Arsenic MSDS and Public Health Information


Arsenic MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet), frequently asked questions, and extensive public health information follows.


Is this carcinogenic ancient poison found in or around your home? The answer is probably yes since "pressure-treated wood" containing Copper Chromated Arsenate is common to most properties.


Read on to find out what other Arsenic sources could affect your health and what you should do to limit your exposure to this toxic element.


Realgar or AsS is one natural mineral source of As in the sulfide form. Old cobalt glass Bottle for poison.  Such bottles were used to hold compounds such as Arsenic-based medicines like Arsenicious Acid Granules which was ironically a common poison used to commit suicide and murder.  Today's corporations would never produce such bottles as they don't like us to know our household products can be deadly. Orpiment or As2S3 is another natural mineral source of As in sulfide form.







Public Health Statement and Frequently Asked Questions About Arsenic (Arsénico)


The best home air purifier will help protect you from Poisonous and toxic substances



1.1 What is Arsenic?

1.2 What happens to Arsenic when it enters the environment?

1.3 How might I be exposed to Arsenic?

1.4 How can Arsenic enter and leave my body?

1.5 How can Arsenic affect my health?

1.6 How can Arsenic affect children?

1.7 How can families reduce the risk of exposure to Arsenic?

1.8 Is there a medical test to determine whether I have been exposed to Arsenic?

1.9 What recommendations has the federal government made to protect human health against Arsenic Exposure?

1.10 Where can I get more information about Arsenic?

1.11 Arsenic References

1.12 Arsenic MSDS

1.13 Complete Toxicological Information for Arsenic




This Public Health Statement outlines public health issues regarding the hazardous substance Arsenic, and it's expected health effects. This information is important because this substance may harm you. The effects of exposure to any hazardous substance depend on the dose, the duration, how you are exposed, personal traits and habits, and whether other chemicals are present.

This public health statement tells you about arsenic and the effects of exposure to it.

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identifies the most serious hazardous waste sites in the nation. These sites are then placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) and are targeted for long-term federal clean-up activities. Arsenic has been found in at least 784 of the 1,662 current or former NPL sites. Although the total number of NPL sites evaluated for this substance is not known, the possibility exists that the number of sites at which arsenic is found may increase in the future as more sites are evaluated. This information is important because these sites may be sources of exposure and exposure to this substance may harm you.

When a substance is released either from a large area, such as an industrial plant, or from a container, such as a drum or bottle, it enters the environment. Such a release does not always lead to exposure. You can be exposed to a substance only when you come in contact with it. You may be exposed by breathing, eating, or drinking the substance, or by skin contact.

If you are exposed to arsenic, many factors will determine whether you will be harmed. These factors include the dose (how much), the duration (how long), and how you come in contact with it. You must also consider any other chemicals you are exposed to and your age, sex, diet, family traits, lifestyle, and state of health.

1.1 What is Arsenic?

Arsenic is a shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens.

Arsenic is an element that is widely distributed in the Earth's crust. Elemental arsenic is ordinarily a steel grey metal-like material that occurs naturally. However, arsenic is usually found in the environment combined with other elements such as oxygen, chlorine, and sulfur. Arsenic combined with these elements is called inorganic arsenic. Arsenic combined with carbon and hydrogen is referred to as organic arsenic. Understanding the difference between inorganic and organic arsenic is important because some of the organic forms are less harmful than the inorganic forms.

Most inorganic and organic arsenic compounds are white or colorless powders that do not evaporate. They have no smell, and most have no special taste. Thus, you usually cannot tell if arsenic is present in your food, water, or air.

Inorganic arsenic occurs naturally in soil and in many kinds of rock, especially in minerals and ores that contain copper or lead. When these ores are heated in smelters, most of the arsenic goes up the stack and enters the air as a fine dust. Smelters may collect this dust and take out the arsenic as a compound called arsenic trioxide (As2O3). However, arsenic is no longer produced in the United States; all of the arsenic used in the United States is imported.

Presently, about 90% of all arsenic produced is used as a preservative for wood to make it resistant to rotting and decay. The preservative is copper chromated arsenic (CCA) and the treated wood is referred to as "pressure-treated." In 2003, U.S. manufacturers of wood preservatives containing arsenic began a voluntary transition from CCA to other wood preservatives that do not contain arsenic in wood products for certain residential uses, such as play structures, picnic tables, decks, fencing, and boardwalks. This phase out was completed on December 31, 2003; however, wood treated prior to this date could still be used and existing structures made with CCA-treated wood would not be affected. CCA-treated wood products continue to be used in industrial applications. It is not known whether, or to what extent, CCA-treated wood products may contribute to exposure of people to arsenic.

