NK
LD50 - LD50 Mixture.....................NK

SECTION VI - Health Hazard Data
Route of Entry: Skin....................YES
Route of Entry: Ingestion...............YES
Route of Entry: Inhalation..............YES
Health Hazards - Acute and Chronic......INGESTION:IRRITATION OR ULCERATION OF MOUTH,THROAT & DIGESTIVE.INHALATION:IRRITATION OF NOSE,THROAT & LUNGS. SKIN: IRRITATION OR SEVERE BURNS. EYES: MAY CAUSE TEMPERARY BLINDNESS OR SEVERE EYE DAMAGE.
Carcinogenity: NTP......................NK
Carcinogenity: IARC.....................NK
Carcinogenity: OSHA.....................NK
Explanation of Carcinogenity............NK
Symptoms of Overexposure................BURNING OF EYES, CONJUNCTIVITIS, SKIN IRRITATION, SWELLING OF EYELIDS & LIPS, DRY RED MOUTH & TOUNGE, BURNING THROAT & COUGHING. IN MORE SEVERE CASES DIFFICULRTY BREATHING, SIGNS & SYMPTOMS OF LUNG CONGESTION, & ULTIMATELY, DEATH FROM RESPIRATORY FAILURE DUE TO PULMONARY EDEMA MAY OCCUR. IRRITATION & BURNS OF THE SKIN & MUCOUS**
Medical Cond. Aggrevated by Exposure....AMMONIA IS A RESPIRATORY IRRITANT.PERSONS W/IMPAIRED PULMONARY FUNCTION MAY BE AT INCREASED RISK FROM EXPOSURE.
Emergency/First Aid Procedures..........INGESTION: CONSCIOUS GIVE LARGE QTYS OF WTR OR WEAK ACIDS CITRUS JUICE OR DILUTED VINEGAR. FOLLOW W/ RAW EGGS, CREAM OR OLIVE OIL. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. INHALATION: REMOVE TO FRESH AIR. IF NECESSARY START ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION. SKIN & EYES: IMMEDIATELY FLUSH / WASH W/ WTR FOR 15 MINS. REMOVE CONTAMINATED CLOTHING WHILE CONTINUING TO APPLY WTR, BEING CAREFUL NOT TO TEAR THE SKIN. OBTAIN MEDICAL ATTENTION.

SECTION VII - Precautions for Safe Handling and Use
Steps if Material Released/Spilled......DO NOT APPLY WTR ONTO LEAKING TANK. STOP THE FLOW OF GAS OR LIQ. WEAR FULL PROTECTIVE CLOTHING & SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS. EVACUATE THE AREA IMMEDIATELY. ELIMINATE ALL OPEN FLAMES IN VICINITY OFINDOOR SPILLS OR RELEASED VAPORS.
Neutralizing Agent................NK
Waste Disposal Method...........CONSULT FEDERAL, STATE OR LOCAL AUTHORITIES FOR PROPER DISPOSAL PROCEDURES. IF POSSIBLE, ALLOW SPILLED LIQ AMMONIA TO EVAPORATE, AS IT IS TOO VOLATILE TO ABSORB. DIKING WILL CONTAIN THE LIQ & ALLOW IT TO STABILIZE. DO NOT APPLY WTR DIRECTLY TO AMMONIA LIQ.
Handling and Storage Precautions........TECT AGAINST PHYSICAL DAMAGE. OUTSIDE SHADED AREA OR DETACHED STORAGE IS PREFERRED. STORAGE SHOULD BE IN A COOL, DRY, WELL VENT, NONCOMBUSTIBLE LOCATION HI
Other Precautions...........HIGHLY TOXIC TO FISH & AQUATIC LIFE. DO NOT CONTAMINATE ANY BODY OF WTR BY DIRECT APPLICATION, CLEANING OF EQUIP, OR DISPOSAL. SINCE AMMONIA IS A FERTILIZER, IT MAY PROMOTE EUTROPHICATION (HIGH IN NUTRIENTS, LOW IN OXYGEN) IN WATERWAYS.

SECTION VIII - Control Measures
Respiratory Protection..................UNLESS VENT IS ADEQUATE TO KEEP AIRBORNE CONCENTRATIONS BELOW THE EXPOSURE STANDARD, WEAR APPROVED RESPIRATORY PROTECTION SUCH AS AN AMMONIA CANISTER MASK OR AN APPROVED AIR SUPPLIED RESPIRATOR. USE SCBA IN AREA ABOVE CANISTER LIMIT.
Ventilation.................LOCAL EXHAUST. SPARK PROOF FANS DESIRABLE W/ MECHANICAL VENT. DUCTS SHOULD BE LOCATED AT CEILING LEVEL & LEADS UP & OUT.
Protective Gloves.......................RUBBER & SYNTHETIC CHEMICAL GLOVES
Eye Protection................GAS TIGHT CHEMICAL SAFETY GOGGLES
Other Protective Equipment..............EYEWASH FOUNTAIN & SAFETY SHOWER SHOULD BE AVAILABLE IN WORKAREA. LONG SLEEVED CLOTHING CLOSED AT NECK.
Work Hygenic Practices..................COTTON CLOTHING & UNDERWEAR. CHANGE CLOTHING IF CONTAMINATED.
Supplemental Health/Safety Data.........*MATERIALS TO AVOID: ALLOYS OF SAME. MERCURY, SILVER OXIDE OR HYPOCHLORITE CAN FORMEXPLOSIVE COMPOUNDS. **EFF OF OVEXPO: MEMBRANES. HEADACHE, SALIVATION, NAUSEA,& VOMITING. DIFFICULT OR LABORED BREATHING & COUGH W/ BLOODY MUCOUS DISCHARGE. BRONCHITIS LARYNGITIS, HEMOPTSIS, & PULMONARY EDEMA OR PNEUMONITIS. DEATH MAY RESULT.
Disposal Code....................O

SECTION IX - Label Data
Protect Eye.............................NO
Protect Skin............................NO
Protect Respiratory.....................NO
Chronic Indicator.......................UNKNOWN
Contact Code............................UNKNOWN
Fire Code...............................UNKNOWN
Health Code.............................UNKNOWN
React Code..............................UNKNOWN

SECTION X - Transportation Data
Container Quantity......................150
Unit of Measure.........................LB

SECTION XI - Site Specific/Reporting Information
Volatile Organic Compounds (P/G)........0
Volatile Organic Compounds (G/L)........0

SECTION XII - Ingredients/Identity Information
Ingredient #............................01
Ingredient Name.........................AMMONIA
CAS Number..............................7664417
NIOSH Number............................B0087500
Proprietary.............................NO
Percent.................................100
OSHA PEL................................50 PPM
ACGIH TLV...............................25 PPM/35 STEL; 9293
Recommended Limit.......................NK

Gasoline MSDS DISCLAIMER


Employers, employees, and anyone else should use this information only as a supplement to other information gathered by them, and should make independent judgement of suitability of this information to ensure proper use and protect health and safety. This information is furnished without warranty, and any use of the product not in conformance with this Material Safety Data Sheet, or in combination with any other product or process, is the responsibility of the user.

top

Complete Toxicological Profile for AMMONIA

  Human Health Effects
      Human Toxicity Excerpts
      Human Toxicity Values
      Skin, Eye and Respiratory Irritations
      Drug Warnings
      Medical Surveillance
      Populations at Special Risk
      Probable Routes of Human Exposure
  Emergency Medical Treatment
      Emergency Medical Treatment
      Antidote and Emergency Treatment
  Animal Toxicity Studies
      Non-Human Toxicity Excerpts
      Non-Human Toxicity Values
      Ecotoxicity Values
  Metabolism/Pharmacokinetics
      Metabolism/Metabolites
      Absorption, Distribution & Excretion
      Mechanism of Action
      Interactions
  Pharmacology
      Therapeutic Uses
      Drug Warnings
      Interactions
  Environmental Fate & Exposure
      Probable Routes of Human Exposure
      Natural Pollution Sources
      Artificial Pollution Sources
      Environmental Fate
      Environmental Biodegradation
      Environmental Abiotic Degradation
      Environmental Bioconcentration
      Soil Adsorption/Mobility
  Environmental Standards & Regulations
      CERCLA Reportable Quantities
      Clean Water Act Requirements
      Allowable Tolerances
  Chemical/Physical Properties
      Molecular Formula
      Molecular Weight
      Color/Form
      Odor
      Boiling Point
      Melting Point
      Corrosivity
      Critical Temperature & Pressure
      Density/Specific Gravity
      Dissociation Constants
      Heat of Combustion
      Heat of Vaporization
      pH
      Solubilities
      Spectral Properties
      Surface Tension
      Vapor Density
      Vapor Pressure
      Viscosity
      Other Chemical/Physical Properties
  Chemical Safety & Handling
      Hazards Summary
      DOT Emergency Guidelines
      Odor Threshold
      Skin, Eye and Respiratory Irritations
      NFPA Hazard Classification
      Flammable Limits
      Autoignition Temperature
      Fire Fighting Procedures
      Firefighting Hazards
      Explosive Limits & Potential
      Hazardous Reactivities & Incompatibilities
      Other Hazardous Reaction
      Prior History of Accidents
      Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health
      Protective Equipment & Clothing
      Preventive Measures
      Shipment Methods and Regulations
      Storage Conditions
      Cleanup Methods
      Disposal Methods
  Occupational Exposure Standards
      OSHA Standards
      Threshold Limit Values
      NIOSH Recommendations
      Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health
      Other Occupational Permissible Levels
  Manufacturing/Use Information
      Major Uses
      Manufacturers
      Methods of Manufacturing
      General Manufacturing Information
      Formulations/Preparations
      Consumption Patterns
      U. S. Production
      U. S. Imports
      U. S. Exports
  Laboratory Methods
      Analytic Laboratory Methods
      Sampling Procedures
  Special References
      Special Reports
  Synonyms and Identifiers
      Related HSDB Records
      Synonyms
      Formulations/Preparations
      Shipping Name/ Number DOT/UN/NA/IMO
      Standard Transportation Number

AMMONIA
CASRN: 7664-41-7
For other data, click on the Table of Contents

Human Health Effects:

Human Toxicity Excerpts:

SYMPTOMATOLOGY (AMMONIA GAS & WATER ONLY): 1. Vapors cause irritation of eyes & resp tract. High concn cause conjunctivitis, laryngitis, & pulmonary edema or pneumonitis. Sensation of suffocation ... induced by spasm of glottis or by laryngeal edema. 2. Contact with skin can cause burns & vesication. If squirted into eyes ... rise in intraocular pressure may mimic narrow-angle glaucoma. Corneal edema & semidilated fixed pupils ... /are/ typical. 4. If systemic absorption becomes extensive, coma may arise ... preceded by ... hypertonus & convulsions.
[Gosselin, R.E., R.P. Smith, H.C. Hodge. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1984., p. III-22]**PEER REVIEWED**

AMMONIA HAS A GREATER TENDENCY THAN OTHER ALKALIES TO PENETRATE & DAMAGE THE IRIS, & TO CAUSE CATARACT /IN SEVERE BURNS/. IRITIS MAY BE ACCOMPANIED BY HYPOPYON OR HEMORRHAGES ... EXTENSIVE LOSS OF PIGMENT & SEVERE GLAUCOMA.
[Grant, W.M. Toxicology of the Eye. 3rd ed. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publisher, 1986., p. 87]**PEER REVIEWED**

/WORKER/ COMPLAINED OF CHRONIC COUGH & INCR DYSPNEA ON EFFORT. BILATERAL INFILTRATES ... SEEN ON CHEST X-RAY, & LUNG FUNCTION INDICES REFLECTED ... VENTILATORY & DIFFUSION ABNORMALITIES. AFTER THREE YR AWAY FROM AMMONIA EXPOSURE ... WORKER HAD PERSISTENT EVIDENCE OF PULMONARY DAMAGE.
[Hamilton, A., and H. L. Hardy. Industrial Toxicology. 3rd ed. Acton, Mass.: Publishing Sciences Group, Inc., 1974., p. 208]**PEER REVIEWED**

SIX VOLUNTEERS INHALED AMMONIA AT 21 & 35 MG/CU M FOR 10 MIN. 5 REPORTED FAINT TO MODERATE IRRITATION & 1 REPORTED NO IRRITATION AT 35 MG/CU M. ... ANOTHER GROUP ... WAS EXPOSED FOR 5 MIN TO 22, 35, 50 & 94 MG/CU M. ... THE 94 MG/CU M ... CAUSED EYE IRRITATION WITH LACRIMATION, NOSE & THROAT IRRITATION & IN 1 ... CHEST IRRITATION.
[Clayton, G.D., F.E. Clayton (eds.) Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volumes 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F: Toxicology. 4th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1993-1994., p. 759]**PEER REVIEWED**

Inhalation causes ... secretion of saliva and retention of urine.
[Braker W, Mossman A; Matheson Gas Data Book 6th ED p.24 (1980)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Exposure to high gas concentrations may cause temporary blindness and severe eye damage. Direct contact of the eyes with liquid anhydrous ammonia will produce serious eye burns.
[Braker W, Mossman A; Matheson Gas Data Book 6th ED p.24 (1980)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hyperammonemic associated encephalopathy developed in an adult receiving essential amino acids. Evidence that her encephalopathy was related to her hyperammonemia included (1) elevated CSF glutamine and serum ammonia levels, (2) the absence of any other drug or metabolic cause of encephalopathy, and (3) resolution of her encephalopathy and abnormal ammonia levels with discontinuation of the hyperalimentation. The serum ammonia levels of patients receiving essential amino acid fluid should be monitored. If the levels remain elevated or if toxicity develops, consideration should be given to switching to an alternate fluid.
[Grazer RE et al; Arch Intern Med 144 (11): 2278-9 (1984)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The effect of various ammonia concn in an enclosed atmosphere on man's adrenocortical system was investigated in five experiments on 20 young healthy test subjects. The most pronounced changes in the adrenocortical system developed when the ammonia content was 5 mg/cu m.
[Kalandarov S et al; Kosm Biol Aviakosm Med 18 (3): 75-7 (1984)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The effect of addition of ammonia to cultures of ... human ... blood lymphocytes was studied. The concn of ammonia in the lymphocyte cultures represented normal (0.01-0.5 mg/dl), subtoxic (0.5-1 mg/dl), and toxic (1-10 mg/dl) concn of ammonia in blood. Viability of the lymphocytes and their mitogenic reactivity were measured. In general, 1.0 and 10 mg/dl of ammonia (toxic concn) affected viability and mitogenic responsiveness of all lymphocytes.
[Klucinski W, Targowski SP; Immunopharmacol 8 (1): 47-52 (1984)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Therapeutic or normal blood level: 0.05-0.17 mg %; 0.5-1.7 ug/ml
[Winek, C.L. Drug and Chemical Blood-Level Data 1985. Pittsburgh, PA: Allied Fischer Scientific, 1985., p. ]**PEER REVIEWED**

6 cases were reported of acute ammonia gas exposure following rupture of a pipe containing ammonia. Varying degrees of symptoms of acute inflammation of the respiratory tract and chemical skin burns were observed. Residual chronic bronchitis was evident in 2 cases. One worker died one month after the accident and the autopsy revealed acute laryngitis, tracheitis, bronchopneumonia, and pulmonary edema. The kidneys showed congestions and early hemorrhagic nephritis, which was attributed to toxemia secondary to chemical skin burns.
[NIOSH; Criteria Document: Ammonia p.26 (1979) DHEW Pub. NIOSH 74-136]**PEER REVIEWED**

During controlled human exposures at about 500 ppm for 30 minutes the following were observed: irregular minute ventilation with a cyclic pattern of hypernea, increases in blood pressure and pulse rate, variable lacrimation, and general complaints of upper respiratory irritation, some of these persisting for 24 hours following exposure.
[NIOSH; Criteria Document: Ammonia p.56 (1979) DHEW Pub. NIOSH 74-136]**PEER REVIEWED**

2 cases of ocular injuries with a rise in intraocular pressure and cataract formation after ammonia of unknown concentration had been squirted into the victims' eyes during robberies /were reported/. In both cases, the more severely affected eyes showed marked injection and edema of the conjunctiva; diffuse corneal damage; semidilated, oval, and fixed pupils; and a marked increase of the intraocular pressure which persisted and was controlled only with drugs. Glaucoma was observed to be associated with an open angle. Cataract formation was seen in both cases. Visual acuity was reduced to little more than light perception.
[NIOSH; Criteria Document: Ammonia p.34 (1979) DHEW Pub. NIOSH 74-136]**PEER REVIEWED**

One human subject /was exposed/ for 4 hours to an ammonia concentration of 530-560 ppm in order to study biochemical and blood pressure changes. Blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine remained unchanged through the exposure. The carbon dioxide combining power of the blood plasma remained unaltered. Repeated blood pressure readings during the experiment showed a linear drop from 127 mm to 102 mm. No reference /was made/ to postexposure blood pressures, and data were not given on any subjective reactions or pulmonary function during or after exposure. During the exposure period, the serum nonprotein nitrogen gradually increased from 27 mg/100 g blood to 57 mg/100 g blood and the blood ammonia rose from nondetectable levels to values of 36.4 mg/100 g blood.
[NIOSH; Criteria Document: Ammonia p.36 (1979) DHEW Pub. NIOSH 74-136]**PEER REVIEWED**

700 ppm causes eye irritation, and permanent injury may result if prompt remedial measures are not taken; 5000 ppm can cause immediate death from spasm, inflammation, or edema of the larynx. Contact of the liquid with skin freezes the tissue and then produces a caustic burn.
[U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Transportation. CHRIS - Hazardous Chemical Data. Volume II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984-5., p. ]**PEER REVIEWED**

Ammonia toxicity is a major factor in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy associated with chronic liver disease. Ammonia levels in patients with severe liver disease are frequently elevated both in blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Hepatic encephalopathy results in neuropathological damage similar (Alzheimer type II astrocytosis) to that found in patients with congenital hyperammonemia resulting from inherited urea cycle enzymes defects. Cerebrospinal fluid and brain glutamine are significantly elevated in cirrhotic patients with encephalopathy following portocaval anastomosis. In both cases, glutamine is elevated in a region-dependent manner.
[Butterworth RF et al; Neurochem Pathol 6 (1-2): 1-12 (1987)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The eyes of volunteers were exposed to a range of concentrations of sulfur dioxide, ammonia, butan-2-one, pentan-2-one, formaldehyde, 3-methyl-butan-2-one, or acrolein for up to 15 seconds inside close fitting goggles. The subjects also inhaled 10 breaths of 1 liter of each agent through a mouthpiece while wearing a nose clip. Eye irritancy increased with increasing bronchoconstriction. The bronchoconstrictive response occurred at concentrations below the threshold for eye irritation. The sensitivity of the lung to the irritant gases was estimated to be about 1.5 times greater than that of the eye. /The data indicated/ that although some organs may be relatively more sensitive than others, some irritant gases are specific for certain organs.
[Douglas RB, Coe JE; Annal Occup Hyg 31 (2): 265-7 (1987)]**PEER REVIEWED**

/To investigate/ the etiology of altered mental status following transurethral prostatectomy, serum electrolyte and blood ammonia levels were measured in 33 patients before and immediately after transurethral prostatectemy. The irrigating fluid was 3% sorbitol in 12 patients and 1.5% glycine in 21. Serum electrolyte changes were similar in both groups. Elevated blood ammonia levels were observed in eight of the 21 patients receiving glycine irrigation. Three of these patients demonstrated clinical signs of encephalopathy. Absorption of glycine during transurethral prostatectomy appears to produce hyerammonaemia in some patients and may contribute to the encephalopathy.
[Shepard RL et al; Br J Urol 70 (4): 349-51 (1987)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The relationship between ammonia accumulation during submaximal exercise and altitude acclimatization was investigated in 12 healthy male volunteers with an average age of 20 years. All the subjects lived at sea level and had not been exposed to altitudes greater than 1,500 meters for 6 months prior to the study. The study included 21 days at sea level and 14 days at high altitude (4,300 meters). The subjects were divided into an active group that exercised for a total of 40 minutes daily and a sedentary group. Plasma metabolites and ventilation were studied after three submaximal 30 minute cycling exercise periods. There were no significant differences in maximal oxygen uptake for the active and sedentary groups either at sea level or at high altitude. Values for maximal oxygen uptake decreased by 32% for both groups after 24 hr at high altitude. The maximum oxygen uptake values for the sedentary soldiers decreased another 16% after 13 days at high altitude whereas the values for the active subjects did not change after the first 24 hours at high altitude. Oxygen uptake was significantly higher for both groups at sea level than after acute or chronic high altitude exposure. The respiratory exchange ratio during exercise increased after acute exposure to high altitude, but no between group differences were observed. Resting plasma ammonia levels were comparable at all altitudes. Postexercise plasma ammonia levels were elevated in the sedentary group only after chronic high altitude exposure. No significant group differences were noted at any altitude for resting or postexercise plasma glucose and insulin concentrations or the free fatty acid to glycerol ratio.
[Young PM et al; J Appl Physiol 63 (2): 758-64 (1987)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Exposure to high concn can cause temporary blindness and eye damage; 46.8 ppm recognition odor in air; good warning properties; direct contact with liquid causes severe eye burns and skin burns. Dose effect relationship 100 ppm 8 hr MAC, 300 ppm 1 hr MAC, 408 ppm least concn causing throat irritation; 698 ppm least concn causing immediate eye irritation; 1,720 ppm least level causing cough response; 5,000-10,000 rapidly fatal for short exposure 2: 3% burns on wet skin.
[Prager, J.C. Environmental Contaminant Reference Databook Volume 1. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1995., p. 137]**PEER REVIEWED**