In the past, inorganic arsenic compounds were predominantly used as pesticides, primarily on cotton fields and in orchards. Inorganic arsenic compounds can no longer be used in agriculture. However, organic arsenic compounds, namely cacodylic acid, disodium methylarsenate (DSMA), and monosodium methylarsenate (MSMA), are still used as pesticides, principally on cotton. Some organic arsenic compounds are used as additives in animal feed. Small quantities of arsenic metal are added to other metals to form metal mixtures or alloys with improved properties. The greatest use of arsenic in alloys is in lead-acid batteries for automobiles. Another important use of arsenic compounds is in semiconductors and light-emitting diodes.

Arsenic may also be known by these synonyms:

Arsenic Trioxide, Calcium arsenate, Arsenia, arsenate, arsenious, arseno-, arsenous, arsonic, arsenite, organic arsenics, arsanilic acid, methylarsonic acid and arsenobetaine, Arsen [German,Polish], Arsenic Black, Arsenic-75, Arsenicals, CCRIS 55, Colloidal arsenic, EINECS 231-148-6, Gray arsenic, Grey arsenic, HSDB 509, Metallic arsenic, Arsenic compounds, Arsenic [UN1558] [Poison], elemental Arsenic, inorganic Arsenic, organic compounds of Arsenic, water-soluble compounds of Arsenic n.o.s., orUN1558.

Natural Arsenic Bearing Minerals:

  • Orpiment - As2S3, Arsenic Sulfide
  • Enargite - Cu3AsS4, Copper Arsenic Sulfide
  • Löllingite - FeAs2, Iron Arsenide
  • Arsenopyrite - FeAsS, Iron Arsenic Sulfide
  • Realgar - AsS, Arsenic Sulfide
  • Arsenic - As, Elemental Arsenic

1.2 What happens to Arsenic when it enters the environment?

Arsenic occurs naturally in soil and minerals and it therefore may enter the air, water, and land from wind-blown dust and may get into water from runoff and leaching. Volcanic eruptions are another source of arsenic. Arsenic is associated with ores mined for metals, such as copper and lead, and may enter the environment during the mining and smelting of these ores. Small amounts of arsenic also may be released into the atmosphere from coal-fired power plants and incinerators because coal and waste products often contain some arsenic.

Arsenic cannot be destroyed in the environment. It can only change its form, or become attached to or separated from particles. It may change its form by reacting with oxygen or other molecules present in air, water, or soil, or by the action of bacteria that live in soil or sediment. Arsenic released from power plants and other combustion processes is usually attached to very small particles. Arsenic contained in wind-borne soil is generally found in larger particles. These particles settle to the ground or are washed out of the air by rain. Arsenic that is attached to very small particles may stay in the air for many days and travel long distances. Many common arsenic compounds can dissolve in water. Thus, arsenic can get into lakes, rivers, or underground water by dissolving in rain or snow or through the discharge of industrial wastes. Some of the arsenic will stick to particles in the water or sediment on the bottom of lakes or rivers, and some will be carried along by the water. Ultimately, most arsenic ends up in the soil or sediment. Although some fish and shellfish take in arsenic, which may build up in tissues, most of this arsenic is in an organic form called arsenobetaine (commonly called "fish arsenic") that is much less harmful.

1.3 How might I be exposed to Arsenic?

Since arsenic is found naturally in the environment, you will be exposed to some arsenic by eating food, drinking water, or breathing air. Children may also be exposed to arsenic by eating dirt. You may also be exposed by skin contact with soil or water that contains arsenic. Analytical methods used by scientists to determine the levels of arsenic in the environment generally do not determine the specific form of arsenic present. Therefore, we do not always know the form of arsenic a person may be exposed to. Similarly, we often do not know what forms of arsenic are present at hazardous waste sites. Some forms of arsenic may be so tightly attached to particles or embedded in minerals that they are not taken up by plants and animals.