... Irritation of the respiratory tract and conjunctivae /was found/ in workers inhaling 100 ppm ammonia, and 20 ppm caused complaints and discomfort in uninjured workers. Studies of the effect on man of exposures in the 5-20 ppm range are meager; however, general field experience with a large number of workers exposed to ammonia from blueprinting and copying machines indicates a maximum acceptable concentration without severe complaints of 20-25 ppm.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I, II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991., p. 58]**PEER REVIEWED**

Patients who survive for more than 24 hours are likely to recover. Although complete pulmonary recovery is the usual outcome, residual bronchoconstriction, bronchiectasis, and small airway disease have been reported. Fibrous obliteration of the small airways, thought to be a late stage of bronchiolitis obliterans, is felt to be the cause of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease that occasionally develops.
[Haddad, L.M., Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Co., 1990., p. 1272]**PEER REVIEWED**

Eye damage varying in degree to total blindness may be the permanent residual effect of an exposure to ammonia. Cataract formation, permanent corneal ulceration, and lenticular opacification have been reported.
[Haddad, L.M., Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Co., 1990., p. 1272]**PEER REVIEWED**

A typical case history illustrates the time course and type of injury following a nonfatal acute ammonia exposure. A 61 year old manager of an anhydrous ammonia company was accidentally sprayed in the face and chest with anhydrous ammonia when a valve malfunctioned. Immediate blepharospasm prevented him from moving away from the jet of ammonia. An employee led him to a water tank where he washed his face and chest for 15 minutes. He was taken to the local emergency room, arriving there 1 hour after the injury. Upon arrival he was aphonic and dyspneic with inspiratory stridor. He was coughing serosanguinous material. An emergency tracheostomy was performed. The chest radiograph was normal. He was treated with bronchodilators, steroids, and empiric antibiotics for treatment of second-degree burns over his thighs and chest. He recovered over a 15 day period with eventual removal of the tracheostomy. Serial chest radiographs were normal. His vision was unimpaired and he had no pulmonary complaints at the time of discharge.
[Sullivan, J.B. Jr., G.R. Krieger (eds.). Hazardous Materials Toxicology-Clinical Principles of Environmental Health. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins, 1992., p. 792]**PEER REVIEWED**

Human Toxicity Values:

LCLo Human inhalation 7,000 mg/cu m/3 hr
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Ammonia (Draft) p.99 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Skin, Eye and Respiratory Irritations:

The vapor even in low concn is extremely irritating to skin, eyes and respiratory passages.
[Gosselin, R.E., R.P. Smith, H.C. Hodge. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1984., p. III-22]**PEER REVIEWED**

Caution: Potential symptoms of overexposure are eye, nose and throat irritation; dyspnea, bronchospasm and chest pain; pulmonary edema; pink frothy sputum; skin burns, vesiculation.
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 87]**PEER REVIEWED**

Strong irritant to eyes, skin, respiratory tract. Pungent odor. Liquid produces severe burns. Inhalation of high concn causes violent coughing, severe lung irritation, and pulmonary edema. Death can result if rapid escape is not possible. Swallowing liquid is corrosive to mouth, throat, stomach. Not a systemic poison.
[Prager, J.C. Environmental Contaminant Reference Databook Volume 1. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1995., p. 137]**PEER REVIEWED**

Drug Warnings:

Caution: Irritating to skin and mucous membranes. /Ammonia water-10%/
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 87]**PEER REVIEWED**

Medical Surveillance:

The following medical procedures should be made available to each employee who is exposed to ammonia at potentially hazardous levels: (1) A complete medical history and physical examination: the purpose is to detect existing conditions that might place the exposed employee at increased risk, and to establish a baseline for future health monitoring. Examination of the eyes and respiratory tract should be stressed. The skin should be examined for evidence of chronic disorders; (2) 14" x 17" chest roentgenogram: Ammonia causes human lung damage. Surveillance of the lungs is indicated; (3) FVC and FEV (1 sec): Ammonia is a respiratory irritant. Persons with impaired pulmonary function may be at increased risk from exposure. Periodic surveillance is indicated. Medical examinations should be repeated on an annual basis, except that an X-ray is necessary only when indicated by the results of pulmonary function testing, or by signs and symptoms of respiratory disease.
[Mackison, F. W., R. S. Stricoff, and L. J. Partridge, Jr. (eds.). NIOSH/OSHA - Occupational Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards. DHHS(NIOSH) Publication No. 81-123 (3 VOLS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Jan. 1981., p. 1]**PEER REVIEWED**

Populations at Special Risk:

IN EVENT AN INDIVIDUAL'S LIVER FUNCTION IS GREATLY REDUCED, ANY SOURCE OF AMMONIA, SUCH AS ... INHALATION ... CAN LEAD TO HEPATIC COMA WITH INCREASED CIRCULATING AMMONIA.
[Clayton, G.D., F.E. Clayton (eds.) Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volumes 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F: Toxicology. 4th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1993-1994., p. 756]**PEER REVIEWED**

Persons with corneal disease, and glaucoma, or chronic respiratory diseases may suffer increased risk.
[Sittig, M. Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, 1985. 2nd ed. Park Ridge, NJ: Noyes Data Corporation, 1985., p. 46]**PEER REVIEWED**

Probable Routes of Human Exposure:

Routes of entry: Inhalation of gas, ingestion, skin and eye contact.
[Sittig, M. Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, 1985. 2nd ed. Park Ridge, NJ: Noyes Data Corporation, 1985., p. 46]**PEER REVIEWED**

WHEN AMMONIA IS USED AS DEVELOPER IN PHOTOCOPYING PROCESSES ... BLUEPRINT & DIAZO, IT MAY BE RELEASED INTO WORKPLACE.
[Clayton, G.D., F.E. Clayton (eds.) Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volumes 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F: Toxicology. 4th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1993-1994., p. 756]**QC REVIEWED**

ACCIDENTAL EXPOSURES OF HUMANS MAY ARISE FROM FAILURE OF EQUIPMENT CONTAINING EITHER LIQ OR GASEOUS AMMONIA. ... LIQ AMMONIA EXPOSURES MAY BE COMPLICATED BY FREEZING OF TISSUES & BY INJECTION OF A LIQ STREAM UNDER HIGH PRESSURE.
[Clayton, G.D., F.E. Clayton (eds.) Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volumes 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F: Toxicology. 4th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1993-1994., p. 759]**QC REVIEWED**

ANALYSIS OF DATA OBTAINED IN PLANT SURVEYS FOUND THE LIMIT OF DETECTION TO BE BELOW 5 PPM & THE COMPLAINT LEVEL TO BE 20-25 PPM.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 5th ed. Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 1986., p. 27]**PEER REVIEWED**

NIOSH estimates that approximately half a million USA workers have potential exposure to ammonia.
[NIOSH; Criteria Document: Ammonia p.24 (1974) DHEW Pub. NIOSH 74-136]**PEER REVIEWED**

Emergency Medical Treatment:

Emergency Medical Treatment:

For more specific material safety information for Ammonia, please consult the Anhydrous Ammonia MSDS Information above.

Antidote and Emergency Treatment:

Call for medical aid. Vapor poisonous if inhaled. ... Move to fresh air. If breathing has stopped, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. ... Remove contaminated clothing and shoes. Flush affected areas with plenty of water. Do not rub affected areas. If in eyes, hold eyelids open, and flush with plenty of water. If swallowed and victim is conscious, have victim drink water or milk.
[Prager, J.C. Environmental Contaminant Reference Databook Volume 1. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1995., p. 138]**PEER REVIEWED**

Inhalation: Move victim to fresh air and give artificial respiration if necessary. Oxygen may be useful. Observed for laryngeal spasm and perform /SRP: intubation or/ tracheostomy if indicated. Skin or eyes: flood immediately with running water for 15 min. Treat subsequently as thermal burn.
[Prager, J.C. Environmental Contaminant Reference Databook Volume 1. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1995., p. 138]**PEER REVIEWED**

For immediate first aid: Ensure that adequate decontamination has been carried out. If victim is not breathing, start artificial respiration, preferably with a demand-valve resuscitator, bag-valve-mask device, or pocket mask as trained. Perform CPR if necessary. Immediately flush contaminated eyes with gently flowing water. Do not induce vomiting. If vomiting occurs, lean patient forward or place on left side (head-down position, if possible) to maintain an open airway and prevent aspiration. Keep victim quiet and maintain normal body temperature. Obtain medical attention. /Ammonia and related compounds/
[Bronstein, A.C., P.L. Currance; Emergency Care for Hazardous Materials Exposure. 2nd ed. St. Louis, MO. Mosby Lifeline. 1994., p. 171]**PEER REVIEWED**

For basic treatment: Establish a patent airway. Suction if necessary. Watch for signs of respiratory insufficiency and assist ventilations if necessary. Administer oxygen by nonrebreather mask at 10 to 15 L/min. Monitor for signs of pulmonary edema and treat if necessary ... Monitor for shock and treat if necessary ... For eye contamination, flush eyes immediately with water. Irrigate each eye continuously with normal saline during transport ... Do not use emetics. For ingestion, rinse mouth and administer 5 mL/kg up to 200 mL of water for dilution if the patient can swallow, has a strong gag reflex, and does not drool. ... Do not attempt to neutralize. /Ammonia and related compounds/
[Bronstein, A.C., P.L. Currance; Emergency Care for Hazardous Materials Exposure. 2nd ed. St. Louis, MO. Mosby Lifeline. 1994., p. 171]**PEER REVIEWED**

Animal Toxicity Studies:

Non-Human Toxicity Excerpts:

DEATH MAY RESULT PARTLY FROM ASPHYXIA & PARTLY FROM ELECTROLYTE & CELLULAR METABOLIC ACTION OF AMMONIA. TERMINAL SIGNS INCLUDE CYANOSIS, POSSIBLE VIOLENT STRUGGLING & BELLOWING ... & CLONIC CONVULSIONS.
[Jones, L.M., et al. Veterinary Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 4th ed. Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1977., p. 1134]**PEER REVIEWED**

CLINICAL SIGNS INCLUDE REDDENED MUCOUS MEMBRANES, LACRIMATION, COUGHING, SNEEZING, DECR EGG PRODUCTION IN BIRDS, NASAL DISCHARGE ... & DYSPNEA DUE TO PULMONARY EDEMA. FLUID SOUNDS MAY BE DETECTED IN THE LUNGS.
[Jones, L.M., et al. Veterinary Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 4th ed. Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1977., p. 1133]**PEER REVIEWED**

... CONTINUOUS EXPOSURE FOR SEVERAL WK TO 470 MG/CU M ... TO EYES OF ... RABBITS ... PRODUCED OPACITY OVER 1/4 TO 1/2 OF CORNEA IN RABBITS.
[Grant, W.M. Toxicology of the Eye. 3rd ed. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publisher, 1986., p. 86]**PEER REVIEWED**

AMMONIA ... CROSSES THE OVINE PLACENTA. THE FETUS CAN ACCUMULATE (& APPARENTLY DETOXIFY) MORE AMMONIA THAN THE DAM BECAUSE FETAL TISSUES HAVE LARGER CONCN THAN THOSE OF THE DAM WHEN THE DAM IS POISONED BY UREA.
[Booth, N.H., L.E. McDonald (eds.). Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 5th ed. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 1982., p. 1031]**PEER REVIEWED**

STATIC EXPOSURES OF CATS & RABBITS FOR 1 HR ... AT 7000 MG/CU M RESULTED IN DEATH OF APPROX 50% ... POSTMORTEM EXAM SHOWED SEVERE EFFECTS ON UPPER RESP TRACT ... LESS SEVERE EFFECTS IN LOWER RESP TRACT INCL DAMAGE TO BRONCHIOLES & ALVEOLAR CONGESTION, EDEMA, ATELECTASIS, HEMORRHAGE, EMPHYSEMA & FLUID.
[Clayton, G.D., F.E. Clayton (eds.) Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volumes 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F: Toxicology. 4th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1993-1994., p. 758]**PEER REVIEWED**

/49 & 51/ RATS WERE ... EXPOSED CONTINUOUSLY FOR 90 DAYS AT ... 262 MG/CU M & FOR 65 DAYS AT 455 MG/CU M /RESPECTIVELY/. ... 262 MG/CU M ... /PRODUCED/ MILD NASAL DISCHARGE IN ABOUT 25% ... ALL 51 RATS EXPOSED AT 455 MG/CU M SHOWED MILD DYSPNEA & NASAL IRRITATION. THERE WERE 32 DEATHS BY DAY 25 & 50 BY DAY 65.
[Clayton, G.D., F.E. Clayton (eds.) Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volumes 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F: Toxicology. 4th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1993-1994., p. 758]**PEER REVIEWED**

... RATS ... /EXPOSED/ TO 470 MG/CU M ... CONTINUOUSLY FOR 90 DAYS ... HISTOPATHOLOGY ... FOUND FOCAL OR DIFFUSE INTERSTITIAL PNEUMONITIS IN ALL ... WITH EPITHELIAL CALCIFICATION IN RENAL TUBULES & BRONCHI, EPITHELIAL PROLIFERATION OF RENAL TUBULES, MYOCARDIAL FIBROSIS & FATTY LIVER /IN SOME/ ...
[Clayton, G.D., F.E. Clayton (eds.) Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volumes 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F: Toxicology. 4th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1993-1994., p. 758]**PEER REVIEWED**

SWINE EXPOSED FOR 2 TO 6 WK AT 100 PPM DEVELOPED CONJUNCTIVAL IRRITATION & THICKENING OF NASAL & TRACHEAL EPITHELIUM WITHOUT INJURY TO BRONCHI OR ALVEOLI.
[Clayton, G.D., F.E. Clayton (eds.) Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volumes 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F: Toxicology. 4th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1993-1994., p. 758]**PEER REVIEWED**

Pullets exposed to 200 ppm atmospheric ammonia for 17 days had reduced feed intake & reduced growth rate when compared to controls. After the ammonia exposure period at point of lay, percent egg production was less & mortality was greater for exposed group than controls.
[Deaton JW et al; Poult Sci 63 (2): 384-5 (1984)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Lesions occurring in resp tract of mice after exposure to 10 sensory irritants (incl ammonia), at concn which elicited a resp decrease of 50% (RD50), were compared with respect to type & severity. The RD50 of ammonia was 303 ppm. Exposure for 6 hr/day for 5 days produced lesions in nasal cavity with distinct anterior-posterior severity gradient. Lesions produced by the irritants ranged from slight epithelial hypertrophy or hyperplasia to epithelial erosion, ulceration, & necrosis with variable inflammation of subepithelial tissues.
[Buckley LA et al; Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 74 (3): 417-29 (1984)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Turkeys were given an aerosol vaccine to determine their ability to clear a virulent inhaled pathogenic strain of Escherichia coli, while maintained in presence of atmospheric ammonia at 2 concn (10 & 40 ul/l of air). More Escherichia coli were found in lungs, air sacs, & livers of turkeys exposed to ammonia. Turkeys not exposed to ammonia had better clearance of Escherichia coli. Vaccination against Escherichia coli improved the rate of clearance of Escherichia coli in birds not exposed to ammonia.
[Nagaraja KV et al; Am J Vet Res 45 (2): 392-5 (1984)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Ammonia intoxication decreases the hyperpolarizing action of postsynaptic inhibition in cat spinal cord. The effect of ammonia intoxication on postsynaptic inhibition can be considered as a cause of the encephalopathy produced because postsynaptic inhibition is altered without a change in tissue energy state, the resting membrane potential, the whole neuron resistance, the action potential & the excitatory postsynaptic potentials.
[Raabe W, Lin S; Res 303 (1): 67-76 (1984)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Symptoms of injury are more variable on herbaceous plants than on woody species, ranging from irregular, bleached, bificial, necrotic lesions to reddish interveinal streaking or dark upper surface discoloration.
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Ammonia (Draft) p.91 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Fifty pounds of gas used /as a fumigant/ in two dairy sheds killed starlings, sparrows, mice and pigeons after 7 min of fumigation. ... Rapid dispersal of the gas eliminates danger of milk contamination or adverse residual effects on cattle.
[Devore AL et al; Pest Control 35 (2): 24-6 (1967)]**PEER REVIEWED**

... The search for the peripheral toxins responsible for the CNS impairment present in hepatic encephalopathy has ... shown that the administration of ammonia, mercaptans and octanoic acid in normal rats reproduced behavioral and electrophysiological changes similar to those seen in galactosamine induced encephalopathy. The present report shows that a subacute administration of the above toxins induced a marked alteration of the GABA receptor complex which may account for the CNS derangement of hepatic encephalopathy.
[Barald M et al; Arch Toxicol (Suppl) 7: 130-5 (1984)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Decreased ammonia toxicity with increased salinity may be partially explained, at least for low salinity levels, by the fact that there is a slight decrease in the ammonia fraction of total ammonia as ionic strength increases in dilute saline solutions.
[USEPA; Ambient Water Quality Criteria Doc: Ammonia p.31 (1984) EPA 440/5-85-001]**PEER REVIEWED**

Although total ammonia toxicity was reduced at elevated CO2 levels, the inverse was true when considering non-ionized ammonia alone; more NH3 is required in low CO2, high pH water to exert the same toxic effect as seen in fish in high CO2, low pH water. The explanation presented for the decreased toxicity of NH3 in low CO2 water was that CO2 excretion across the gills would reduce pH, and therefore NH3 concentration, in water flowing over the gills.
[USEPA; Ambient Water Quality Criteria Doc: Ammonia p.30 (1984) EPA 440/5-85-001]**PEER REVIEWED**

In experiments with Potamogeton lucens, /it was/ observed that ammonia, which forms a readily available nitrogen source for the plant, can be toxic when present at high concentrations ... causing appreciable injury to detached branches.
[USEPA; Ambient Water Quality Criteria Doc: Ammonia p.72 (1984) EPA 440/5-85-001]**PEER REVIEWED**

/Results of/ an unstated number of rabbits and cats for 1 hour to initial concentrations of 3.5-8.7 mg/l (approximately 5,200-12,800 ppm) /of ammonia/ with an average concentration of 7.0 mg/l (approximately 10,360 ppm was reported to be the "approximate LC50." The static method of gassing used probably resulted in an average concentration of half the initial concentrations or less. Also evaluated was the gas absorption of the nasobuccopharyngeal section of the respiratory tract. Rabbits /which/ inhaled directly through a tracheal cannula, and a second group inhaled normally through nose, mouth, and throat. The mean survival time in the second group was reported to be almost twice that of the first group, 33 hr versus 18 hr. On microscopic examination, the trachea was congested and edematous. The mucosa was necrotic and sloughed off in 80-90% of the animals in which the upper respiratory tract had been bypassed, while the trachea was normal in appearance in the second group of test animals. Similar differential findings, but to a lesser degree, were shown in the bronchial mucosa. The damage to the bronchioles and alveoli surprisingly appeared to be identical in both groups. It was described as congestion, edema, hemorrhage, and atelectasis with emphysema. The upper respiratory tract acted as a protection only to the trachea and bronchi, and that small airways and alveoli were less resistant to ammonia injury in many cases within 10 minutes. Between the 6th and 10th postexposure days, 7 of the 80 died, compared with no deaths in controls. Autopsies were not performed.
[NIOSH; Criteria Document: Ammonia p.47 (1979) DHEW Pub. NIOSH 74-136]**PEER REVIEWED**