The concentration of arsenic in soil varies widely, generally ranging from about 1 to 40 parts of arsenic to a million parts of soil (ppm) with an average level of 3-4 ppm. However, soils in the vicinity of arsenic-rich geological deposits, some mining and smelting sites, or agricultural areas where arsenic pesticides had been applied in the past may contain much higher levels of arsenic. The concentration of arsenic in natural surface and groundwater is generally about 1 part in a billion parts of water (1 ppb), but may exceed 1,000 ppb in mining areas or where arsenic levels in soil are high. Groundwater is far more likely to contain high levels of arsenic than surface water. Surveys of U.S. drinking water indicate that about 80% of water supplies have less than 2 ppb of arsenic, but 2% of supplies exceed 20 ppb of arsenic. Levels of arsenic in food range from about 20 to 140 ppb. However, levels of inorganic arsenic, the form of most concern, are far lower. Levels of arsenic in the air generally range from less than 1 to about 2,000 nanograms (1 nanogram equals a billionth of a gram) of arsenic per cubic meter of air (less than 1-2,000 ng/m3), depending on location, weather conditions, and the level of industrial activity in the area. However, urban areas generally have mean arsenic levels in air ranging from 20 to 30 ng/m3.

You normally take in small amounts of arsenic in the air you breathe, the water you drink, and the food you eat. Of these, food is usually the largest source of arsenic. Seafood contains the greatest amounts of arsenic, but in fish and shellfish, this is mostly in an organic form of arsenic called arseonbetaine that is much less harmful. Some seaweeds may contain arsenic in inorganic forms that may be more harmful. Children are likely to eat small amounts of dust or dirt each day, so this is another way they may be exposed to arsenic. The total amount of arsenic you take in from these sources is generally about 50 micrograms (1 microgram equals one-millionth of a gram) each day. The level of inorganic arsenic (the form of most concern) you take in from these sources is generally about 3.5 microgram/day.

In addition to the normal levels of arsenic in air, water, soil, and food, you could be exposed to higher levels in several ways, such as the following:

  • Some areas of the United States contain unusually high natural levels of arsenic in rock, and this can lead to unusually high levels of arsenic in soil or water. If you live in an area like this, you could take in elevated amounts of arsenic in drinking water. Children may be taking in arsenic because of hand to mouth contact or eating dirt.
  • Some hazardous waste sites contain large quantities of arsenic. If the material is not properly disposed of, it can get into surrounding water, air, or soil. If you live near such a site, you could be exposed to elevated levels of arsenic from these media.
  • If you work in an occupation that involves arsenic production or use (for example, copper or lead smelting, wood treating, pesticide application), you could be exposed to elevated levels of arsenic during your work.
  • If you saw or sand arsenic-treated wood, you could inhale some of the sawdust into your nose or throat. Similarly, if you burn arsenic-treated wood, you could inhale arsenic in the smoke.
  • If you live in a formerly agricultural area where arsenic was used on crops, the soil could contain high levels of arsenic.
  • In the past, several kinds of products used in the home (rat poison, ant poison, weed killer, some types of medicines) had arsenic in them. However, most of these uses of arsenic have ended, so you are not likely to be exposed from home products any longer.

Industrial Processes with risk of Exposure to Arsenic:

  • Applying Wood Preservatives
  • Battery Manufacturing
  • Burning Arsenic-Treated Wood
  • Cleaning Fossil Fuel Furnaces or Flues
  • Farming (Pesticides and Feed Additives)
  • Semiconductor Manufacturing
  • Smelting Copper or Lead
  • Soldering
  • Welding Over Coatings

Activities With Risk of Exposure to Arsenic:

  • Drinking water from a private well
  • Glassblowing
  • Ingesting an herbal remedy
  • Living near a smelter
  • Lost wax casting
  • Preparing, stuffing, and mounting the skins of animals (taxidermy)
  • Smoking cigarettes
  • Woodworking

Household Products That May Contain Arsenic or Arsenic Compounds:

  • Quikrete Color-PAK, All Colors except Charcoal No. 1318 Home maintenance powder
  • Uses / Sources of Arsenic:

    Except for the electronics industry, the commercial use of arsenic is declining. However, there still remain several sources or applications which may pose a hazard of Arsenic exposure. Several are as follows:

    MINING OR SMELTING:

  • Smelt lead, copper, zinc, cobalt, nickel, or gold.
  • MANUFACTURING:

    • Pesticides (sheep dips, insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, algicides, wood preservatives, cotton desiccants)
    • Lead-arsenic alloys for solder, battery grids, or cable shielding
    • Electronics (microwave devices, lasers, light-emitting diodes, photoelectric cells, semiconductors)
    • Clarified glass or ceramics
    • Pigments

    USING OR DISPOSING:

    • Cleaning fossil fuel furnaces, flues, or boilers
    • Sanding or burning of arsenic-treated wood (i.e. wood treated with Copper Chromated Arsenate (CCA))

    Arsenic Usage is Regulated:

    • EPA regulates emissions from copper smelters, glass manufacturing plants, and other facilities.
    • EPA also regulates arsenic in water and use of arsenic in pesticides.
    • Inorganic arsenic compounds are no longer used in agriculture in the USA.