12 guinea pigs /were exposed/ to about 170 ppm ammonia for 6 hours a day, 5 days a week for up to 18 weeks. Chamber concentrations were monitored and ranged from 140-200 ppm. The exposed animals and 6 controls were weighed weekly. No adverse effects were observed by autopsy of the 4 exposed and 2 control animals killed after 6 weeks or after 12 weeks. In 4 animals exposed for 18 weeks, there was congestion of spleens, livers, and kidneys with early degenerative changes in suprarenal glands. Increased blood destruction was suggested by higher quantities of hemosiderin in the spleens. In the upper tubules of the kidneys there was cloudy swelling with precipitated albumin in the lumen and some casts. These changes were also seen in the lower tubules of 2 animals. The cells of the suprarenal glands were swollen and the cytoplasm in some areas had lost its normal granular structure.
[NIOSH; Criteria Document: Ammonia p.48 (1979) DHEW Pub. NIOSH 74-136]**PEER REVIEWED**

One pig exposed to 280 ppm of ammonia showed immediate irritation of the nose and mouth and abnormal respiratory patterns, and by the 36th hour of exposure had convulsions and extremely shallow and irregular breathing. Convulsions continued for 3 hours after exposure ended but the animal appeared normal several hours later. In each of 2 trials, 4 exposure groups of 9 pigs each were continuously exposed to ammonia for 5 weeks. Data from both trials were combined for analysis. Concentrations of ammonia were measured daily, and the average exposures of the groups were 12, 61, 103, and 145 ppm. Feed consumption and average daily weight gain were adversely affected by increasing ammonia concentrations. Pigs exposed to the 3 higher concentrations had excessive nasal, lacrymal, and oral secretions, but these were less pronounced in those exposed to 61 ppm. Pigs exposed to 61 ppm appeared to adjust within 3-4 days, so that their secretory rate was only slightly higher than that of animals exposed to 12 ppm. Pigs in the 2 higher concentrations coughed approximately 3 times as much as those in the lower, and coughing at 61 ppm was slightly more frequent than at 12 ppm. Five animals from each exposure group were autopsied and all gross and microscopic findings were normal.
[NIOSH; Criteria Document: Ammonia p.50 (1979) DHEW Pub. NIOSH 74-136]**PEER REVIEWED**

Arginine administration (5 m moles/kg/day) to albino rats for 7 days, revealed that this vital basic amino acid possesses latent potentiality for the accentuation of urea cycle or at least for arginase activity. The mitigation of ammonia toxicity was observed to be more effective in the gastrocnemius and red vastus as compared to white vastus. Ammonia and lactate levels were decreased in blood by arginine and thereby delayed the onset of fatigue by preventing ammonotoxemia and lactic acidemia.
[Krishna Mohan P et al; Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 31 (1): 63-9 (1987)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The short-term effects of ammonia vapor on mucociliary function in the maxillary sinus of rabbits anesthetized with urethane were investigated by a photoelectric technique. Challenges with 1.5 ml ammonia increased mucociliary activity dose dependently, the maximal response being 26.6 + or - 1.6%. The increase appeared within 1.3 + or - 0.3 seconds after exposure. Atropine and hexamethonium decreased the effects of NH3, indicating that part of the response was mediated by cholinergic effector neurons, but a noncholinergic effect clearly remained. Pretreatment with large doses of capsaicin (13 mg ia) abolished the response, whereas the neuropeptide substance P antagonist (d-Pro2, D-Trp7,9) inhibited the noncholinergic response. Challenges with ammonia vapor decreased respiratory rate. An identical response was noticed during injections with the C fiber stimulant capsaicin. Ammonia vapor trigger a mucociliary protective reflex in the airways, involving capsaicin-sensitive C fibers; the increase of mucociliary activity is probably due to the combined effect on the mucociliary system of both neuropeptide substance P and acetylcholine released from the afferent and efferent part of the reflex arc, respectively.
[Lindbery S et al; Am Rev Respir Dis 135 (5): 1093-8 (1987)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The effects of exposure of animals to ammonia on their delayed type of dermal response, the mitogenic and antigenic responses of their lymphocytes, and the bactericidal and phagocytic activities of their alveolar macrophages were examined. ... The response of normal blood lymphocytes to phytohemaglutinin in medium containing 1 or 10 mg of ammonia/dl was significantly affected. There was no significant difference in the bactericidal or phagocytic activities of alveolar macrophages collected from animals exposed to ammonia and control animals. However, ammonia added to the culture of alveolar macrophages from normal animals significantly inhibited their bactericidal activity.
[Targowski SP et al; Infect Immun 43 (1): 289-93 (1984)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The effect of addition of ammonia into the tissue cultures represented toxic, subtoxic, and normal concn of ammonia in the bovine blood during clinical and subclinical urea toxicosis. ... Viability of the lymphocytes was measured by the trypan blue exclusion test and their mitogenic reactivity by incorporation of (3)H thymidine into DNA of lymphocytes. Approximately 30% bovine lymphocytes were killed by ammonia in medium during 72 hr of incubation. Ammonia also affected the response of lymphocytes to stimulation with PHA or Con A as well as mixed lymphocyte culture reaction. The mitogenic response of lymphocytes was also reduced when lymphocytes were preincubated with ammonia for even 1 hr. The mitogenic response was not restored when the number of lymphocytes preincubated with ammonia was reconstituted to the initial concn to compensate for the killed lymphocytes before stimulation with PHA. Therefore, addition of ammonia to the culture either killed lymphocytes or permanently impaired their function.
[Targowski SP et al; Vet Immunol Immunopathol 5 (3): 297-310 (1984)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Recent studies of dairy cattle provide speculative evidence that, high protein feeding or forms of protein that lead to elevated ammonia concn in tissue, decrease conception rates, and increase the calving to conception intervals of dairy cows.
[Visek WJ; J Daisy Sci 67 (3): 481-98 (1984)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Acute symptoms of ammonia (NH3) toxicity to brown trout sac fry and 12 day old fry were described by researchers, who exposed fry to concn ranging from 0.08 to 50.0 mg/l NH3. Symptoms caused by NH3 exposures were: rapid spasm like movements at concn of 2.0 mg/l NH3 and higher within 16-17 minutes of exposure; after 40 minutes these symptoms were also observed at 0.4 mg/l NH3. After 2.5 hr these abnormal movements ceased, and at 10 hr heart activity was decreased and fish lost movement ability at the higher (> 2.0 mg/l NH3) concn. Other symptoms included inability to react to mechanical stimulation and disorders in rhythm of mouth movements culminating in the mouth's staying rigidly open.
[USEPA; Ambient Water Quality Criteria Doc: Ammonia p.78 (1984) EPA 440/5-85-001]**PEER REVIEWED**

Eight rats and four mice /were exposed/ for 16 hr to an ammonia gas concentration of 1,000 ppm in a continuous flow chamber study. No noticeable effects /were noted/ during exposure. One rat died 12 hr after exposure and showed congestion of the brain, liver, and kidneys, plus large hemorrhages in the lung and pulmonary edema. The other 11 animals showed no gross abnormalities during the subsequent 5 months of observation. Two rats and two mice were killed at that time, and autopsy results were negative.
[NIOSH; Criteria Document: Ammonia p.48 (1979) DHEW Pub. NIOSH 74-136]**PEER REVIEWED**

The concn of ammonia fumes in the air of animal rooms from bedding soiled with urine ... is also now recognized as a possible complicating factor in the interpretation of animal studies, particularly when there might be respiratory lesions. ... the effects of ammonia at concn of 25-250 ppm in the air of animal rooms on the characteristics of murine respiratory mycoplasmosis in Sherman and Fischer rats. The prevalence of pneumonia, but not of other respiratory lesions of murine respiratory mycoplasmosis, showed a strong tendency to incr directly with environmental ammonia concn. Exposure to ammonia of rats that had not been infected with the mycoplasma organism caused anatomic lesions that were unlike those of mycoplasmosis and were limited to the nasal passages.
[Hayes, W.J., Jr., E.R. Laws Jr., (eds.). Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology Volume 1. General Principles. New York, NY: Academic Press, Inc., 1991., p. 73]**PEER REVIEWED**

Extensive experiments in eight ureotelic species, including man, show that urinary excretion of orotic acid becomes significantly elevated when the quantity of ammonia presented to the liver exceeds the capacity for normal detoxification.
[Visek WJ; J Dairy Sci 67 (3): 481-98 (1984)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Non-Human Toxicity Values:

RD50 Mouse (Respiratory Rate): 303 ppm
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data of Organic Chemicals. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1983., p. 196]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Rabbit inhalation 7,050 mg/cu m/1 hr
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Ammonia (Draft) p.101 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

LCLo Rabbit inhalation 4,900 mg/cu m/1 hr
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Ammonia (Draft) p.101 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

LCLo Cat inhalation 4,900 mg/cu m/1 hr
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Ammonia (Draft) p.102 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Cat inhalation 746 mg/cu m/1 hr (Dynamic air flow)
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Ammonia (Draft) p.102 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Cat inhalation 7,050 mg/cu m/1 hr (Static conditions)
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Ammonia (Draft) p.102 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Rat inhalation 7,600 mg/cu m/2 hr (age and strain not specified)
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Ammonia (Draft) p.102 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Rat inhalation 5,100 mg/cu m/1 hr (age and strain not specified)
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Ammonia (Draft) p.102 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

LCLo Rat inhalation 1,400 mg/cu m/1 hr (age and strain not specified)
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Ammonia (Draft) p.102 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Mouse inhalation 7,105 mg/cu m/10 min
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Ammonia (Draft) p.103 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Mouse inhalation 3,360 mg/cu m/1 hr
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Ammonia (Draft) p.103 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Mouse inhalation 3,310 mg/cu m/2 hr
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Ammonia (Draft) p.103 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

LD50 Rat oral 350 mg/kg
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Ammonia (Draft) p.103 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Ecotoxicity Values:

LC50 Daphnia magna 24 mg/L/48 hr /Conditions of bioassay not specified/
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1996., p. 186]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Daphnia magna 189 mg/L/48 hr /Static bioassay/
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1996., p. 186]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Daphnia pulex 187 mg/L/48 hr /Static bioassay/
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1996., p. 186]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Ceriodaphnia reticulata 131 mg/L/48 hr /Static bioassay/
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1996., p. 186]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Simochephalus vetulus 123 mg/L/48 hr /Conditions of bioassay not specified/
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1996., p. 186]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Fathead minnows 8.2 mg/L (hard water)/96 hr /Conditions of bioassay not specified/
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1996., p. 186]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Goldfish 2-2.5 mg/L/24-96 hr /Conditions of bioassay not specified/
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1996., p. 186]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Coho salmon 0.45 mg/L/96 hr /Flow-through bioassay/
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1996., p. 186]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Guppy fry 74 mg/L/72 hr /Static bioassay/
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1996., p. 186]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Guppy fry 1.26 mg/L/72 hr /Static bioassay/
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1996., p. 186]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Cutthroat trout (Salmo clarki) fry 0.5-0.8 mg/L/96 hr /Flow-through bioassay/
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1996., p. 186]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Rainbow trout fertilized egg >3.58 mg/L/24 hr /Static bioassay/
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1996., p. 186]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Rainbow trout alevins (0-50 days old) >3.58 mg/L/24 hr /Static bioassay/
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1996., p. 186]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Rainbow trout fry (85 days old) 0.068 mg/L/24 hr /Static bioassay/
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1996., p. 186]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Rainbow trout adult 0.097 mg/L/24 hr /Static bioassay/
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1996., p. 186]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Walking catfish 0.28 mg/L/48 hr /Static bioassay/
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1996., p. 186]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Salmo aguabonita 0.76 mg/L/96 hr /Conditions of bioassay not specified/
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1996., p. 186]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Salmo trutta >0.15 mg/L/18 hr /Conditions of bioassay not specified/
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1996., p. 186]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Oncorhynchus tschawytscha 0.47 mg/L/96 hr /Conditions of bioassay not specified/
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1996., p. 186]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Salvelinus fontinalis 0.96-1.05 mg/L/96 hr /Conditions of bioassay not specified/
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1996., p. 186]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Proposium williamsoni 0.47 mg/L/96 hr /Conditions of bioassay not specified/
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1996., p. 186]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Catostomus platyrhynchos 0.67-0.82 mg/L/96 hr /Conditions of bioassay not specified/
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1996., p. 186]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Salmo trutta 0.47 mg/L/96 hr /Conditions of bioassay not specified/
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1996., p. 186]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Salvelinus fontinalis >3.2 mg/L/1.8 hr /Conditions of bioassay not specified/
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1996., p. 186]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Oncorhynchus gorbuscha (late alevins) 0.083 mg/L/96 hr /Conditions of bioassay not specified/
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1996., p. 186]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Oncorhynchus gorbuscha (eyed embryos) >1.5 mg/L/96 hr /Conditions of bioassay not specified/
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1996., p. 186]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Oncorhynchus kisutch 0.55 mg/L/96 hr /Conditions of bioassay not specified/
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1996., p. 186]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Salmo salar 0.28 mg/L/96 hr /Conditions of bioassay not specified/
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1996., p. 186]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Pimephales promelas 0.75-3.4; 0.73-2.3 mg/L/96 hr /Conditions of bioassay not specified/
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1996., p. 186]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Catostomus commersoni 0.79; 1.35-1.4 mg/L/96 hr /Conditions of bioassay not specified/
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1996., p. 186]**PEER REVIEWED**

LC50 Lepomis macrochirus 0.26-4.6 mg/L/96 hr /Conditions of bioassay not specified/
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1996., p. 187]**PEER REVIEWED**

Metabolism/Pharmacokinetics:

Metabolism/Metabolites:

ONCE ABSORBED, AMMONIA IS CONVERTED TO AMMONIUM ION AS THE HYDROXIDE & AS SALTS, ESPECIALLY AS CARBONATES. THE AMMONIUM SALTS ARE RAPIDLY CONVERTED TO UREA ... MAINTAINING AN ISOTONIC SYSTEM.
[Clayton, G.D., F.E. Clayton (eds.) Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volumes 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F: Toxicology. 4th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1993-1994., p. 760]**PEER REVIEWED**

Deamination of amino acids by the liver, metabolic activity of nerve and muscle tissue, as well as activity of enzymes contained in the flora of the gut on substrates derived from the diet and the blood all lead to the production of ammonia.
[Fromm PO; Toxic Action of Water Soluble Pollutants on Freshwater Fish EPA Water Pollution Control Research Series No. 18050 DST (1970)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Ammonium ions are produced in the body as a protein metabolite. Ammonium ions produced by deamination are rapidly converted in the liver into relatively harmless urea and excreted by the kidney or are used to make new amino acids. Ammonium ions are also produced in the kidney, conserving fixed base, thus maintaining electrolyte balance.
[NIOSH; Criteria Document: Ammonia p.25 (1974) DHEW Pub. NIOSH 74-136]**PEER REVIEWED**

Carbamide administration to animals is accompanied by its rapid transformation to carbon dioxide and ammonia in the rumen by the microbial enzyme urease. Therefore, large doses of carbamide can result in very high rumen level of ammonia.
[Khmel'nitskii GA; Veterinariya (Moscow) 1: 64-5 (1984)]**PEER REVIEWED**

... Ammonia production was observed from stimulated nerve. ... Relationship between ammonia production and the muscle activity /was studied/. The immediate source of ammonia from muscle appears to be a result of the deamination of adenosine monophosphate and is more apparent in fast twitch than in slow twitch fibers. More recently, increases in blood ammonia levels have been reported in rats after swimming and in humans after arm work, maximal cycle ergometry, and treadmill exercise. Elevated blood ammonia has also been linked to a surprising variety of functional, metabolic, and neurological disturbances other than exercise and fatigue, including the development of hepatic coma, convulsions from ammonia toxicity precipitated by high pressure oxygen breathing, epileptic seizures, and decreased neuronal excitability. In addition, a number of genetic disorders (inborn errors in metabolism) are characterized by elevated blood ammonia concn. Symptoms of neural disability in all of the above conditions have been related to the concn of ammonia in blood. ...
[Mutch BJ, Banister EW; Med Sci Sports Exerc 15 (1): 41-50 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

... Following administration of (13)N ammonia to rats (via either the carotid artery or cerebrospinal fluid), most metabolized label was in glutamine (amide) and little was in glutamate (plus aspartate). Since blood and cerebrospinal fluid borne ammonia are converted largely to glutamine, it is not possible to predict with certainity the metabolic fate of bulk of endogenously produced ammonia. By comparing the specific activity of L-(13)N glutamate to that of L-amine-(13)N glutatmine following intracarotid (13)N ammonia administration it was concluded that metabolic compartmentation is no longer intact in the brains of rats treated with the glutamine synthetase inhibitor L-methionine-SR-sulfoximine and that blood and brain ammonia pools mix in such animals. In L-methionine-SR-sulfoximine treated animals, recovery of label in brain was low (approximately 20% of controls), and of the label remaining, a prominent portion was in glutamine (amide) (despite an 87% decrease in brain glutamine synthetase activity). The rate of tunrnover of blood derived ammonia to glutamine in normal rat brain is extremely rapid (half-life < or = 3 s), but is slowed in the brains of chronically (12-14 wk portacaval shunted) or acutely (urease treated) hyperammonemic rats (half-life < or = 10 s). The slowed turnover rate may be caused by increased astrocytic ammonia, decreased glutamine synthetase activity, or both. In the hyperammonemic rat brain, glutamine synthetase is the only important enzyme for the removal of blood-borne ammonia. Hyperammonemia causes an increase in brain lactate/pyruvate ratios and decrease in brain glutamate and brainstem ATP, consistent with an interference with the malate-aspartate shuttle. In vitro, pathological levels of ammonia inhibit brain alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex and, less strongly, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.
[Cooper AJ, Lai JC; Neurochem Pathol 6 (1-2): 67-95 (1987)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Ammonia is a toxic molecule that is the principal by-product of amino acid metabolism. The transport of ammonia in a nontoxic form protects the brain against high circulating levels. The liver is the central organ of ammonia metabolism, but other organs play a key role in the interorgan exchange of this molecule. Alterations in ammonia metabolism occur during critical illness.
[Souba WW; J Parenter Enteral Nutr 11(6): 569-79 (1987)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Absorption, Distribution & Excretion:

AMMONIA IS ABSORBED BY INHALATION, INGESTION, & PROBABLY PERCUTANEOUSLY AT CONCN HIGH ENOUGH TO CAUSE SKIN INJURY. DATA ARE NOT AVAIL ON ABSORPTION OF LOW CONCN THROUGH SKIN. ... EXCRETION IS PRIMARILY BY WAY OF KIDNEYS, BUT A NOT INSIGNIFICANT AMT IS PASSED THROUGH SWEAT GLANDS.
[Clayton, G.D., F.E. Clayton (eds.) Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volumes 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F: Toxicology. 4th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1993-1994., p. 760]**PEER REVIEWED**

... The average nasal retention of ammonia by human subjects was found to be 83%.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I, II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991., p. 58]**PEER REVIEWED**

Levels of exhaled (nasal) ammonia were measured in rabbits at different times on the same day, on different days, and in rabbits in a normal fed state, or in a fasted or fed state in which the teeth were brushed and the mouth cleansed. The variability of ammonia levels within any individual rabbit was found to be of the same order as the variability found between different animals. In addition, rabbits which were fasted and had their teeth brushed exhaled significantly less ammonia than did fed animals. Levels in the former group ranged from 2 to 236 ug/cu m, while those in the latter group ranged from 10 to 758 ug/cu m. Although brushing the teeth of fed animals compressed the observable range of ammonia levels (22-404 mg/cu m), this was not a significant reduction compared to fed, unbrushed animals. Thus, fasting likely minimized foodstuff in the mouth; the latter may contribute to ammonia formation through bacterial degradation, which appears to be a significant source of ammonia exhaled through the nose.
[Vollmuth TA, Schlesinger RB; Fundam Appl Toxicol 4 (3): 455-64 (1984)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Mechanism of Action:

SRP: Ammonia in an aqueous environment exists in equilibrium between ionized ammonium cation and the non-ionized ammonia. This equilibrium can be affected by buffers, pH, temperature, and salinity. Thus in many cases it is not possible to assign the associated toxicity to the ionized or non-ionized form of the ammonia-nitrogen.
**PEER REVIEWED**

PRIMARY MECHANISM OF AMMONIA TOXICOSIS APPEARS TO BE INHIBITION OF /CITRIC/ ACID CYCLE. THERE IS INCR IN ANAEROBIC GLYCOLYSIS, BLOOD GLUCOSE, & BLOOD LACTATE ... ACIDOSIS IS MANIFESTED. EXACT MEANS BY WHICH AMMONIA BLOCKS CITRIC ACID CYCLE IS NOT KNOWN.
[Jones, L.M., et al. Veterinary Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 4th ed. Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1977., p. 1255]**PEER REVIEWED**

Rates of glutamate formation & of carbon dioxide production (as indication of oxidative deamination of glutamate) were determined in primary cultures of astrocytes exposed to 50 uM labeled glutamate in absence or presence of added ammonia (0.1-3 mM). Glutamine formation (1.7 nmol/min/mg protein) was unaffected by all concn of added ammonia. Pathophysiological concn of ammonia does not incr formation of glutamine from exogenous glutamate. Carbon dioxide production rate was 5.9 nmol/min/mg protein, ie, 3 to 4 times higher than the rate of glutamine formation. It was significantly reduced (to 3.5 nmol/min/mg protein) in presence of 1 mM or more of ammonia. This is an indication that toxic levels of ammonia affect oxidative metabolism.
[Yu AC et al; J Neurochem 41 (2): 594-7 (1984)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Acute & sustained hyperammonemia in mice resulted in decr of transition temperature of Arrhenius plots of synaptosomal (sodium-potassium)ATPase. This seems to indicate that ammonia alters physical properties of synaptosomal membranes.
[O'Connor JE et al; Biochem Biophys Res Commun 119 (2): 516-23 (1984)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Ammonia disrupts primarily the Krebs cycle. The adverse effects on the central nervous system and ATP deficiency during the intoxication often result in animal death.
[Khmel'nitskii GA; Vetermariya (Moscow) 1: 64-5 (1984)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The irritation to mucous membranes becomes noticeable at about 100 ppm. Concentrations above 400 ppm may destroy mucous surfaces upon prolonged contact by dissolving or emulsifying keratin, fat, and cholesterol.
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982., p. 861]**PEER REVIEWED**

Interactions:

The combined effects of ammonia and carbon particles inhaled by rats were reportedly much greater than those from ammonia (or carbon) alone.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I, II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991., p. 58]**PEER REVIEWED**

... /AMMONIA/ ACCENTUATED RESP PARALYSIS & COMA DUE TO EXPOSURE TO METHANETHIOL. ... /IT IS/ CONCLUDED THAT THESE AGENTS SYNERGISTICALLY AFFECT CERTAIN ENZYME SYSTEMS WHICH ARE ACTIVATED UNDER PATHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS.
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982., p. 2069]**PEER REVIEWED**

Pent-4-enoic acid inhibited urea synthesis approx 90% in rat hepatocytes incubated with pyruvate, ammonia, & ornithine. The addn of ammonia led to drastic dose dependent inhibition of ureagenesis by pent-4-enoate. Half-max effect of ammonia was observed at 0.2 mM concn. Concommitant cellular concn of N-acetylglutamate were modified by addn of ammonia as was accumulation of citrulline. Ammonia may interfere with metabolism of pent-4-enoic acid & lead to dramatic potentiation of its toxicity.
[Coude FX, Grimber G; Biochem Biophys Res Commun 118 (1): 47-52 (1984)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Sodium benzoate lowers serum ammonia concn by the activation of a non-urea cycle pathway of ammonia removal. The disposition of sodium benzoate was monitored in four hyperammonemic newborn infants, using a simple and newly developed assay for benzoate and hippurate, to assess (1) the metabolic capability of patients of this age to utilize this pathway for nitrogen removal, (2) the potential risks of benzoate toxicity at clinically acheived serum benzoate concn, and (3) the value of routine monitoring of serum benzoate concn in this patient population.
[Green TP et al; J Pediatr 102 (5): 785-90 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Sodium benzoate potentiation of ammonia toxicity and inhibition of urea synthesis in vitro, has been confirmed and the mechanism by which benzoate increases mortality and the levels of blood ammonia in mice given ammonium acetate are studied. Urea production and N-acetylglutamate levels were decreased by sodium benzoate. Pretreatment of mice with L-carnitine suppressed mortality following ammonium acetate plus sodium benzoate administration. L-carnitine lowered blood ammonia and increased urea production and N-acetylglutamate levels.
[O'Connor JE et al; Biochem Biophys Res Commun 145 (2): 817-24 (1987)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Six epileptic patients are described to whom the addition of valproic acid to a previously unsatisfactory antiepileptic treatment caused a toxic encephalopathy. This was characterized by alterations of the state of consiousness in all patients a few days after the beginning of treatment with valproic acid. These ranged from a marked drowsiness to coma and were often associated with gastrointestinal and neurobiological (ataxia, asterixis) symptoms. In all cases very high blood levels of ammonia were found and the EEG's showed a diffuse slowing down of the activity. After the discontinuation of the drug the toxic symptoms quickly ceased and ammonia values returned to the normal values. It is hypothesized that the interference of valproic acid on the metabolism of ammonia could play an important role in the pathogenesis of the valproic acid induced toxic encephalopathy.
[Compostrini R et al; Riv Patol Nerv Ment 104 (1): 23-34 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Pharmacology:

Therapeutic Uses:

Medication (Vet): Reflex respiratory stimulant. /Ammonia water-10%/
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 87]**PEER REVIEWED**

Medication (Vet): Internally as an antacid and carminative. /Ammonia water-10%/
[The Merck Index. 10th ed. Rahway, New Jersey: Merck Co., Inc., 1983., p. 74]**PEER REVIEWED**

Drug Warnings:

Caution: Irritating to skin and mucous membranes. /Ammonia water-10%/
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 87]**PEER REVIEWED**

Interactions:

The combined effects of ammonia and carbon particles inhaled by rats were reportedly much greater than those from ammonia (or carbon) alone.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I, II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991., p. 58]**PEER REVIEWED**

... /AMMONIA/ ACCENTUATED RESP PARALYSIS & COMA DUE TO EXPOSURE TO METHANETHIOL. ... /IT IS/ CONCLUDED THAT THESE AGENTS SYNERGISTICALLY AFFECT CERTAIN ENZYME SYSTEMS WHICH ARE ACTIVATED UNDER PATHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS.
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982., p. 2069]**PEER REVIEWED**

Pent-4-enoic acid inhibited urea synthesis approx 90% in rat hepatocytes incubated with pyruvate, ammonia, & ornithine. The addn of ammonia led to drastic dose dependent inhibition of ureagenesis by pent-4-enoate. Half-max effect of ammonia was observed at 0.2 mM concn. Concommitant cellular concn of N-acetylglutamate were modified by addn of ammonia as was accumulation of citrulline. Ammonia may interfere with metabolism of pent-4-enoic acid & lead to dramatic potentiation of its toxicity.
[Coude FX, Grimber G; Biochem Biophys Res Commun 118 (1): 47-52 (1984)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Sodium benzoate lowers serum ammonia concn by the activation of a non-urea cycle pathway of ammonia removal. The disposition of sodium benzoate was monitored in four hyperammonemic newborn infants, using a simple and newly developed assay for benzoate and hippurate, to assess (1) the metabolic capability of patients of this age to utilize this pathway for nitrogen removal, (2) the potential risks of benzoate toxicity at clinically acheived serum benzoate concn, and (3) the value of routine monitoring of serum benzoate concn in this patient population.
[Green TP et al; J Pediatr 102 (5): 785-90 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Sodium benzoate potentiation of ammonia toxicity and inhibition of urea synthesis in vitro, has been confirmed and the mechanism by which benzoate increases mortality and the levels of blood ammonia in mice given ammonium acetate are studied. Urea production and N-acetylglutamate levels were decreased by sodium benzoate. Pretreatment of mice with L-carnitine suppressed mortality following ammonium acetate plus sodium benzoate administration. L-carnitine lowered blood ammonia and increased urea production and N-acetylglutamate levels.
[O'Connor JE et al; Biochem Biophys Res Commun 145 (2): 817-24 (1987)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Six epileptic patients are described to whom the addition of valproic acid to a previously unsatisfactory antiepileptic treatment caused a toxic encephalopathy. This was characterized by alterations of the state of consiousness in all patients a few days after the beginning of treatment with valproic acid. These ranged from a marked drowsiness to coma and were often associated with gastrointestinal and neurobiological (ataxia, asterixis) symptoms. In all cases very high blood levels of ammonia were found and the EEG's showed a diffuse slowing down of the activity. After the discontinuation of the drug the toxic symptoms quickly ceased and ammonia values returned to the normal values. It is hypothesized that the interference of valproic acid on the metabolism of ammonia could play an important role in the pathogenesis of the valproic acid induced toxic encephalopathy.
[Compostrini R et al; Riv Patol Nerv Ment 104 (1): 23-34 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Environmental Fate & Exposure:

Probable Routes of Human Exposure:

Routes of entry: Inhalation of gas, ingestion, skin and eye contact.
[Sittig, M. Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, 1985. 2nd ed. Park Ridge, NJ: Noyes Data Corporation, 1985., p. 46]**PEER REVIEWED**

WHEN AMMONIA IS USED AS DEVELOPER IN PHOTOCOPYING PROCESSES ... BLUEPRINT & DIAZO, IT MAY BE RELEASED INTO WORKPLACE.
[Clayton, G.D., F.E. Clayton (eds.) Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volumes 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F: Toxicology. 4th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1993-1994., p. 756]**QC REVIEWED**

ACCIDENTAL EXPOSURES OF HUMANS MAY ARISE FROM FAILURE OF EQUIPMENT CONTAINING EITHER LIQ OR GASEOUS AMMONIA. ... LIQ AMMONIA EXPOSURES MAY BE COMPLICATED BY FREEZING OF TISSUES & BY INJECTION OF A LIQ STREAM UNDER HIGH PRESSURE.
[Clayton, G.D., F.E. Clayton (eds.) Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volumes 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F: Toxicology. 4th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1993-1994., p. 759]**QC REVIEWED**

ANALYSIS OF DATA OBTAINED IN PLANT SURVEYS FOUND THE LIMIT OF DETECTION TO BE BELOW 5 PPM & THE COMPLAINT LEVEL TO BE 20-25 PPM.
[American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 5th ed. Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 1986., p. 27]**PEER REVIEWED**

NIOSH estimates that approximately half a million USA workers have potential exposure to ammonia.
[NIOSH; Criteria Document: Ammonia p.24 (1974) DHEW Pub. NIOSH 74-136]**PEER REVIEWED**

Natural Pollution Sources:

Toxic concn ... can be liberated from decomposing manure that is confined to a slurry pit or chicken house.
[Booth, N.H., L.E. McDonald (eds.). Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 5th ed. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 1982., p. 938]**PEER REVIEWED**

Ammonia is the first complex molecule to be identified in interstellar space; it has been observed in galactic dust clouds in the Milky Way, and is believed to constitute the rings of the planet Saturn.
[Lewis, R.J., Sr (Ed.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 12th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Rheinhold Co., 1993, p. 62]**PEER REVIEWED**

Artificial Pollution Sources:

/Manmade/ Combustion Sources: Amount of emission: coal 2 lb/ton, fuel oil 1 lb/1,000 gal, natural gas 0.3 to 0.56 lb/1x10+6 cu ft, butane 1.7 lb/1x10+6 cu ft, propane 1.3 lb/1x10+6 cu ft, wood 2.4 lb/ton, forest fires 0.3 lb/ton.
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data of Organic Chemicals. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1983., p. 195]**PEER REVIEWED**

Ammonia discharged daily in metropolitan areas of 100,000 persons using each heating system: domestic heating fuel: coal: 2,000 lb NH3, oil: 800 lb NH3, /natural/ gas 0.3 lb NH3.
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data of Organic Chemicals. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1983., p. 195]**PEER REVIEWED**

Environmental Fate:

ATMOSPHERIC FATE: It is assumed that ammonia combines with sulfate ion in the atmosphere or in washout by rainfall resulting in a rapid return of ammonia to the soil.
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Ammonia (Draft) p.93 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Environmental Biodegradation:

When ammonia appears in water under the normal conditions (aerobic), it is rapidly converted to nitrate by nitrification; the principal water contaminant normally being nitrate. The pH in water is increased by the presence of ammonia ion, in the form of hydroxide ions. ... Bacteria convert the ammonia to nitrate creating an oxygen demand (BOD) several days after the introduction of ammonia. The bacteria that oxidize ammonia to nitrate are largely of the genus Nitrosomonas; conversion of nitrite to nitrate is carried out primarily by the genus Nitrobacter. Temperature, oxygen supply, and pH of the water are factors in determining the rate of oxidation.
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Ammonia (Draft) p.92 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Characteristics of leachate from a major co-disposal landfill were presented. The leachate is typical of a stabilized situation where acid fermentation is in balance with methane formation. No evidence was found of contamination by hazardous components of the industrial wastes deposited at the site. Aerobic biological treatment completely nitrified NH3 in the leachate.
[Knox K; Environ Pollut Ser B Chem Phys 5 (3): 157-174 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Environmental Abiotic Degradation:

Wastewater Treatment: ammonia is oxidized by ozone; the reaction is first order with respect to the concn of ammonia and is catalyzed by hydroxide ion over the pH range 7-9.
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data of Organic Chemicals. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1983., p. 195]**PEER REVIEWED**

Some of the ammonium ions in the atmosphere are oxidized to oxides of nitrogen and nitrate ion, which represents a significant contribution to the total acidity of rainfall.
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Ammonia (Draft) p.93 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

AQUATIC FATE: The proportion of ammonia (NH3) and ammonium ion found in water used for production is considered an important indicator of quality in agriculture. In highly populated fish breeding plants, where feed left overs, excrement and metabolic waste cause growth disturbances and deficiencies, even though there is an adequate supply of oxygen, nitrogen cmpd are the decisive factor. A significant role is played by the undissociated NH3 molecule. ... Experiments were carried out both with and without ventilation and using varying amounts of fish feed. The concn of NH3, which depends on pH and temperature, was investigated to determine the extent of the oxidative change of NH3 through NO3- during the mineralization process of the feed leftovers. Under the conditions used in the 2 sets of experiments there was hardly any tendency for the pH values in the unventilated experiments to alter and become more alkaline from an ammonification of left over feed. In the experiments using ventilation, the proteins underwent an especially intensive process of decomposition, ie, they became completely mineralized, and considerable amounts of NH4-N and NH3 N were released. Due to the lack of organic acids, these could not be neutralized and, as a result, the pH value increased.
[Eissa M G; Arch Hydrobiol 98 (3): 327-343 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Environmental Bioconcentration:

Plants have a high affinity for gaseous ammonia when leaf stomata are open in daylight.
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Ammonia (Draft) p.91 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Soil Adsorption/Mobility:

Ammonia is strongly adsorbed on soil, and on sediment particles and colloids in water. This adsorption results in high concentrations of sorbed ammonia in oxidized sediments. Under anoxic conditions, the adsorptive capacity of sediments is less, resulting in the release of ammonia to either the water column or an oxidized sediment layer above.
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Ammonia (Draft) p.94 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

In clay, the ion tends to be adsorbed on the negative adsorption sites of clay colloids. It may substitute for potassium in the lattice structure of a clay mineral.
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Ammonia (Draft) p.94 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Environmental Standards & Regulations:

CERCLA Reportable Quantities:

Persons in charge of vessels or facilities are required to notify the National Response Center (NRC) immediately, when there is a release of this designated hazardous substance, in an amount equal to or greater than its reportable quantity of 100 lb or 45.4 kg. The toll free number of the NRC is (800) 424-8802; In the Washington D.C. metropolitan area (202) 426-2675. The rule for determining when notification is required is stated in 40 CFR 302.4 (section IV. D.3.b).
[40 CFR 302.4 (7/1/96)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Releases of CERCLA hazardous substances are subject to the release reporting requirement of CERCLA section 103, codified at 40 CFR part 302, in addition to the requirements of 40 CFR part 355. Ammonia is an extremely hazardous substance (EHS) subject to reporting requirements when stored in amounts in excess of its threshold planning quantity (TPQ) of 500 lbs.
[40 CFR 355 (7/1/97)]**QC REVIEWED**

Clean Water Act Requirements:

Designated as a hazardous substance under section 311(b)(2)(A) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act and further regulated by the Clean Water Act Amendments of 1977 and 1978. These regulations apply to discharges of this substance.
[40 CFR 116.4 (7/1/88)]**QC REVIEWED**

Allowable Tolerances:

The fungicide ammonia is expempted from the requirement of a tolerance when used after harvest on the raw agricultural commodities grapefruit, lemons, oranges, and corn grain for feed use only.
[40 CFR 180.1003 (7/1/96)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Chemical/Physical Properties:

Molecular Formula:

H3-N
**PEER REVIEWED**

Molecular Weight:

17.03
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 87]**PEER REVIEWED**

Color/Form:

Colorless gas [Note Shipped as a liquefied compressed gas. Easily liquefied under pressure].
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997., p. 14]**QC REVIEWED**

Odor:

Sharp, cloying, repellent
[Booth, N.H., L.E. McDonald (eds.). Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 5th ed. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 1982., p. 938]**PEER REVIEWED**

... Pungent, suffocating odor ...
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997., p. 14]**QC REVIEWED**

Sharp, intensely irritating odor
[Lewis, R.J., Sr (Ed.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 12th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Rheinhold Co., 1993, p. 62]**PEER REVIEWED**

Very pungent odor, characteristic of drying urine
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 87]**PEER REVIEWED**

Boiling Point:

-33.35 DEG C
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 87]**PEER REVIEWED**

Melting Point:

-77.7 DEG C
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 87]**PEER REVIEWED**

Corrosivity:

CORROSIVE, ALKALINE GAS
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 87]**PEER REVIEWED**

Liquid ammonia will attack some forms of plastics, rubber, and coatings.
[Mackison, F. W., R. S. Stricoff, and L. J. Partridge, Jr. (eds.). NIOSH/OSHA - Occupational Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards. DHHS(NIOSH) Publication No. 81-123 (3 VOLS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Jan. 1981., p. 1]**PEER REVIEWED**

Critical Temperature & Pressure:

CRITICAL TEMP: 132.4 DEG C; CRITICAL PRESSURE: 111.5 ATM
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 87]**PEER REVIEWED**

Density/Specific Gravity:

0.7710 G/L @ 760 MM HG (GAS)
[Lide, D.R. (ed.). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 76th ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 1995-1996., p. 4-38]**PEER REVIEWED**

Dissociation Constants:

pKa = 9.25 @ 25 deg C
[Lide, D.R. (ed.). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 76th ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 1995-1996., p. 8-43]**PEER REVIEWED**

Heat of Combustion:

-7992 Btu/lb= -4440 cal/g= -185.9x10+5 J/kg
[U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Transportation. CHRIS - Hazardous Chemical Data. Volume II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984-5., p. ]**PEER REVIEWED**

Heat of Vaporization:

5.581 KCAL/MOLE
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 87]**PEER REVIEWED**

pH:

pH of 1.0N aqueous solution 11.6; 0.1N aqueous solution 11.1; 0.01N aqueous solution 10.6.
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 87]**PEER REVIEWED**

Solubilities:

47% IN WATER AT 0 DEG C
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 87]**PEER REVIEWED**

38% IN WATER AT 15 DEG C
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 87]**PEER REVIEWED**

34% IN WATER @ 20 DEG C
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 87]**PEER REVIEWED**

31% IN WATER @ 25 DEG C
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 87]**PEER REVIEWED**

28% IN WATER @ 30 DEG C
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 87]**PEER REVIEWED**

18% IN WATER AT 50 DEG C
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 87]**PEER REVIEWED**

15% IN 95% ALCOHOL AT 20 DEG C
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 87]**PEER REVIEWED**

11% IN ALCOHOL AT 30 DEG C
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 87]**PEER REVIEWED**

20% IN ABSOLUTE ETHANOL AT 0 DEG C
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 87]**PEER REVIEWED**

10% IN ABSOLUTE ETHANOL AT 25 DEG C
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 87]**PEER REVIEWED**

16% IN METHANOL AT 25 DEG C
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 87]**PEER REVIEWED**

SOL IN CHLOROFORM & ETHER
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 87]**PEER REVIEWED**

531,000 mg/l in water at 20 deg C; 895,000 mg/l in water at 0 deg C; 444,000 mg/l in water at 28 deg C
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1996., p. 184]**PEER REVIEWED**

water solubility = 482,000 mg/l @ 25 deg C
[Dean, J.A. (ed.). Lange's Handbook of Chemistry. 13 ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1985., p. ]**PEER REVIEWED**

Soluble in water forming alkaline solutions; soluble in oxygenated solvents.
[Ashford, R.D. Ashford's Dictionary of Industrial Chemicals. London, England: Wavelength Publications Ltd., 1994., p. 77]**PEER REVIEWED**

Spectral Properties:

INDEX OF REFRACTION: 0.817 @ -79 DEG C/D; 1.325 @ 16.5 DEG C/D
[Weast, R.C. (ed.) Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 68th ed. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press Inc., 1987-1988., p. B-69]**PEER REVIEWED**

Surface Tension:

23.4 dynes/cm at 11.1 deg C; 18.1 dynes/cm at 34.1 deg C
[Weast, R.C. (ed.) Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 68th ed. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press Inc., 1987-1988., p. F-35]**PEER REVIEWED**