    1.4 How can Arsenic enter and leave my body?

    If you swallow arsenic in water, soil, or food, most of the arsenic may quickly enter into your body. The amount that enters your body will depend on how much you swallow and the kind of arsenic that you swallow. This is the most likely way for you to be exposed near a waste site. If you breathe air that contains arsenic dusts, many of the dust particles settle onto the lining of the lungs. Most of the arsenic in these particles is then taken up from the lungs into the body. You might be exposed in this way near waste sites where arsenic-contaminated soils are allowed to blow into the air, or if you work with arsenic-containing soil or products. If you get arsenic-contaminated soil or water on your skin, only a small amount will go through your skin into your body, so this is usually not of concern.

    If you are exposed to arsenic, your liver changes some of this to a less harmful organic form. Both inorganic and organic forms leave your body in your urine. Most of the arsenic will be gone within several days, although some will remain in your body for several months or even longer.

    Half-Life of Arsenic:

    The Half-life of Arsenic in the human body is the expected time required to reduce by one half the amount of Arsenic absorbed by the body. Half-life can be calculated accurately only for those substances eliminated linearly, independent of concentration. For linearly eliminated substances, it takes approximately 3.5 half-lives to eliminate 90% of the substance.

    • Whole body (inorganic Arsenic Half-life): 1-5 days
    • Whole body (organic Arsenic Half-life): 4 days

    1.5 How can Arsenic affect my health?

    Scientists use many tests to protect the public from harmful effects of toxic chemicals and to find ways for treating persons who have been harmed.

    One way to learn whether a chemical will harm people is to determine how the body absorbs, uses, and releases the chemical. For some chemicals, animal testing may be necessary. Animal testing may also help identify health effects such as cancer or birth defects. Without laboratory animals, scientists would lose a basic method for getting information needed to make wise decisions that protect public health. Scientists have the responsibility to treat research animals with care and compassion. Scientists must comply with strict animal care guidelines because laws today protect the welfare of research animals.

    Inorganic arsenic has been recognized as a human poison since ancient times, and large oral doses (above 60,000 ppb in food or water) can result in death. If you swallow lower levels of inorganic arsenic (ranging from about 300 to 30,000 ppb in food or water), you may experience irritation of your stomach and intestines, with symptoms such as stomachache, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Other effects you might experience from swallowing inorganic arsenic include decreased production of red and white blood cells, which may cause fatigue, abnormal heart rhythm, blood-vessel damage resulting in bruising, and impaired nerve function causing a "pins and needles" sensation in your hands and feet.

    Perhaps the single-most characteristic effect of long-term oral exposure to inorganic arsenic is a pattern of skin changes. These include a darkening of the skin and the appearance of small "corns" or "warts" on the palms, soles, and torso, and are often associated with changes in the blood vessels of the skin. A small number of the corns may ultimately develop into skin cancer. Swallowing arsenic has also been reported to increase the risk of cancer in the liver, bladder, kidneys, prostate, and lungs. The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) has determined that inorganic arsenic is known to be a human carcinogen. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that inorganic arsenic is carcinogenic to humans. EPA also has classified inorganic arsenic as a known human carcinogen.

    If you breathe high levels of inorganic arsenic, then you are likely to experience a sore throat and irritated lungs. You may also develop some of the skin effects mentioned above. The exposure level that produces these effects is uncertain, but it is probably above 100 micrograms of arsenic per cubic meter (µg/m3) for a brief exposure. Longer exposure at lower concentrations can lead to skin effects, and also to circulatory and peripheral nervous disorders. There are some data suggesting that inhalation of inorganic arsenic may also interfere with normal fetal development, although this is not certain. An important concern is the ability of inhaled inorganic arsenic to increase the risk of lung cancer. This has been seen mostly in workers exposed to arsenic at smelters, mines, and chemical factories, but also in residents living near smelters and arsenical chemical factories. People who live near waste sites with arsenic may have an increased risk of lung cancer as well.

    If you have direct skin contact with inorganic arsenic compounds, your skin may become irritated, with some redness and swelling. However, it does not appear that skin contact is likely to lead to any serious internal effects.