Vapor Density:

0.59 (Air= 1)
[Weast, R.C. (ed.) Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 68th ed. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press Inc., 1987-1988., p. E-34]**PEER REVIEWED**

Vapor Pressure:

vapor pressure = 7,510 mm Hg @ 25 deg C (from experimentally derived coefficients)
[Daubert, T.E., R.P. Danner. Physical and Thermodynamic Properties of Pure Chemicals Data Compilation. Washington, D.C.: Taylor and Francis, 1989., p. ]**PEER REVIEWED**

Viscosity:

0.475, 0.317, 0.276 & 0.255 CENTIPOISE AT -69, -50, -40 & -33.5 DEG C, RESPECTIVELY
[Weast, R.C. (ed.) Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 68th ed. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press Inc., 1987-1988., p. F-43]**PEER REVIEWED**

Other Chemical/Physical Properties:

DENSITY OF LIQ NH3: 0.6818 AT -33.35 DEG C, 1 ATM; 0.6585 AT -15 DEG C, 2.332 ATM; 0.6386 AT 0 DEG C, 4.238 ATM; 0.6175 AT 15 DEG C, 7.188 ATM; 0.5875 AT 35 DEG C, 13.321 ATM
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 87]**PEER REVIEWED**

VAPOR PRESSURE: 2, 5, 10, 20, 40 & 60 ATM AT -18.7, 4.7, 25.7, 50.1, 78.9 & 98.3 DEG C, RESPECTIVELY
[Weast, R.C. (ed.) Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 68th ed. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press Inc., 1987-1988., p. D-212]**PEER REVIEWED**

Liquified by compression
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1996., p. 184]**PEER REVIEWED**

Specific gravity 0.817 at 79 deg C
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1996., p. 184]**PEER REVIEWED**

Specific gravity at -33.4 deg C (liquid) 0.682
[U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Transportation. CHRIS - Hazardous Chemical Data. Volume II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984-5., p. ]**PEER REVIEWED**

Dipole moment, gas: 4.9x10-30 C m; 1.47 D
[Braker W, Mossman A; Matheson Gas Data Book 6th ED p.23 (1980)]**PEER REVIEWED**

HEAT CAPACITY 8.38 CAL/MOL/DEG AT 25 DEG C
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 87]**PEER REVIEWED**

1 mg/cu m= 1.414 ppm; 1 ppm= 0.707 mg/cu m
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data of Organic Chemicals. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1983., p. 194]**PEER REVIEWED**

AQUEOUS AMMONIA: pKb 4.767, Kb 1.710X10-5 at 20 deg C; pKb 4.751, Kb 1.774X10-5 at 25 deg C; pKb 4.740, Kb 1.820X10-5 at 30 deg C
[Weast, R.C. (ed.) Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 68th ed. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press Inc., 1987-1988., p. D-163]**PEER REVIEWED**

Ionization potential= 10.5 eV
[NIOSH. Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. 2nd Printing. DHHS (NIOSH) Publ. No. 85-114. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, NIOSH/Supt. of Documents, GPO, February 1987., p. 50]**PEER REVIEWED**

vapor pressure = 1 MM, 10 MM & 40 MM HG AT -109.1, -91.9 & -79.2 DEG C, RESPECTIVELY, (SOLID); 100 MM & 400 MM AT -68.4 & -45.4 DEG C (LIQUID)
[Weast, R.C. (ed.) Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 68th ed. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press Inc., 1987-1988., p. D-192]**PEER REVIEWED**

Density/Specific gravity: Density of aqueous solutions @ 20 deg C/4 deg C: 0.9939 (1%), 0.9811 (4%), 0.9651 (8%), 0.9362 (16%), 0.9229 (20%), 0.9101 (24%), 0.8980 (28%)
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 87]**PEER REVIEWED**

Lighter than air; easily liquified by pressure
[Lewis, R.J., Sr (Ed.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 12th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Rheinhold Co., 1993, p. 62]**PEER REVIEWED**

Mixtures of ammonia and air will explode when ignited under favorable conditions: Angew. Chem 43: 302 (1930), but ammonia is generally regarded as nonflammable.
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 87]**PEER REVIEWED**

Freezing point of aqueous solutions, deg C: -2.9 (4%), -8.1 (8%), -23.1 (16%), -34.9 (20%), -44.5 (24%), -69.2 (28%)
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 87]**PEER REVIEWED**

One liter of the gas weighs 0.7714 g
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 87]**PEER REVIEWED**

Vapor pressure (kPa) = 152, 429, 1003, 2033, 3709, 6253, and 9963 at -25, 0, 25, 50, 75, 100, and 125 deg C, respectively
[Lide, D.R. (ed.). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 76th ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 1995-1996., p. 6-77]**PEER REVIEWED**

Henry's Law constant = 1.61X10-5 atm cu-m/mole at 25 deg C
[Betterton EA; pp. 1-50 in Gaseous Pollutants: Characterization and Cycling, Nriagu JO, Ed. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (1992)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Chemical Safety & Handling:

Hazards Summary:

The major hazards encountered in the use and handling of ammonia stem from its toxicologic properties and reactivity. Exposure to this colorless gas (liquid, if compressed or in aqueous solution) may occur from its use as a fertilizer, chemical intermediate, alkalizer, metal treating/extraction agent, and common household cleaner. Ammonia is hazardous by all routes (ie, dermal, ingestion, inhalation), with the liquid capable of burning the skin, causing permanent eye damage, or corroding the digestive tract upon contact; and the gas capable of causing severe eye damage, pulmonary edema, and even death from spasm, inflammation, and edema of the larynx. OSHA has established an ammonia Permissible Exposure Level (PEL) of 50 ppm as an 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA). The ACGIH recommends an 8-hr TLV-TWA of 25 ppm. Ammonia levels should be controlled through process enclosure and the use of local exhaust and dilution ventilation, as necessary. While its offensive odor may serve as a warning, to assure against ammonia exposure, workers should wear chemical protective clothing composed of butyl rubber, natural rubber, neoprene, nitrile rubber, or polyvinyl chloride (not Viton), gloves, face protection, and, in emergency situations, a self-contained breathing apparatus. Facilities for quick-drenching the body, as well as eye-wash fountains, should be immediately at hand for the worker. Clothing that becomes wet with liquid ammonia should be placed in closed containers until it can be discarded. While this substance does not burn or ignite readily (autoignition temp: 1204 deg F), containers of ammonia may explode in the heat of a fire. For small fires involving ammonia, extinguish with dry chemical or CO2, and for large fires, use water spray, fog, or foam, taking care to prevent fire control or dilution water from causing pollution. More hazardous than its fire potential is ammonia's reactivity with halogens, interhalogens, and oxidizers. These reactions may be violent and/or may form explosive products. Ammonia should be stored in a cool, well-ventilated location, away from sources of ignition, and separate from other chemicals, particularly oxidizing gases (chlorine, bromine, and iodine) and acids. Aqueous ammonia is commonly containerized in steel drums. Anhydrous ammonia is stored and shipped (prohibited in passenger planes) in pressurized containers, fitted with pressure-relief safety devices, and bearing the label, "Nonflammable Compressed Gas". For small spills of ammonia, isolate 80 feet in all directions from the spill, ventilate the area, and allow vapor or gas to disperse. For large spills, evacuate the area for 160 feet in all directions, and dike to contain the spill for later recovery or disposal and to prevent runoff from causing pollution. Stay upwind and wear positive-pressure breathing apparatus and full protective clothing, as necessary.
**PEER REVIEWED**

DOT Emergency Guidelines:

/GUIDE 125: GASES - CORROSIVE/ Health: TOXIC; may be fatal if inhaled, ingested or absorbed through skin. Vapors are extremely irritating and corrosive. Contact with gas or liquefied gas may cause burns, severe injury and/or frostbite. Fire will produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control may cause pollution. / Ammonia, anhydrous; Ammonia, anhydrous, liquefied; Ammonia solution, with more than 50 % ammonia; Ammonia, solution, with more than 35% but not more than 50% ammonia; Anhydrous ammonia; Anhydrous ammonia, liquefied/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook. A Guide book for First Responders During the Initial Phase of a Dangerous Goods/Hazardous Materials Incident. Washington, D.C. 2004G-125]**QC REVIEWED**

/GUIDE 125: GASES - CORROSIVE/ Fire or Explosion: Some may burn, but none ignite readily. Vapors from liquefied gas are initially heavier than air and spread along ground. Some of these materials may react violently with water. Cylinders exposed to fire may vent and release toxic and/or corrosive gas through pressure relief devices. Containers may explode when heated. Ruptured cylinders may rocket. / Ammonia, anhydrous; Ammonia, anhydrous, liquefied; Ammonia solution, with more than 50 % ammonia; Ammonia, solution, with more than 35% but not more than 50% ammonia; Anhydrous ammonia; Anhydrous ammonia, liquefied/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook. A Guide book for First Responders During the Initial Phase of a Dangerous Goods/Hazardous Materials Incident. Washington, D.C. 2004G-125]**QC REVIEWED**

/GUIDE 125: GASES - CORROSIVE/ Public Safety: CALL Emergency Response Telephone Number ... . As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area for at least 100 meters (330 feet) in all directions. Keep unauthorized personnel away. Stay upwind. Many gases are heavier than air and will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Keep out of low areas. Ventilate closed spaces before entering. / Ammonia, anhydrous; Ammonia, anhydrous, liquefied; Ammonia solution, with more than 50 % ammonia; Ammonia, solution, with more than 35% but not more than 50% ammonia; Anhydrous ammonia; Anhydrous ammonia, liquefied/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook. A Guide book for First Responders During the Initial Phase of a Dangerous Goods/Hazardous Materials Incident. Washington, D.C. 2004G-125]**QC REVIEWED**

/GUIDE 125: GASES - CORROSIVE/ Protective Clothing: Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Wear chemical protective clothing that is specifically recommended by the manufacturer. It may provide little or no thermal protection. Structural firefighters' protective clothing provides limited protection in fire situations ONLY; it is not effective in spill situations where direct contact with the substance is possible. / Ammonia, anhydrous; Ammonia, anhydrous, liquefied; Ammonia solution, with more than 50 % ammonia; Ammonia, solution, with more than 35% but not more than 50% ammonia; Anhydrous ammonia; Anhydrous ammonia, liquefied/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook. A Guide book for First Responders During the Initial Phase of a Dangerous Goods/Hazardous Materials Incident. Washington, D.C. 2004G-125]**QC REVIEWED**

/GUIDE 125: GASES - CORROSIVE/ Evacuation: ... Fire: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 1600 meters (1 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 1600 meters (1 mile) in all directions. / Ammonia, anhydrous; Ammonia, anhydrous, liquefied; Ammonia solution, with more than 50 % ammonia; Ammonia, solution, with more than 35% but not more than 50% ammonia; Anhydrous ammonia; Anhydrous ammonia, liquefied/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook. A Guide book for First Responders During the Initial Phase of a Dangerous Goods/Hazardous Materials Incident. Washington, D.C. 2004G-125]**QC REVIEWED**

/GUIDE 125: GASES - CORROSIVE/ Fire: Small fires: Dry chemical or CO2. Large fires: Water spray, fog or regular foam. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. Do not get water inside containers. Damaged cylinders should be handled only by specialists. Fire involving tanks: Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. Do not direct water at source of leak or safety devices; icing may occur. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. / Ammonia, anhydrous; Ammonia, anhydrous, liquefied; Ammonia solution, with more than 50 % ammonia; Ammonia, solution, with more than 35% but not more than 50% ammonia; Anhydrous ammonia; Anhydrous ammonia, liquefied/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook. A Guide book for First Responders During the Initial Phase of a Dangerous Goods/Hazardous Materials Incident. Washington, D.C. 2004G-125]**QC REVIEWED**

/GUIDE 125: GASES - CORROSIVE/ Spill or Leak: Fully encapsulating, vapor protective clothing should be worn for spills and leaks with no fire. Do not touch or walk through spilled material. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. If possible, turn leaking containers so that gas escapes rather than liquid. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. Do not direct water at spill or source of leak. Use water spray to reduce vapors or divert vapor cloud drift. Avoid allowing water runoff to contact spilled material. Isolate area until gas has dispersed. / Ammonia, anhydrous; Ammonia, anhydrous, liquefied; Ammonia solution, with more than 50 % ammonia; Ammonia, solution, with more than 35% but not more than 50% ammonia; Anhydrous ammonia; Anhydrous ammonia, liquefied/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook. A Guide book for First Responders During the Initial Phase of a Dangerous Goods/Hazardous Materials Incident. Washington, D.C. 2004G-125]**QC REVIEWED**

/GUIDE 125: GASES - CORROSIVE/ First Aid: Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Give artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Do not use mouth-to-mouth method if victim ingested or inhaled the substance; give artificial respiration with the aid of a pocket mask equipped with a one-way valve or other proper respiratory medical device. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. In case of contact with liquefied gas, thaw frosted parts with lukewarm water. In case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. ... Keep victim warm and quiet. Keep victim under observation. Effects of contact or inhalation may be delayed. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved and take precautions to protect themselves. / Ammonia, anhydrous; Ammonia, anhydrous, liquefied; Ammonia solution, with more than 50 % ammonia; Ammonia, solution, with more than 35% but not more than 50% ammonia; Anhydrous ammonia; Anhydrous ammonia, liquefied/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook. A Guide book for First Responders During the Initial Phase of a Dangerous Goods/Hazardous Materials Incident. Washington, D.C. 2004G-125]**QC REVIEWED**

/GUIDE 154: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ Health: TOXIC; inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact with material may cause severe injury or death. Contact with molten substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Avoid any skin contact. Effects of contact or inhalation may be delayed. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may be corrosive and/or toxic and cause pollution. /Ammonia, solution, with more than 10% but not more than 35% ammonia/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook. A Guide book for First Responders During the Initial Phase of a Dangerous Goods/Hazardous Materials Incident. Washington, D.C. 2004G-154]**QC REVIEWED**

/GUIDE 154: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ Fire or Explosion: Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Some are oxidizers and may ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated. /Ammonia, solution, with more than 10% but not more than 35% ammonia/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook. A Guide book for First Responders During the Initial Phase of a Dangerous Goods/Hazardous Materials Incident. Washington, D.C. 2004G-154]**QC REVIEWED**

/GUIDE 154: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ Public Safety: CALL Emergency Response Telephone Number ... . As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area in all directions for at least 50 meters (150 feet) for liquids and at least 25 meters (75 feet) for solids. Keep unauthorized personnel away. Stay upwind. Keep out of low areas. Ventilate enclosed areas. /Ammonia, solution, with more than 10% but not more than 35% ammonia/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook. A Guide book for First Responders During the Initial Phase of a Dangerous Goods/Hazardous Materials Incident. Washington, D.C. 2004G-154]**QC REVIEWED**

/GUIDE 154: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ Protective Clothing: Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Wear chemical protective clothing that is specifically recommended by the manufacturer. It may provide little or no thermal protection. Structural firefighters' protective clothing provides limited protection in fire situations ONLY; it is not effective in spill situations where direct contact with the substance is possible. /Ammonia, solution, with more than 10% but not more than 35% ammonia/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook. A Guide book for First Responders During the Initial Phase of a Dangerous Goods/Hazardous Materials Incident. Washington, D.C. 2004G-154]**QC REVIEWED**

/GUIDE 154: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ Evacuation: ... Fire: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions. /Ammonia, solution, with more than 10% but not more than 35% ammonia/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook. A Guide book for First Responders During the Initial Phase of a Dangerous Goods/Hazardous Materials Incident. Washington, D.C. 2004G-154]**QC REVIEWED**

/GUIDE 154: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ Fire: Small fires: Dry chemical, CO2 or water spray. Large fires: Dry chemical, CO2, alcohol-resistant foam or water spray. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. Dike fire control water for later disposal; do not scatter the material. Fire involving tanks or car/trailer loads: Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Do not get water inside containers. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. /Ammonia, solution, with more than 10% but not more than 35% ammonia/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook. A Guide book for First Responders During the Initial Phase of a Dangerous Goods/Hazardous Materials Incident. Washington, D.C. 2004G-154]**QC REVIEWED**

/GUIDE 154: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ Spill or Leak: ELIMINATE all ignition sources (no smoking, flares, sparks or flames in immediate area). Do not touch damaged containers or spilled material unless wearing appropriate protective clothing. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. Absorb or cover with dry earth, sand or other non-combustible material and transfer to containers. DO NOT GET WATER INSIDE CONTAINERS. /Ammonia, solution, with more than 10% but not more than 35% ammonia/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook. A Guide book for First Responders During the Initial Phase of a Dangerous Goods/Hazardous Materials Incident. Washington, D.C. 2004G-154]**QC REVIEWED**

/GUIDE 154: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC AND/OR CORROSIVE (NON-COMBUSTIBLE)/ First Aid: Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Give artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Do not use mouth-to-mouth method if victim ingested or inhaled the substance; give artificial respiration with the aid of a pocket mask equipped with a one-way valve or other proper respiratory medical device. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. In case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. For minor skin contact, avoid spreading material on unaffected skin. Keep victim warm and quiet. Effects of exposure (inhalation, ingestion or skin contact) to substance may be delayed. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved and take precautions to protect themselves. /Ammonia, solution, with more than 10% but not more than 35% ammonia/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook. A Guide book for First Responders During the Initial Phase of a Dangerous Goods/Hazardous Materials Incident. Washington, D.C. 2004G-154]**QC REVIEWED**

Initial Isolation and Protective Action Distances: Small Spills (from a small package or small leak from a large package): First, ISOLATE in all Directions 30 meters (100 feet); then, PROTECT persons Downwind during DAY 0.1 kilometers (0.1 miles) and NIGHT 0.1 kilometers (0.1 miles). LARGE SPILLS (from a large package or from many small packages): First, ISOLATE in all Directions 60 meters (200 feet); then, PROTECT persons Downwind during DAY 0.6 kilometers (0.4 miles) and NIGHT 2.2 kilometers (1.4 miles). /Ammonia solution, with more than 50% ammonia; Ammonia, anhydrous; Ammonia, anhydrous, liquefied; Anhydrous ammonia; Anhydrous ammonia, liquefied/
[U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. RSPA P 5800.8 Edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000,p. TABLE]**QC REVIEWED**

For more specific material safety information for Ammonia, please consult the Anhydrous Ammonia MSDS Information above.

Odor Threshold:

WATER: 1.5 MG/L; AIR: 5.2 UL/L; ODOR SAFETY CLASS C; C= LESS THAN 50% OF DISTRACTED PERSONS PERCEIVE WARNING OF TLV.
[AMOORE JE, HAUTALA E; J APPL TOXICOL 3 (6): 272-90 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Odor recognition of pure ammonia in air is 4.68x10+1 ppm.
[Fazzalari, F.A. (ed.). Compilation of Odor and Taste Threshold Values Data. ASTM Data Series DS 48A (Committee E-18). Philadelphia, PA: American Society for Testing and Materials, 1978., p. 12]**PEER REVIEWED**

Sharp, cloying, repellent; low threshold = 0.0266 mg/cu m; high threshold = 39.60 mg/cu m; irritating concn = 72.00 mg/cu m.
[Prager, J.C. Environmental Contaminant Reference Databook Volume 1. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1995., p. 135]**PEER REVIEWED**

Low threshold= 0.0266 mg/cu m; High threshold= 39.6 mg/cu m; Irritating concentration= 72 mg/cu m.
[Ruth JH; Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 47: A-142-51 (1986)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Skin, Eye and Respiratory Irritations:

The vapor even in low concn is extremely irritating to skin, eyes and respiratory passages.
[Gosselin, R.E., R.P. Smith, H.C. Hodge. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1984., p. III-22]**PEER REVIEWED**

Caution: Potential symptoms of overexposure are eye, nose and throat irritation; dyspnea, bronchospasm and chest pain; pulmonary edema; pink frothy sputum; skin burns, vesiculation.
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 87]**PEER REVIEWED**

Strong irritant to eyes, skin, respiratory tract. Pungent odor. Liquid produces severe burns. Inhalation of high concn causes violent coughing, severe lung irritation, and pulmonary edema. Death can result if rapid escape is not possible. Swallowing liquid is corrosive to mouth, throat, stomach. Not a systemic poison.
[Prager, J.C. Environmental Contaminant Reference Databook Volume 1. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1995., p. 137]**PEER REVIEWED**

NFPA Hazard Classification:

Health: 3. 3= Materials that, on short exposure, could cause serious temporary or residual injury, including those requiring protection from all bodily contact. Fire fighters may enter the area only if they are protected from all contact with the material. Full protective clothing, including self-contained breathing apparatus, coat, pants, gloves, boots, and bands around legs, arms, and waist, should be provided. No skin surface should be exposed.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997., p. 325-13]**QC REVIEWED**

Flammability: 1. 1= This degree includes materials that must be preheated before ignition will occur, such as Class IIIB combustible liquids and solids and semi-solids whose flash point exceeds 200 deg F (93.4 deg C), as well as most ordinary combustible materials. Water may cause frothing if it sinks below the surface of the burning liquid and turns to steam. However, a water fog that is gently applied to the surface of the liquid will cause frothing that will extinguish the fire.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997., p. 325-8]**QC REVIEWED**

Reactivity: 0. 0= This degree includes materials that are normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and that do not react with water. Normal fire fighting procedures may be used.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997., p. 325-13]**QC REVIEWED**

Flammable Limits:

LOWER 16%; UPPER 25%.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997., p. 325-13]**QC REVIEWED**

Autoignition Temperature:

1204 DEG F (651 DEG C)
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997., p. 325-13]**QC REVIEWED**

Fire Fighting Procedures:

DRY CHEM OR CARBON DIOXIDE ARE RECOMMENDED EXTINGUISHING MEDIA.
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982., p. 3047]**PEER REVIEWED**

STOP FLOW OF GAS BEFORE EXTINGUISHING FIRE. USE WATER SPRAY TO KEEP FIRE-EXPOSED CONTAINERS COOL. EXTINGUISH FIRE USING AGENT SUITABLE FOR SURROUNDING FIRE.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997., p. 49-17]**QC REVIEWED**

Combustible. Wear goggles, self-contained breathing apparatus, and rubber over clothing (including gloves). Stop flow of gas, or liquid if possible. Cool exposed containers and protect men effecting shutoff with water. Let fire burn.
[Prager, J.C. Environmental Contaminant Reference Databook Volume 1. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1995., p. 138]**PEER REVIEWED**

If material involved in fire: Extinguish fire using agent suitable for type of surrounding fire. (Material itself does not burn or burns with difficulty.) Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Apply water from as far a distance as possible. Use water spray to knock-down vapors. Solid streams of water may spread fire. Do not use water on material itself. Do not apply water to point of leak in tank car or container.
[Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1994., p. 86]**PEER REVIEWED**

Firefighting Hazards:

Presence of oil or other combustible materials will increase the fire hazard.
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Ammonia (Draft) p.4 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

HORIZONTAL FLAME PROPAGATION.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997., p. 49-17]**QC REVIEWED**

Explosive Limits & Potential:

CRITICAL TEMP OF 133 DEG C IS EASILY EXCEEDED IN FIRES SO THAT CONTAINERS OF LIQUEFIED AMMONIA MAY EXPLODE UNLESS THEIR RUPTURE STRENGTH IS SAFELY IN EXCESS OF 112 ATM.
[Clayton, G.D., F.E. Clayton (eds.) Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volumes 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F: Toxicology. 4th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1993-1994., p. 757]**QC REVIEWED**

Hazardous Reactivities & Incompatibilities:

Air and hydrocarbons: Explosion limits have been estimated for mixtures containing C1-C3 hydrocarbons.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990, p. 1230]**PEER REVIEWED**

Boron halides: The boron halides react violently with ammonia.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990, p. 1230]**PEER REVIEWED**

With calcium: At ambient temp, ammonia gas reacts exothermally with calcium, but if warmed the latter becomes incandescent. The metal dissolves unchanged in liquid ammonia, but if the latter evaporates, the finely divided metal is pyrophoric.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990, p. 917]**PEER REVIEWED**

With 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene: During the preparation of 2,4-dinitroaniline by a well-established procedure involving heating the reactants in a direct-fired autoclave (170 deg C and 40 bar were typical conditions), a sudden incr in temp and pressure preceded a violent explosion.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990, p. 568]**PEER REVIEWED**

With chloroformamidinium nitrate: It is powerfully explosive, and also an oxidant which reacts violently with ammonia or amines ...
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990, p. 170]**PEER REVIEWED**

With 2-chloronitrobenzene: During the large-scale preparation of 2-nitroaniline at 160-180 deg C/30-40 bar in a jacketed autoclave, several concurrent processing abnormalities (excess chloro compound, too little ammonia solution, failure to apply cooling or to vent the autoclave and non-failure of a disk-rupture) led to a runaway reaction and pressure-explosion of the vessel.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990, p. 577]**PEER REVIEWED**

Chlorine azide: It gives an explosive yellow liquid with liquid ammonia.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990, p. 982]**PEER REVIEWED**

With 1,2-dichloroethane: Liquid ammonia and the solvent may explode when mixed. (It is possible this was a liquefied gas (physical) explosion, rather than an exothermic chemical reaction).
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990, p. 1231]**PEER REVIEWED**

With magnesium perchlorate: Intensive drying of ammonia gas by passing it over the desiccant in a steel drying tube led to an exotherm, followed by a violent explosion. (An amine derivative may have been formed).
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990, p. 1018]**PEER REVIEWED**

With heavy metals: Ammonia is capable of reacting with some heavy metal compounds (silver, gold, mercury) to produce materials, some of uncertain constitution, which may explode violently when dry.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990, p. 1231]**PEER REVIEWED**

Action of ammonia or ammonium salts on gold (III) chloride, oxide or other salts under a wide variety of conditions gives explosive or "fulminating" gold. Of uncertain composition but containing Au-N bonds, this is a heat-, friction- and impact-sensitive explosive when dry, similar to the related mercury and silver compounds.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990, p. 54]**PEER REVIEWED**

With halogens or interhalogens: Ammonia either reacts violently, or produces explosive products, with all four halogens and some of the interhalogens.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990, p. 1231]**PEER REVIEWED**

With iodine and potassium: During the reductive cleavage of cyclopolyenes with potassium in liquid ammonia, the intermediate anionic species are quenched with iodine-pentane mixtures. The possibility of formation of the highly explosive nitrogen triiodide and the need for precautions are stressed.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990, p. 1231]**PEER REVIEWED**

With nitrogen trichloride: Contact above 0 deg C of excess chlorine or a chlorinating agent with aqueous ammonia, ammonium salts ... produces the endothermic ... and explosive nitrogen trichloride as a water-insoluble yellow oil.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990, p. 1040]**PEER REVIEWED**

With potassium chlorate: High concentrations of ammonia in air react so vigorously with potassium chlorate as to be dangerous.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990, p. 970]**PEER REVIEWED**

With nitryl chloride: Interaction of the chloride with ammonia ... is very violent, even at -75 deg C ...
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990, p. 980]**PEER REVIEWED**

With chromyl chloride: Contact with ammonia causes incandescence.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990, p. 1010]**PEER REVIEWED**

With chromium trioxide: Gaseous ammonia leads to incandescence, and the aqueous solution is oxidized very exothermically.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990, p. 1070]**PEER REVIEWED**

With trioxygen difluoride: ... Solid ammonia ... reacts with ignition and/or mild explosion.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990, p. 1111]**PEER REVIEWED**

With selenium difluoride dioxide: Interaction is violent and many of the products and derivatives are both shock- and heat-sensitive explosives. These include the ammonium, potassium silver and thallium salts of the "triselenimidate" ion ...
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990, p. 1111]**PEER REVIEWED**

With nitric acid: A jet of ammonia will ignite in nitric acid vapor.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990, p. 1152]**PEER REVIEWED**

Hydrogen peroxide: Ammonia dissolved in 99.6% peroxide gave an unstable solution which exploded violently.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990, p. 1211]**PEER REVIEWED**

With nitrogen oxide: Violent explosions which occurred at -100 to -180 deg C in ammonia synthesis gas units were traced to the formation of explosive addition products between dienes and oxides of nitrogen, produced from interaction of nitrogen oxide and oxygen.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990, p. 1342]**PEER REVIEWED**

With dinitrogen tetraoxide: Liquid ammonia reacts explosively with the solid tetraoxide at -80 deg C, while aqueous ammonia reacts vigorously with the gas at ambient temperature.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990, p. 1351]**PEER REVIEWED**

With oxygen and platinum: In school demonstrations of oxidation of ammonia to nitric acid over platinum catalysts, substitution of oxygen for air causes fairly vigorous explosions to occur.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990, p. 1396]**PEER REVIEWED**

With silver chloride: Exposure of ammoniacal silver chloride solutions to air or heat produces a black crystalline deposit of "fulmination silver", mainly silver nitrate, with disilver imide and silver amide also present. Attention is drawn to the potential explosion hazard in a method of recovering silver from the chloride by passing an ammoniacal solution of the chloride through an ion exchange column to separate the Ag(NH3)+ ion, prior to elution as the nitrate. It is essential to avoid letting the ammoniacal solution stand for several hours, either alone or on the column.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990, p. 5]**PEER REVIEWED**

With thiocarbonyl azide thiocyanate: The unstable (endothermic) compound reacts explosively with ammonia gas, and violently with concentrated hydrazine solutions.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990, p. 325]**PEER REVIEWED**

With sulfinyl chloride: Addition of a solution of 4-nitrobenzoyl chloride (1 g) in a large excess (10 mL) of sulfinyl chloride to ice-cold concentrated ammonia solution caused a violent explosion. This may certainly be attributed to the instantaneous hydrolysis of the excess sulfinyl chloride by the aqueous ammonia with production of several of unneutralized acid gases in a test tube.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990, p. 1023]**PEER REVIEWED**

With thiotrithiazyl chloride: The dry chloride, which explodes on heating in air, will rapidly absorb ammonia gas and then explode. The structure of the cation is now known to be a seven membered ring with only two adjacent sulfur atoms. Thiotrithiazyl salts other than the chloride are also explosive.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990, p. 983]**PEER REVIEWED**

With tetramethylammonium amide: During the preparation, the liquid ammonia used as solvent must be removed completely at -45 deg C. The compound decomp explosively at ambient temp in presence of ammonia.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990, p. 505]**PEER REVIEWED**

With tellurium tetrachloride: Interaction with liquid ammonia at -15 deg C forms tellurium nitride which explodes at 200 deg C.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990, p. 1052]**PEER REVIEWED**

With tellurium tetrabromide: Intraction gives a mixture of tritellurium tetranitride and tellurium bromide nitride, which explodes on heating.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990, p. 110]**PEER REVIEWED**

With stibine: A heated mixture explodes.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990, p. 1239]**PEER REVIEWED**

With silver (I) oxide: The clear solution, obtained by centrifuging a solution of the oxide in aqueous ammonia which had been treated with silver nitrate until precipitation started, exploded on two occasions after 10-14 days storage in closed bottles in the dark. This was ascribed to slow precipitation of amorphous disilver imide, which is very explosive even when wet. When silver oxide is dissolved in ammonia solution, an extremely explosive precipitate (probably Ag3N4) will separate. The explosive behavior is completely inhibited by presence of colloids or ammonium salts (acetate, carbonate, citrate or oxalate).
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990, p. 16]**PEER REVIEWED**

With dichlorine oxide: The heat sensitivity /of dichlorine oxide/ ... may explain the explosions which occur on contact of many readily oxidizable materials with this powerful oxidant. Such materials include ammonia. ... Mixtures with hydrogen detonate on ignition.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990, p. 1023]**PEER REVIEWED**

With mercury: A mercury manometer used with ammonia became blocked by deposition of a grey-brown solid, which exploded during attempts to remove it mechanically or on heating. The solid appeared to be a dehydration product of Millon's base and was freely soluble in sodium thiosulfate solution. This method of cleaning is probably safer than others, but the use of mercury manometers with ammonia should be avoided as intrinsically unsafe. Although pure dry ammonia and mercury do not react even under pressure at 340 kbar and 200 deg C, the presence of traces of water leads to the formation of an explosive compound, which may explode during depressurization of the system. Explosions in mercury-ammonia systems had been reported previously.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990, p. 1270]**PEER REVIEWED**

With silver nitrate: A bottle containing Gomari tissue staining solution (ammoniacal silver nitrate), prepared 2 weeks previously exploded when disturbed. The solution must be prepared freshly each day, and discarded immediately after use with appropriate precautions. A large quantity of ammoniacal silver nitrate solution exploded violently when disturbed by removing a glass rod. However, it has now been shown that neither the solid precipitated during addition of ammonia to the nitrate, nor the redissolved complex, is sensitive to initiation by very severe shocks. This was so for fresh or aged solutions. The solids produced by total evaporation at 95 deg C or higher would explode only at above 100 kgcm shock force. A pH value above 12.9 is essential for separation of explosive precipitates, and this cannot be attained by addition of ammonia alone.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990, p. 11]**PEER REVIEWED**

With ethylene oxide: Accidental contamination by aqueous ammonia of an ethylene oxide feed tank containing 22 t caused violent polymerization which ruptured the tank and led to a devastating vapor cloud explosion. The close similarity to other base-catalyzed incidents was stressed.
[Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990, p. 273]**PEER REVIEWED**

Strong oxidizers, acids, halogens, salts of silver and zinc [Note: corrosive to copper and galvanized surfaces].
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997., p. 14]**QC REVIEWED**

With picric acid: Forms explosive salts.
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Ammonia (Draft) p.116 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

AMMONIA /REACTS/ WITH ACETALDEHYDE, ACROLEIN, BORON BORON TRIIODIDE, BROMINE, BROMINE PENTAFLUORIDE, CHLORIC ACID, CHLORINE MONOXIDE, CHLORINE TRIFLUORIDE, CHLORITES, CHLOROSILANE, CHROMIC ANHYDRIDE, ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE, ETHYLENE OXIDE, FLUORINE, GOLD, HEXACHLOROMELAMINE, HYDRAZINE AND ALKALI METALS, HYDROGEN BROMIDE, HYPOCHLOROUS ACID, MAGNESIUM PERCHLORATE, NITROGEN PEROXIDE, NITROGEN TRIFLUORIDE, OXYGEN DIFLUORIDE, PHOSPHORUS TRIOXIDE, POTASSIUM AND ARSINE, POTASSIUM AND PHOSPHINE, POTASSIUM AND SODIUM NITRITE, POTASSIUM FERRICYANIDE, POTASSIUM MERCURICYANIDE. SODIUM AND CARBON MONOXIDE, STIBINE, SULFUR, SULFUR DICHLORIDE, TELLURIUM HYDROPENTACHLORIDE AND TRICHLOROMELAMINE.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997., p. 491-18]**QC REVIEWED**

SEVERE FIRE HAZARD WHEN MIXED WITH BROMINE PENTAFLUORIDE, CHLOROSILANE, CHROMYL CHLORIDE & FLUORINE. AMMONIA GAS BURNS IN ATMOSPHERE OF NITRIC ACID. POTASSIUM & PHOSPHINE REACT IN LIQ AMMONIA TO FORM POTASSIUM DIHYDROPHOSPHIDE, A SPONTANEOUSLY FLAMMABLE SOLID.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997., p. 491-35]**QC REVIEWED**

MAGNESIUM PERCHLORATE WAS CONTAINED IN SMALL STEEL REFRIGERATION-TYPE DRYING TUBE & AMMONIA WAS PASSED THROUGH IT (AFTER SYSTEM WAS EVACUATED) IN SMALL INCREMENTS IN ATTEMPT TO FURTHER DESICCATE IT. IT WAS NOTED THAT OUTSIDE OF ... TUBE WAS WARM TO TOUCH. SHORTLY ... TUBE EXPLODED VIOLENTLY.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997., p. 491-114]**QC REVIEWED**

Mixtures of ammonia and air will explode when ignited under favorable conditions ... but ammonia is generally regarded as nonflammable.
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 87]**PEER REVIEWED**

Other Hazardous Reaction:

Poisonous, visible vapor cloud is produced /from contact with water/.
[U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Transportation. CHRIS - Hazardous Chemical Data. Volume II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984-5., p. ]**PEER REVIEWED**

For more specific material safety information for Ammonia, please consult the Anhydrous Ammonia MSDS Information above.

Prior History of Accidents:

An explosion at the Dixie Cold Storage Company in Shreveport, LA occurred as two firemen attempted to isolate an anhydrous ammonia leak in a cold storage warehouse. The men were badly burned when their protective clothing ignited in the ensuing fire, and one died within 36 hr. ... Several days prior to the accident, employees noted a smell of ammonia and located a leak in the refrigeration system. Steps were taken to isolate the system and repair a leaky valve at the evaporator unit. As they were working, ammonia continued to accumulate in the room. The crew tried to absorb the gas using a 50 lb cylinder of carbon dioxide. This has been effective for small amounts of ammonia but was not recommended for large leaks. The carbon dioxide contacted moist room air and condensed. Ammonia also condensed, greatly reducing visibility. The room became untenable for anyone not wearing full protective equipment and workers were using only industrial type filter masks or chemical respirators. They left the room and called the fire department to borrow full protective gear. When firemen arrived, they were told that the leak had been isolated, that it had not been prolonged, and that only residual gas remained. Water was sprayed in the room to absorb the ammonia, and a fan was set up. After considering various alternatives, the firefighters decided to use an electric fork lift truck to replace the valve located 17 ft above the floor. The floor was very slippery, and the truck slid into an interior wall and the concrete curb at its base. Explosion occurred immediately. One firefighter was unable to escape or remove his burning suit. /The situation indicated that/ the warehouse workers' failure to reduce the possibility of hazardous anhydrous ammonia levels, the firefighters' lack of awareness of hazardous gas levels, and ignition of the gas are major factors in loss of life in this accident.
[Klem TJ; Amer Inst Chem Eng 26: 145-49 (1986)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health:

300 ppm
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997., p. 14]**QC REVIEWED**

Protective Equipment & Clothing:

EMPLOYEES SHOULD BE PROVIDED WITH & REQUIRED TO USE IMPERVIOUS CLOTHING, GLOVES, FACE SHIELD (8-INCH MIN), & OTHER APPROPRIATE PROTECTIVE CLOTHING NECESSARY TO PREVENT ... SKIN CONTACT ... /THEY/ SHOULD BE PROVIDED WITH & REQUIRED TO USE SPLASH-PROOF SAFETY GOGGLES ...
[Mackison, F. W., R. S. Stricoff, and L. J. Partridge, Jr. (eds.). NIOSH/OSHA - Occupational Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards. DHHS(NIOSH) Publication No. 81-123 (3 VOLS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Jan. 1981., p. 2]**PEER REVIEWED**

Ammonia: Chemical protective clothing composed of butyl rubber, natural rubber, neoprene, nitrile rubber, and polyvinyl chloride may be used since data suggest that breakthrough times are approximately an hour or more. Vitron is not recommended for use since data (usually from immersion tests) suggest that breakthrough times are less than one hour.
[ACGIH; Guidelines Select of Chem Protect Clothing Volume #1 Field Guide p.64 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent skin contact.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997., p. 15]**QC REVIEWED**

Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997., p. 15]**QC REVIEWED**

Eyewash fountains should be provided in areas where there is any possibility that workers could be exposed to the substance; this is irrespective of the recommendation involving the wearing of eye protection. />10%/
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997., p. 15]**QC REVIEWED**

Facilities for quickly drenching the body should be provided within the immediate work area for emergency use where there is a possibility of exposure. [Note: It is intended that these facilities provide a sufficient quantity or flow of water to quickly remove the substance from any body areas likely to be exposed. The actual determination of what constitutes an adequate quick drench facility depends on the specific circumstances. In certain instances, a deluge shower should be readily available, whereas in others, the availability of water from a sink or hose could be considered adequate.]
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997., p. 15]**QC REVIEWED**

Recommendations for respirator selection. Max concn for use: 250 ppm. Respirator Class(es): Any chemical cartridge respirator with cartridge(s) providing protection against the compound of concern. May require eye protection. Any supplied-air respirator. May require eye protection.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997., p. 15]**QC REVIEWED**

Recommendations for respirator selection. Max concn for use: 300 ppm. Respirator Class(es): Any supplied-air respirator operated in a continuous flow mode. May require eye protection. Any powered, air-purifying respirator with cartridge(s) providing protection against the compound of concern. May require eye protection. Any chemical cartridge respirator with a full facepiece and cartridge(s) providing protection against the compound of concern. Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator (gas mask) with a chin-style, front- or back-mounted canister providing protection against the compound of concern. Any self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece. Any supplied-air respirator with a full facepiece.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997., p. 15]**QC REVIEWED**

Recommendations for respirator selection. Condition: Emergency or planned entry into unknown concn or IDLH conditions: Respirator Class(es): Any self-contained breathing apparatus that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive pressure mode. Any supplied-air respirator that has a full facepiece and is operated in pressure-demand or other positive pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self-contained breathing apparatus operated in pressure-demand or other positive pressure mode.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997., p. 15]**QC REVIEWED**