    Despite all of the adverse health effects associated with inorganic arsenic exposure, there is some evidence that the small amounts of arsenic in the normal diet (10-50 ppb) may be beneficial to your health. For example, animals fed a diet with unusually low concentrations of arsenic did not gain weight normally. They also became pregnant less frequently than animals fed a diet containing a normal amount of arsenic. Further, the babies of these animals tended to be smaller than normal, and some died at an early age. However, no cases of arsenic deficiency in humans have ever been reported.

    Almost no information is available on the effects of organic arsenic compounds in humans. Studies in animals show that most simple organic arsenic compounds (such as methyl and dimethyl compounds) are less toxic than the inorganic forms and that some complex organic arsenic compounds are virtually non-toxic. However, high doses can produce some of the same effects. Thus, if you are exposed to high doses of an organic arsenic compound, you might develop nerve injury, stomach irritation, or other effects, but this is not known for certain.

    Diseases associated with exposure to Arsenic:

    • Aplastic anemia
    • Chronic Toxic Effects from Arsenic
    • Allergic Contact dermatitis from Arsenic
    • Lung cancer
    • Toxic Neuropathy
    • Raynaud Phenomenon
    • Skin cancer
    • Hemangiosarcoma of the liver
    • - Hemangiosarcoma of the Liver is an occupational cancer associated with exposure to arsenical pesticides by vintners and to vinyl chloride monomer by workers producing polyvinyl chloride

    Toxic Health Effects of Arsenic Exposure:

    • Skin lesions, peripheral neuropathy, and anemia are the hallmarks of chronic poisoning.
    • Chronic exposure is associated with lung, liver and skin cancer.
    • Liver function tests may be abnormal after chronic Arsenic poisoning.
    • Nasal septum perforation after Arsenic-containg dust exposure in the workplace was reported in the past.
    • Encepahalopathy, after both acute and chronic Arsenic exposure, has been reported.
    • There is limited positive data for arsenic causing spontaneous abortions in humans.
    • There is strong positive data for Arsenic causing testicular damage, birth defects, and fetal loss in animals.
    • Arsenic salts are irritants and can be skin sensitizers.

    1.6 How can Arsenic affect children?

    This section discusses potential health effects in humans from exposures during the period from conception to maturity at 18 years of age.

    Children are exposed to arsenic in many of the same ways that adults are. Since arsenic is found in the soil, water, food, and air, children may take in arsenic in the air they breathe, the water they drink, and the food they eat. Since children tend to eat or drink less of a variety of foods and beverages than do adults, ingestion of contaminated food or juice or infant formula made with arsenic-contaminated water may represent a significant source of exposure. In addition, since children often play in the dirt and put their hands in their mouths and sometimes intentionally eat dirt, ingestion of contaminated soil may be a more important source of arsenic exposure for children than for adults. In areas of the United States where natural levels of arsenic in the soil and water are high, or in areas in and around contaminated waste sites, exposure of children to arsenic through ingestion of soil and water may be significant. In addition, contact with adults who are wearing clothes contaminated with arsenic (e.g., with dust from copper- or lead-smelting factories, from wood-treating or pesticide application, or from arsenic-treated wood) could be a source of exposure. Because of the tendency of children to taste things that they find, accidental poisoning from ingestion of pesticides is also a possibility. Thus, although most of the exposure pathways for children are the same as those for adults, children may be at a higher risk of exposure because of normal hand-to-mouth activity.

    Children who are exposed to arsenic may have many of the same effects as adults, including irritation of the stomach and intestines, blood vessel damage, skin changes, and reduced nerve function. Thus, all health effects observed in adults are of potential concern in children. There is also some evidence that suggests that long-term exposure to arsenic in children may result in lower IQ scores. We do not know if absorption of arsenic from the gut in children differs from adults. There is some information suggesting that children may be less efficient at converting inorganic arsenic to the less harmful organic forms. For this reason, children may be more susceptible to health effects from inorganic arsenic than adults.

    There is some evidence that inhaled or ingested arsenic can injure pregnant women or their unborn babies, although the studies are not definitive. Studies in animals show that large doses of arsenic that cause illness in pregnant females can also cause low birth weight, fetal malformations, and even fetal death. Arsenic can cross the placenta and has been found in fetal tissues. Arsenic is found at low levels in breast milk.

    1.7 How can families reduce the risk of exposure to Arsenic?

    If your doctor finds that you have been exposed to substantial amounts of arsenic, ask whether your children might also have been exposed. Your doctor might need to ask your state health department to investigate.