Recommendations for respirator selection. Condition: Escape from suddenly occurring respiratory hazards: Respirator Class(es): Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator (gas mask) with a chin-style, front- or back-mounted canister providing protection against the compound of concern. Any appropriate escape-type, self-contained breathing apparatus.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997., p. 15]**QC REVIEWED**

MAC 100 ppm. Eye protection, respiratory apparatus, and cotton clothing. Be sure equipment is not aluminum, copper, lead, or tin. Protective clothing over a cotton layer is recommended.
[Prager, J.C. Environmental Contaminant Reference Databook Volume 1. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1995., p. 137]**PEER REVIEWED**

Preventive Measures:

PROCESS ENCLOSURE; LOCAL EXHAUST VENTILATION & GENERAL DILUTION VENTILATION. ... WHERE THERE IS ANY POSSIBILITY OF EXPOSURE OF EMPLOYEE'S BODY ... FACILITIES FOR QUICK DRENCHING OF BODY SHOULD BE PROVIDED WITHIN IMMEDIATE WORK AREA ... CLOTHING WET WITH LIQ ANHYD AMMONIA ... SHOULD BE PLACED IN CLOSED CONTAINERS ... UNTIL IT CAN BE DISCARDED ... AN EYE WASH FOUNTAIN SHOULD BE PROVIDED WITHIN IMMEDIATE WORK AREA ...
[Mackison, F. W., R. S. Stricoff, and L. J. Partridge, Jr. (eds.). NIOSH/OSHA - Occupational Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards. DHHS(NIOSH) Publication No. 81-123 (3 VOLS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Jan. 1981., p. 3]**PEER REVIEWED**

Each vehicle transporting ammonia in bulk except farm applicator vehicles shall carry a container of at least 5 gal of water and shall be equipped with a full face mask.
[29 CFR 1910.111 Revised (3/11/83)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Contact lenses should not be worn when working with this chemical. /Soln/liquid/
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997., p. 15]**QC REVIEWED**

SRP: The scientific literature for the use of contact lenses in industry is conflicting. The benefit or detrimental effects of wearing contact lenses depend not only upon the substance, but also on factors including the form of the substance, characteristics and duration of the exposure, the uses of other eye protection equipment, and the hygiene of the lenses. However, there may be individual substances whose irritating or corrosive properties are such that the wearing of contact lenses would be harmful to the eye. In those specific cases, contact lenses should not be worn. In any event, the usual eye protection equipment should be worn even when contact lenses are in place.
**PEER REVIEWED**

Water carried on farm vehicles should be protected from freezing by an external source of heat. Antifreeze chemicals must not be used. A means of applying the water to the skin and/or eyes in large quantities must be available. The container should have an opening large enough for easy access, should be covered to prevent entry of dirt. ... A plastic squeeze bottle containing at least 8 ounces of water should be carried by each individual to allow immediate irrigation of the eyes. /SRP: Workers should know this is for eye safety, not drinking./ This may provide a few additional seconds in which to reach the larger container before irreversible eye damage results.
[NIOSH; Criteria Document: Ammonia p.78 (1974) DHEW Pub. NIOSH 74-136]**PEER REVIEWED**

Use care in handling strong ammonia solution because of caustic nature of solution & irritating properties of its vapor. Cool container well before opening, & cover closure with a cloth or similar material while opening.
[Osol, A. (ed.). Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences. 16th ed. Easton, Pennsylvania: Mack Publishing Co., 1980., p. 1257]**PEER REVIEWED**

... GREATEST HAZARD OF WORKING WITH ALKALINE MATERIALS IS FROM SPLASH OR SPLATTER OF PARTICLES OR SOLN OF STRONGER ALKALIES ENTERING EYES OF WORKMEN. THIS CAN BE PREVENTED BY USE OF EYE PROTECTION THAT IS EFFECTIVE AT ALL ANGLES. PROPER PROVISIONS SHOULD ... BE AVAIL FOR IMMEDIATE & PROLONGED WASHING WITH WATER SHOULD ... EYE CONTAMINATION OCCUR. /AMMONIA GAS/
[Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982., p. 3045]**PEER REVIEWED**

SRP: Contaminated protective clothing should be segregated in such a manner so that there is no direct personal contact by personnel who handle, dispose, or clean the clothing. Quality assurance to ascertain the completeness of the cleaning procedures should be implemented before the decontaminated protective clothing is returned for reuse by the workers.
**PEER REVIEWED**

The worker should immediately wash the skin when it becomes contaminated. /Solution/
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997., p. 15]**QC REVIEWED**

Work clothing that becomes wet or significantly contaminated should be removed and replaced. /Solution/
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997., p. 15]**QC REVIEWED**

If material not involved in fire: Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Attempt to stop leak if without undue personnel hazard. Use water spray to knock-down vapors.
[Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1994., p. 86]**PEER REVIEWED**

Personnel protection: Avoid breathing vapors. Keep upwind. ... Avoid bodily contact with the material. ... Do not handle broken packages unless wearing appropriate personal protective equipment. Wash away any material which may have contacted the body with copious amounts of water or soap and water. If contact with the material anticipated, wear appropriate chemical protective clothing.
[Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1994., p. 86]**PEER REVIEWED**

Evacuation: If material leaking (not on fire) consider evacuation from down wind area based on amount of material spilled, location and weather conditions.
[Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1994., p. 86]**PEER REVIEWED**

Shipment Methods and Regulations:

No person may /transport,/ offer or accept a hazardous material for transportation in commerce unless that person is registered in conformance ... and the hazardous material is properly classed, described, packaged, marked, labeled, and in condition for shipment as required or authorized by ... /the hazardous materials regulations (49 CFR 171-177)./
[49 CFR 171.2; U.S. National Archives and Records Administration's Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Available from: http://www.gpoaccess.gov/ecfr/ as of February 15, 2006 ]**QC REVIEWED**

The International Air Transport Association (IATA) Dangerous Goods Regulations are published by the IATA Dangerous Goods Board pursuant to IATA Resolutions 618 and 619 and constitute a manual of industry carrier regulations to be followed by all IATA Member airlines when transporting hazardous materials.
[International Air Transport Association. Dangerous Goods Regulations. 47th Edition. Montreal, Quebec Canada. 2006., p. 138]**QC REVIEWED**

The International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code lays down basic principles for transporting hazardous chemicals. Detailed recommendations for individual substances and a number of recommendations for good practice are included in the classes dealing with such substances. A general index of technical names has also been compiled. This index should always be consulted when attempting to locate the appropriate procedures to be used when shipping any substance or article.
[International Maritime Organization. International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code. London, UK. 2004., p. 42, 101, 127, 173]**QC REVIEWED**

Storage Conditions:

Separate from other chemicals, particularly oxidizing materials, acids, and halogens. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated location.
[Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997., p. 49-17]**QC REVIEWED**

... MAY BE STORED UNDER HIGH PRESSURE, REFRIGERATED AT LOW PRESSURE, OR AS AQUEOUS AMMONIA IN LOW PRESSURE TANKS.
[Clayton, G.D., F.E. Clayton (eds.) Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volumes 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F: Toxicology. 4th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1993-1994., p. 756]**QC REVIEWED**

Storage temperature: Ambient for pressurized ammonia: low temperature for ammonia at atmospheric pressure.
[U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Transportation. CHRIS - Hazardous Chemical Data. Volume II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984-5., p. ]**PEER REVIEWED**

Permanent storage containers shall be located at least 50 feet from a dug well or other sources of potable water supply, unless the container is a part of a water-treatment installation.
[29 CFR 1910.111 Revised (3/11/83)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Cleanup Methods:

1) VENTILATE AREA OF SPILL OR LEAK TO DISPERSE GAS. 2) IF IN GASEOUS FORM, STOP FLOW OF GAS. IF SOURCE OF LEAK IS A CYLINDER & LEAK CANNOT BE STOPPED IN PLACE, REMOVE LEAKING CYLINDER TO SAFE PLACE IN OPEN AIR & REPAIR LEAK OR ALLOW CYLINDER TO EMPTY. 3) IF IN LIQ FORM, ALLOW TO VAPORIZE.
[Mackison, F. W., R. S. Stricoff, and L. J. Partridge, Jr. (eds.). NIOSH/OSHA - Occupational Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards. DHHS(NIOSH) Publication No. 81-123 (3 VOLS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Jan. 1981., p. 4]**PEER REVIEWED**

Environmental considerations -- air spill: Apply water spray or mist to knock down vapors. Vapor knockdown water is corrosive or toxic and should be diked for containment.
[Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1994., p. 86]**PEER REVIEWED**

Environmental considerations -- water spill: Neutralize with dilute acid. use mechanical dredges or lifts to remove immobilized masses of pollutants and precipitates.
[Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1994., p. 86]**PEER REVIEWED**

Environmental considerations -- land spill: Dig a pit, pond, lagoon, holding area to contain liquid or solid material. /SRP: If time permits, pits, ponds, lagoons, soak holes, or holding areas should be sealed with an impermeable flexible membrane liner./ Dike surface flow using soil, sand bags, foamed polyurethane, or foamed concrete. Absorb bulk liquid with fly ash or cement powder. Neutralize with vinegar or other dilute acid.
[Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1994., p. 86]**PEER REVIEWED**

Disposal Methods:

SRP: At the time of review, criteria for land treatment or burial (sanitary landfill) disposal practices are subject to significant revision. Prior to implementing land disposal of waste residue (including waste sludge), consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices.
**PEER REVIEWED**

Dilute with water, neutralize with hydrogen chloride and discharge to sewer. Recovery is an option to disposal which should be considered for paper manufacture, textile treating, fertilizer manufacture, and chemical process wastes.
[Sittig, M. Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, 1985. 2nd ed. Park Ridge, NJ: Noyes Data Corporation, 1985., p. 41]**QC REVIEWED**

Pour into large tank of water, neutralize, and route to sewage plant ... Contact local sewage authority.
[Prager, J.C. Environmental Contaminant Reference Databook Volume 1. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1995., p. 137]**PEER REVIEWED**

Occupational Exposure Standards:

OSHA Standards:

Permissible Exposure Limit: Table Z-1 8-hr Time Weighted Avg: 50 ppm (35 mg/cu m).
[29 CFR 1910.1000 (7/1/98)]**QC REVIEWED**

Vacated 1989 OSHA PEL STEL 35 ppm (27 mg/cu m) is still enforced in some states.
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997., p. 359]**QC REVIEWED**

Threshold Limit Values:

8 hr Time Weighted Avg (TWA): 25 ppm; 15 min Short Term Exposure Limit (STEL): 35 ppm.
[ American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists TLVs and BEIs. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. Cincinnati, OH, 2005, p. 12]**QC REVIEWED**

NIOSH Recommendations:

Recommended Exposure Limit: 10 Hr Time-Weighted Avg: 25 ppm (18 mg/cu m).
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997., p. 14]**QC REVIEWED**

Recommended Exposure Limit: 15 Min Short-Term Exposure Limit: 35 ppm (27 mg/cu m).
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997., p. 15]**QC REVIEWED**

Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health:

300 ppm
[NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997., p. 14]**QC REVIEWED**

Other Occupational Permissible Levels:

Emergency Response Planning Guidelines (ERPG): ERPG(1) 25 ppm (no more than mild, transient effects) for up to 1 hr exposure; ERPG(2) 200 ppm (without serious, adverse effects) for up to 1 hr exposure; ERPG(3) 1000 ppm (not life threatening) up to 1 hr exposure.
[American Industrial Hygiene Association. The AIHA 1999 Emergency Response Planning Guidelines and Workplace Environmental Exposure Level Guides Handbook. American Industrial Hygiene Association. Fairfax, VA 1999., p. 25]**QC REVIEWED**

Manufacturing/Use Information:

Major Uses:

MFR NITRIC ACID, EXPLOSIVES, SYNTHETIC FIBERS, FERTILIZERS; IN REFRIGERATION & CHEM INDUSTRY
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 87]**PEER REVIEWED**

PREHARVEST COTTON DEFOLIANT
[Farm Chemicals Handbook 1997. Willoughby, OH: Meister Publishing Co., 1997., p. C-22]**PEER REVIEWED**

CHEM INT FOR UREA, AMMONIUM NITRATE, AMMONIUM SALTS, ADIPIC ACID FOR NYLON, HEXAMETHYLENEDIAMINE FOR NYLON, ACRYLONITRILE FOR FIBERS & PLASTICS, CAPROLACTAM FOR NYLON, ISOCYANATES FOR PLASTICS; DIRECT APPLICATION FERTILIZER; NUMEROUS MISC APPLICATIONS
**PEER REVIEWED**

USED IN MFR OF HYDRAZINE, PESTICIDES & DETERGENTS
[Clayton, G.D., F.E. Clayton (eds.) Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volumes 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F: Toxicology. 4th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1993-1994., p. 756]**QC REVIEWED**

Ammonia, or dissociated ammonia, is used in such metal treating operations as nitriding, carbo-nitriding, bright annealing, furnace brazing, sintering, sodium hydride descaling, atomic hydrogen welding, and other applications where protective atmospheres are required.
[Braker W, Mossman A; Matheson Gas Data Book 6th ED p.24 (1980)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Dissociated ammonia is used as a convenient source of hydrogen for the hydrogenation of fats and oils. Through the controlled combustion of dissociated ammonia in air, a source of pure nitrogen is achieved.
[Braker W, Mossman A; Matheson Gas Data Book 6th ED p.24 (1980)]**PEER REVIEWED**

The petroleum industry utilizes anhydrous ammonia in neutralizing the acid constituents of crude oil and in protecting equipment such as bubble plate towers, heat exchangers, condensers, and storage tanks from corrosion.
[Braker W, Mossman A; Matheson Gas Data Book 6th ED p.24 (1980)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Ammonia is used in the rubber industry for stabilization of raw latex to prevent coagulation during transportation and storage.
[Braker W, Mossman A; Matheson Gas Data Book 6th ED p.24 (1980)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Ammonia is used as a catalyst in the phenol-formaldehyde condensation and also in the urea-formaldehyde condensation to make synthetic resin.
[Braker W, Mossman A; Matheson Gas Data Book 6th ED p.24 (1980)]**PEER REVIEWED**

AMMONIA MAY BE ADDED TO WATER BEFORE (PREAMMONIATION) OR AFTER (POSTAMMONIATION) ADDITION OF CHLORINE. PREAMMONIATION CAN PREVENT FORMATION OF TASTES & ODORS THAT ARE CAUSED BY REACTION OF CHLORINE WITH PHENOLS & OTHER SUBSTANCES. POSTAMMONIATION IS MOST OFTEN USED AMMONIA-CHLORINE WATER TREATMENT PROCESS.
[National Research Council. Drinking Water and Health. Volume 2. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1980., p. 167]**PEER REVIEWED**

USED ... ON GRAPEFRUIT, LEMONS & ORANGES TO CONTROL FUNGAL GROWTH DURING WAREHOUSING. USDA HAS NOW REQUESTED THAT AMMONIA USED AS PRESERVATIVE IN HIGH MOISTURE CORN BE EXEMPTED FROM REQUIREMENT OF A TOLERANCE.
[Farm Chemicals Handbook 1997. Willoughby, OH: Meister Publishing Co., 1997., p. C-22]**PEER REVIEWED**

MEDICATION (VET)
**PEER REVIEWED**

Fertilizers; manufacture of nitric acid, hydrazine hydrate, hydrogen cyanide, urethane, acrylonitrile, and sodium carbonate (by Solvay process); refrigerant, nitriding of steel; condensation catalyst; synthetic fibers; dyeing; neutralizing agent in petroleum industry; latex preservative; explosives; nitrocellulose; urea-formaldehyde; nitroparaffins; melamine; ethylene diamine; sulfite cooking liquors; fuel cells; rocket fuel; yeast nutrient; developing diazo films
[Lewis, R.J., Sr (Ed.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 12th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Rheinhold Co., 1993, p. 62]**PEER REVIEWED**

Manufacturers:

Agrium US Inc., Hq: 4582 South Ulster Street, Suite 1400, Denver, CO 80237 (303) 804-4400; Production site: Borger, TX 79008
[SRI. 1997 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International 1997., p. 451]**QC REVIEWED**

Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.,Hq: 7201 Hamilton Blvd, Allentown, PA 18195-1501 (610) 481-4911; Chemicals Group: (800) 345-3148; Industrial Chemicals Division, Production site: East Pace, FL
[SRI. 1997 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International 1997., p. 451]**QC REVIEWED**

Allied-Signal Inc, Hq: 101 Columbia Road, PO Box 1057, Morristown, NJ 07962-1057 (201) 455-2000; Allied-Signal Engineered Materials: 101 Columbia Road, PO Box 1087, Morristown, NJ 07962-1087 (201) 455-2000; Production site: Hopewell, VA 23680
[SRI. 1997 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International 1997., p. 451]**QC REVIEWED**

Borden Chemicals and Plastics Operating Limited Partnership, Hq: Highway 73, Geismar, LA 70734 (504) 673-6121; Production site: Geismar, LA 70734
[SRI. 1997 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International 1997., p. 451]**QC REVIEWED**

CF Industries Inc., Hq: 1 Salem Lake Drive, Long Grove, IL 60047 (708) 438-9500; Production site: Donaldsonville, LA 70346
[SRI. 1997 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International 1997., p. 451]**QC REVIEWED**

Chevron Products Corporation, Hq: 575 Market Street, San Francisco, CA 94105 (415) 894-5469; Production sites: El Segundo, CA 90245; Richmond, CA 94802
[SRI. 1997 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International 1997., p. 451]**QC REVIEWED**

Coastal Chem, Inc., Hq: PO Box 1287, Cheyenne, WY 82003 (307) 637-2700; Production site: Cheyenne, WY 82003
[SRI. 1997 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International 1997., p. 451]**QC REVIEWED**

Coastal Refining and Marketing, Inc., Hq: 9 Greenway Plaza, Houston, TX 77046 (713) 877-6559; Production site: St. Helens, OR 97051
[SRI. 1997 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International 1997., p. 451]**QC REVIEWED**

Cytec Industries, Hq: Five Garret Mountain Plaza West, Paterson, NJ 07424 (201) 357-3100; Process Chemicals, Fine Chemicals, Contract, Production site: Westwego (Avondale), LA 70094
[SRI. 1997 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International 1997., p. 451]**QC REVIEWED**

Dakota Gasification Company, Hq: 1600 East Interstate Ave, Bismark, ND 58501-0561 (701) 221-4400; Production site: Beulah, ND 58523
[SRI. 1997 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International 1997., p. 451]**QC REVIEWED**

DuPont, Hq: 1007 Market Street, Wilmington, DE 19898 (302) 774-1000; DuPont Chemicals (800) 441-9442; DuPont Specialty Chemicals: DuPont Performance, Specialty and Fine Chemicals, Production site: Beaumont, TX 77704
[SRI. 1997 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International 1997., p. 451]**QC REVIEWED**

Farmland Industries, Inc., Hq: 3315 North Oak Trafficway, PO Box 7305, Kansas City, MO 64116 (816) 459-6000; Production sites: Beatrice, NE 68310; Dodge City, KS 67801; Enid, OK 73702; Fort Dodge, IA 50501; Lawrence, KS 66044; Pollock, LA 71467
[SRI. 1997 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International 1997., p. 451]**QC REVIEWED**

Green Valley Chemical Corporation, Hq: Route 4, PO Box 86, Creston, IA 50801 (515) 782-7041; Production site: Creston, IA 50801
[SRI. 1997 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International 1997., p. 451]**QC REVIEWED**

IMC-Agrico Company, Hq: Old Highway 37, PO Box 2000-1100, Mulberry, FL 33860 (941) 428-2500; Production site: Donaldsonville, LA 70346
[SRI. 1997 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International 1997., p. 451]**QC REVIEWED**

IMC Nitrogen Company, Hq: 16675 Highway 20 West, PO Box 229, East Dubuque, IL 61025-0229 (815) 747-3101; Production site: East Dubuque, IL 61025-0229
[SRI. 1997 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International 1997., p. 451]**QC REVIEWED**

Koch Nitrogen Company, Hq: 4111 East 37th Street, North Wichita, KS 67220 (316) 828-7259; Production site: Sterlington, LA 71280
[SRI. 1997 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International 1997., p. 451]**QC REVIEWED**

LaRoche Industries Inc, Hq: 1100 Johnson Ferry Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30342 (404) 851-0300; Production site: Cherokee, AL 35616
[SRI. 1997 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International 1997., p. 451]**QC REVIEWED**

Mississippi Chemical Corporation, Hq: Highway 49 E, PO Box 388 Yazoo City, MS 39194 (601) 746-4131; Production site: Yazoo City, MS 39194
[SRI. 1997 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International 1997., p. 451]**QC REVIEWED**

Monsanto Company, Hq: 800 N Lindbergh Blvd, St. Louis, MO 63167 (314) 694-1000; Crop Protection Unit: 800 N Lindbergh Blvd, St. Louis, MO 63167 (314) 694-1000; Production site: Luling, LA 70070
[SRI. 1997 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International 1997., p. 451]**QC REVIEWED**

PCS Nitrogen Fertilizer, L.P., Hq: 6750 Poplar Ave, Suite 600, Memphis, TN 38138-7419; Production sites: Augusta, GA 30903; Clinton, IA 52732; Geismar, LA 70734; La Platte, NE 68005; Memphis, TN 38127
[SRI. 1997 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International 1997., p. 451]**PEER REVIEWED**

PCS Nitrogen Ohio, L.P., Hq: PO Box 628, Lima, OH 45802 (419) 226-1404; Production site: Lima, OH 45802
[SRI. 1997 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International 1997., p. 451]**QC REVIEWED**

J R Simplot Company, Hq: PO Box 912, Pocatello, ID 83204 (208) 233-2700; Minerals and Chemical Division, Production site: Pocatello, ID 83204
[SRI. 1997 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International 1997., p. 451]**QC REVIEWED**

Terra Industries Inc., Hq: Terra Centre, 600 South Fourth Street, Sioux City, IA 51101 (712) 277-1340; Production sites: Sergeant Bluff, IA 51054; Woodward, OK 73801
[SRI. 1997 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International 1997., p. 451]**QC REVIEWED**

Terra Nitrogen, Limited Partnership, Hq: 5100 E Skelly Drive, Suite 800, PO Box 35507, Tulsa, OK 74153 (918) 660-0050; Production sites: Blytheville, AR 72316; Catoosa (Verdigris), OK 74015
[SRI. 1997 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International 1997., p. 451]**QC REVIEWED**

Triad Nitrogen, Inc., Hq: PO Box 1851, Yazoo City, MS 39194 (601) 746-6302; Production site: Donaldsonville, LA 70346 (504) 473-9231
[SRI. 1997 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International 1997., p. 451]**QC REVIEWED**

Ultramar Diamond Shamrock Corporation, Hq: PO Box 696000, San Antonio, TX 78269-6000 (210) 641-6800; Production site: Dumas, TX 79086
[SRI. 1997 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International 1997., p. 451]**QC REVIEWED**

Unocal Corp, Hq: 2141 E Rosecrans Ave, Suite 4000, El Segundo, CA 90245 (301) 726-7600; Production sites: Finley, WA 99336; Kenai, AK 99611
[SRI. 1997 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International 1997., p. 451]**QC REVIEWED**

Willard Grain and Feed, Hq: Route 2, Box 41, Celina, TX 75009 (214) 382-2367; Wil-Gro Fertilizer, Inc, Division: PO Box 429 Pryor, OK 74362 (918) 825-3383; Production site: Pryor, OK 74362
[SRI. 1997 Directory of Chemical Producers -United States of America. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International 1997., p. 451]**QC REVIEWED**

Methods of Manufacturing:

AMMONIA IS MFR PRIMARILY BY A MODIFIED HABER REDUCTION PROCESS USING ATMOSPHERIC NITROGEN & A HYDROGEN SOURCE, FOR EXAMPLE, METHANE, ETHYLENE OR NAPHTHA, AT HIGH TEMP (400 TO 6500 DEG C) & PRESSURES (100 TO 900 ATM) IN PRESENCE OF AN IRON CATALYST.
[Clayton, G.D., F.E. Clayton (eds.) Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volumes 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F: Toxicology. 4th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1993-1994., p. 756]**QC REVIEWED**

From synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen (from air) obtained by steam reforming or by partial combustion of natural gas (USA) or from the action of steam on hot coke (Haber-Bosch used in South Africa).
[Lewis, R.J., Sr (Ed.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 12th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Rheinhold Co., 1993, p. 62]**PEER REVIEWED**

Manufactured from natural gas
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 87]**PEER REVIEWED**

General Manufacturing Information:

Fifth highest-volume chemical produced in USA (1991).
[Lewis, R.J., Sr (Ed.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 12th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Rheinhold Co., 1993, p. 62]**PEER REVIEWED**

AMMONIA IN SOLN ... IN VARYING CONCN IS USED IN VARIETY OF PRODUCTS SUCH AS CLEANING AGENTS, LINIMENTS & AROMATIC SPIRITS. AMMONIA SOLN ARE SOMETIMES USED AS FERTILIZERS. ... FRESH HOUSEHOLD AMMONIA RANGES IN CONCN FROM 5 TO 10% NH3, BUT A 54% SOLN IS ALSO AVAIL COMMERCIALLY.
[Gosselin, R.E., R.P. Smith, H.C. Hodge. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1984., p. III-21]**PEER REVIEWED**

Manufactured from water gas (obtained by blowing steam through incandescent coke) as source of hydrogen, and from producer gas (obtained from steam and air through incandescent coke), as source of nitrogen by the Haber-Bosch process.
[Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 87]**PEER REVIEWED**

Formulations/Preparations:

Grades: Commercial 99.5%; refrigerant 99.97%.
[Lewis, R.J., Sr (Ed.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 12th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Rheinhold Co., 1993, p. 62]**PEER REVIEWED**

Aqueous soln of ammonia ... is often referred to & labeled as a soln of ammonium hydroxide /although there is little ammonium hydroxide present/. In commerce, ammonia is avail ... in form of aqueous soln of varying concn, or as anhydrous ammonia furnished in liquefied form ... . Ammonia in household use contains 10% ammonia & is ... known as 16 deg ammonia (referring to density in degrees Baume, a concn term).
[Osol, A. (ed.). Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences. 16th ed. Easton, Pennsylvania: Mack Publishing Co., 1980., p. 350]**PEER REVIEWED**

Shipping grades or purity: Commercial, industrial, refrigeration, electronic, and metallurgical grades all have purity greater than 99.5%.
[U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Transportation. CHRIS - Hazardous Chemical Data. Volume II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984-5., p. ]**PEER REVIEWED**

Ammonia solution, more than 10% and not more than 35% ammonia.
[IATA. Dangerous Goods Regulations. 28th ed. Montreal, Canada: International Air Transport Association. Dangerous Goods Board, January 1, 1987., p. 82]**PEER REVIEWED**

Ammonia solution, more than 35% and not more than 50% ammonia.
[IATA. Dangerous Goods Regulations. 28th ed. Montreal, Canada: International Air Transport Association. Dangerous Goods Board, January 1, 1987., p. 82]**PEER REVIEWED**

Consumption Patterns:

Fertilizer, 80%; Polymers, 7%; Exports, 6%; Explosives, 3%; Animal feeds, 2%; Other, 2% (1985)
[CHEMICAL PROFILE: Ammonia, 1985]**PEER REVIEWED**

CHEMICAL PROFILE: Ammonia. Direct application fertilizer, 27%; urea, 21%; ammonium phosphates, 14%; nitric acid, 11%; ammonium nitrate, 8%; exports, 6%; ammonium sulfate, 3%; other, 10%.
[Kavaler AR; Chemical Marketing Reporter 234 (14): 52 (1988)]**PEER REVIEWED**

CHEMICAL PROFILE: Ammonia. Demand: July 1987-June 1988: 16.4 million tons; 1988-1989: 17.7 million tons; 1992-1993 /projected/: 18.4 million tons. (Includes exports, but not imports, which totaled 3.2 million tons in 1987-1988.)
[Kavaler AR; Chemical Marketing Reporter 234 (14): 52 (1988)]**PEER REVIEWED**

CHEMICAL PROFILE: Ammonia. Direct application fertilizer, 25%; urea, 25%; ammonium phosphates, 17%; nitric acid, 12%; ammonium nitrate, 8%; acrylonitrile, 3%; ammonium sulfate, 4%; other, 6%.
[Kavaler AR; Chemical Marketing Reporter 240: 52 (1994)]**PEER REVIEWED**

CHEMICAL PROFILE: Ammonia. Demand: (1993) 17.2 million tons; (1994) 17.9 million tons; (1998) /projected/: 20.9 million tons. (Includes exports of 507,000 tons in 1993, but not imports, which totaled 2.84 million tons.)
[Kavaler AR; Chemical Marketing Reporter 240: 52 (1994)]**PEER REVIEWED**

U. S. Production:

(1972) 1.42X10+13 GRAMS (ANHYDROUS)
**PEER REVIEWED**

(1975) 1.49X10+13 GRAMS (ANHYDROUS)
**PEER REVIEWED**

(1985) 1.47X10+13 g
[Chem Eng News 64 (23): 35 (1986)]**PEER REVIEWED**

(1986) 1.70X10+4 metric ton
[SRI. DIRECTORY OF CHEMICAL PRODUCERS-USA 1987, p.459]**PEER REVIEWED**

(1990) 33.59 billion lb
[Chem & Engineering News 70 (15): 17 (4/13/92)]**PEER REVIEWED**

(1991) 34.33 billion lb
[Chem & Engineering News 71 (15): 11 (4/12/93)]**PEER REVIEWED**

(1992) 36.59 billion lb
[Chem & Engineering News 72 (15): 13 (4/11/94)]**PEER REVIEWED**

(1993) 34.50 billion lb
[Chem & Engineering News 72 (15): 13 (4/11/94)]**PEER REVIEWED**

(1994) 34.51 billion lb
[Chem & Engineering News 74 (15): 13 (4/8/96)]**PEER REVIEWED**

(1995) 35.60 billion lb
[Chem & Engineering News 74 (15): 13 (4/8/96)]**PEER REVIEWED**

U. S. Imports:

(1972) 3.50X10+11 GRAMS (ANHYDROUS)
**PEER REVIEWED**

(1975) 7.33X10+11 GRAMS (ANHYDROUS)
**PEER REVIEWED**

(1985) 2.27X10+12 g
[Chem Eng News 64 (7): 17 (1986)]**PEER REVIEWED**

8.19X10+5 lb (liquid anhydrous) 6.47X10+6 lb (aq)
[BUREAU OF THE CENSUS. US IMPORTS FOR CONSUMPTION AND GENERAL IMPORTS 1986 p.1-1512]**PEER REVIEWED**

U. S. Exports:

(1972) 6.46X10+11 GRAMS (ANHYDROUS & AQUEOUS)
**PEER REVIEWED**

(1975) 2.95X10+11 GRAMS (ANHYDROUS)
**PEER REVIEWED**

(1985) 4.54X10+11 g
[Chem Eng News 64 (7): 17 (1986)]**PEER REVIEWED**

(1987) 1.80X10+3 content ton (aq)
[BUREAU OF THE CENSUS. U.S. EXPORTS, SCHEDULE E, OCTOBER 1987, P.2-91]**PEER REVIEWED**

Laboratory Methods:

Analytic Laboratory Methods:

AIR SAMPLES /SRP: COLLECTED BY IMPINGER/ ANALYZED BY AMMONIA SPECIFIC ELECTRODE; RANGE: 17-68 MG/CU M.
[U.S. Department of Health, Education Welfare, Public Health Service. Center for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety Health. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods. 2nd ed. Volumes 1-7. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1977-present., p. V5 S347-1]**PEER REVIEWED**

(Air) Sampling and analysis: Second derivatives spectroscopy; min det limit: 1 ppb; Photometry: min full scale: 1,800 ppm; IR spectrometry: detection limit: 0.22 ppm; non despersive IR: detection limit: 250 ppm; detector tubes: UNICO: detection limit: 20 ppm; AUER: detection limit : 5 ppm; DRAGER: detection limit: 5 ppm; impinger, 800 1 air/30 min; VLS: detection limit : 5 ug/cu m/30 min Nessler reagent.
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data of Organic Chemicals. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1983., p. 195]**PEER REVIEWED**

The concentration of ammonia in air can be determined with the Matheson Kitagawa Toxic Gas Detector Model 8014KA, which gives accurate, dependable, and reproducible results.
[Braker W, Mossman A; Matheson Gas Data Book 6th ED p.26 (1980)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Colorimetric: Ambient air containing 14 to 220 ug NH3/cu m (0.02 to 0.3 ppm). Sampled at 1 to 2 l/min for one hour may be analyzed using this method. Ammonia is determined colorimetrically with an azo dye. Precision is + or - 1.6 percent for the analytical method. Nitrite, hydrolyzable amino cmpd, and other N-compounds may interfere. For higher concn, an aliquot of the solution may be analyzed.
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Ammonia (Draft) p.131 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Colorimetric: The range of concn that can be determined by this method is 20 to 700 ug/cu m (0.025 to 1 ppm) in air with a sampling time of one hour. Ammonia is determined colorimetrically using indophenol.
[Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Ammonia (Draft) p.132 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Analyte: ammonium ion; Matrix: air; Procedure: ion chromatography, conductivity detection; Range: 2-110 ug ammonia per sample; Precision: 0.043 range: 2-110 ug ammonia per sample;
[U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods, 3rd ed. Volumes 1 and 2 with 1985 supplement, and revisions. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, February 1984., p. V1 6701-1]**PEER REVIEWED**

M417E Ammonia - Selective Electrode Method This method is applicable for the measurement of 0.03-1400 mg nitrogen ammonia/l in potable and surface waters and domestic and industrial wastes. The ammonia-selective electrode uses a hydrophobic gas-permeable membrane to separate the sample solution from an electrode internal solution of ammonium chloride. Ammonia diffuses through the membrane and changes the internal solution pH, which is sensed by a pH electrode. In an inter-laboratory study (12 laboratories) using effluent water samples at 0.04, 0.10, 0.80, 20, 100, and 750 mg/l, mean recovery was 100, 470, 105, 95, 97, and 99% respectively.
[Franson MA (Ed); Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater p.384-6 (1985)]**PEER REVIEWED**

M417B Nesslerization Method (Direct and Following Distillation) for the Determination of Ammonia Nitrogen. Direct Nesslerization is used for purified drinking waters, natural water, and highly purified wastewater effluents. This colorimetric method is sensitive to 20 ug/l. Interferences such as turbidity, color, and precipitates are corrected through distillation. At ammonia nitrogen concentrations of 200, 800, and 1500 ug/l, relative standard deviation is 38.1, 11.2, and 11.6%, respectively and relative error is 0, 0, and 0.6%, respectively.
[Franson MA (Ed); Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater p.379-82 (1985)]**PEER REVIEWED**

APHA Method 4500-NH3: Ammonia in Water by Colorimetry; Ammonia in Water by Colorimetry Using an Automated Phenate Method; Colorimetry, water, minimum detection limit fall within 0.02 mg/l.
[USEPA; EMMI. Environmental Monitoring Methods Index. Version 2.0. NTIS PB-95-502415 (1995)]**PEER REVIEWED**

NIOSH Method 6015: Ammonia; Determination of Ammonia by Visible Absorption Spectrophotometry; Spectrophotometry workplace, detection limit of 0.0050 mg/cu-m.
[USEPA; EMMI. Environmental Monitoring Methods Index. Version 2.0. NTIS PB-95-502415 (1995)]**PEER REVIEWED**

AREAL Method IP-9: Reactive Acidic and Basic Gases; Determination of Reactive Acidic and Basic Gases and Particulate Matter in Indoor Air (Annular Denuder Technique); Annular denuder, indoor ambient air, detection limit of 0.25 ug/cu-m.
[USEPA/Atmospheric Research & Exposure Assessment Laboratory (AREAL); Compendium of Methods for the Determination of Air Pollutants in Indoor Air, Engineering Science, One Harrison Park, Suite 305, 401 Harrison Oaks Blvd, Cary, NC 27513 as cited in USEPA; EMMI. Environmental Monitoring Methods Index. Version 2.0. NTIS PB-95-502415 (1995)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Sampling Procedures:

In air: Detector tubes Model 1055A are used for high concentrations (1-25%) and Model 105SC for low (5-260 ppm) concentration ranges of ammonia. A color stain is produced in the detector tube which varies in length with the concentration of the sample being measured.
[Braker W, Mossman A; Matheson Gas Data Book 6th ED p.26 (1980)]**PEER REVIEWED**

/Air/ Sampler: gas washing bottle: medium 200 ml water; sampling rate: 0.12 cu ft/min; test concn: 162 ppm; absorption efficiency: 84%.
[Verschueren, K. Handbook of Environmental Data of Organic Chemicals. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1983., p. 263]**PEER REVIEWED**

The concentration of ammonia in air can be ... determined by titration. A known volume of the air is passed through two bubblers in series containing a known volume of standardized 0.02 N sulfuric acid, the solution in each bubbles combined quantitatively, and the excess acid titrated with standardized 0.02 N sodium hydroxide, using methyl red indicator.
[Braker W, Mossman A; Matheson Gas Data Book 6th ED p.26 (1980)]**PEER REVIEWED**

Special References:

Special Reports:

Visek WJ; J Dairy Sci 67 (3): 481-98 (1984). The physical, chem properties of ammonia, its sources & detoxification, its effects in biological systems, its influence upon insulin action & glucose metabolism, & its possible effects on reproduction are discussed.

Environment Canada; Tech Info for Problem Spills: Ammonia (Draft) (1984).

NIOSH; Criteria Document: Ammonia (1974) DHEW Pub. NIOSH 74-136.

USEPA/ECAO; Ammonia (1980) EPA 600/1-77-054.

Brands A; HdbK Toxicol 472-503 (1987). Studies on the effects of accidental exposure to asphyxiant gases occurring in occupational settings are reviewed.

DHHS/ATSDR; Toxicological Profile for Ammonia (1990) ATSDR/TP-90/03

Synonyms and Identifiers:

Related HSDB Records:

5125 [AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE]

Synonyms:

R 717
**PEER REVIEWED**

AM-FOL
**PEER REVIEWED**

AMMONIA, ANHYDROUS
**PEER REVIEWED**

AMMONIACA (ITALIAN)
**PEER REVIEWED**

AMMONIAC (FRENCH)
**PEER REVIEWED**

AMMONIA GAS
**PEER REVIEWED**

AMMONIAK (GERMAN)
**PEER REVIEWED**

AMONIAK (POLISH)
**PEER REVIEWED**

Liquid Ammonia
**PEER REVIEWED**

NITRO-SIL
**PEER REVIEWED**

Formulations/Preparations:

Grades: Commercial 99.5%; refrigerant 99.97%.
[Lewis, R.J., Sr (Ed.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 12th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Rheinhold Co., 1993, p. 62]**PEER REVIEWED**

Aqueous soln of ammonia ... is often referred to & labeled as a soln of ammonium hydroxide /although there is little ammonium hydroxide present/. In commerce, ammonia is avail ... in form of aqueous soln of varying concn, or as anhydrous ammonia furnished in liquefied form ... . Ammonia in household use contains 10% ammonia & is ... known as 16 deg ammonia (referring to density in degrees Baume, a concn term).
[Osol, A. (ed.). Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences. 16th ed. Easton, Pennsylvania: Mack Publishing Co., 1980., p. 350]**PEER REVIEWED**

Shipping grades or purity: Commercial, industrial, refrigeration, electronic, and metallurgical grades all have purity greater than 99.5%.
[U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Transportation. CHRIS - Hazardous Chemical Data. Volume II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984-5., p. ]**PEER REVIEWED**

Ammonia solution, more than 10% and not more than 35% ammonia.
[IATA. Dangerous Goods Regulations. 28th ed. Montreal, Canada: International Air Transport Association. Dangerous Goods Board, January 1, 1987., p. 82]**PEER REVIEWED**

Ammonia solution, more than 35% and not more than 50% ammonia.
[IATA. Dangerous Goods Regulations. 28th ed. Montreal, Canada: International Air Transport Association. Dangerous Goods Board, January 1, 1987., p. 82]**PEER REVIEWED**

Shipping Name/ Number DOT/UN/NA/IMO:

UN 1005; Ammonia, anhydrous

UN 3318; Ammonia solution, relative density less than 0.880 at 15 deg C in water, with more than 50% ammonia

UN 2672; Ammonia solutions, relative density between 0.880 and 0.957 at 15 deg C in water, with more than 10% but not more than 35% ammonia

UN 2073; Ammonia solutions, relative density less than 0.880 at 15 deg C in water, with more than 35% but not more than 50% ammonia

IMO 2.3; Ammonia, anhydrous; Ammonia, solution, with more than 35% but not more than 50% ammonia

Standard Transportation Number:

49 042 10; Anhydrous ammonia

For more specific material safety information for Ammonia, please consult the Anhydrous Ammonia MSDS Information above.



Top of Page


Return to Home Page of Home Air Purifier Expert from Ammonia MSDS Information


Best Indoor Air Quality Test Kit for Ammonia Testing


New! Comments

Have your say about what you just read! Leave me a comment in the box below.