    If you use arsenic-treated wood in home projects, personal protection from exposure to arsenic-containing sawdust may be helpful in limiting exposure of family members. These measures may include dust masks, gloves, and protective clothing. Arsenic-treated wood should never be burned in open fires, or in stoves, residential boilers, or fire places, and should not be composted or used as mulch. If you live in an area with a high level of arsenic in the water or soil, substituting cleaner sources of water and limiting contact with soil (for example, through use of a dense groundcover or thick lawn) would reduce family exposure to arsenic. By paying careful attention to dust and dirt control in the home (air filters, frequent cleaning), you can reduce family exposure to contaminated dirt. Some children eat a lot of dirt. You should prevent your children from eating dirt. You should discourage your children from putting objects in their mouths. Make sure they wash their hands frequently and before eating. Discourage your children from putting their hands in their mouths or engaging in other hand-to-mouth activities. Since arsenic may be found in the home as a pesticide, household chemicals containing arsenic should be stored out of reach of young children to prevent accidental poisonings. Always store household chemicals in their original labeled containers; never store household chemicals in containers that children would find attractive to eat or drink from, such as old soda bottles. Keep your Poison Control Center's number by the phone.

    It is sometimes possible to carry arsenic from work on your clothing, skin, hair, tools, or other objects removed from the workplace. This is particularly likely if you work in the fertilizer, pesticide, glass, or copper/lead smelting industries. You may contaminate your car, home, or other locations outside work where children might be exposed to arsenic. You should know about this possibility if you work with arsenic.

    Your occupational health and safety officer at work can and should tell you whether chemicals you work with are dangerous and likely to be carried home on your clothes, body, or tools and whether you should be showering and changing clothes before you leave work, storing your street clothes in a separate area of the workplace, or laundering your work clothes at home separately from other clothes. Material safety data sheets (MSDS) for many chemicals used should be found at your place of work, as required by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) in the U.S. Department of Labor. MSDS information should include chemical names and hazardous ingredients, and important properties, such as fire and explosion data, potential health effects, how you get the chemical(s) in your body, how to properly handle the materials, and what to do in the case of emergencies. Your employer is legally responsible for providing a safe workplace and should freely answer your questions about hazardous chemicals. Your state OSHA-approved occupational safety and health program or OSHA can answer any further questions and help your employer identify and correct problems with hazardous substances. Your state OSHA-approved occupational safety and health program or OSHA will listen to your formal complaints about workplace health hazards and inspect your workplace when necessary. Employees have a right to seek safety and health on the job without fear of punishment.

    1.8 Is there a medical test to determine whether I have been exposed to Arsenic?

    Several sensitive and specific tests can measure arsenic in your blood, urine, hair, or fingernails, and these tests are often helpful in determining if you have been exposed to above-average levels of arsenic in the past. These tests are not usually performed in a doctor's office. They require sending the sample to a testing laboratory.

    Measurement of arsenic in your urine is the most reliable means of detecting arsenic exposures that you experienced within the last several days. Most tests measure the total amount of arsenic present in your urine. This can sometimes be misleading, because the nonharmful forms of arsenic in fish and shellfish can give a high reading even if you have not been exposed to a toxic form of arsenic. For this reason, laboratories sometimes use a more complicated test to separate "fish arsenic" from other forms. Because most arsenic leaves your body within a few days, analysis of your urine cannot detect if you were exposed to arsenic in the past. Tests of your hair or fingernails can tell if you were exposed to high levels over the past 6-12 months, but these tests are not very useful in detecting low-level exposures. If high levels of arsenic are detected, this shows that you have been exposed, but unless more is known about when you were exposed and for how long, it is usually not possible to predict whether you will have any harmful health effects.

    1.9 What recommendations has the federal government made to protect human health against exposure to Arsenic?

    The federal government develops regulations and recommendations to protect public health. Regulations can be enforced by law. The EPA, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are some federal agencies that develop regulations for toxic substances. Recommendations provide valuable guidelines to protect public health, but cannot be enforced by law. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) are two federal organizations that develop recommendations for toxic substances.

    Regulations and recommendations can be expressed as "not-to-exceed" levels, that is, levels of a toxic substance in air, water, soil, or food that do not exceed a critical value that is usually based on levels that affect animals; they are then adjusted to levels that will help protect humans. Sometimes these not-to-exceed levels differ among federal organizations because they used different exposure times (an 8-hour workday or a 24-hour day), different animal studies, or other factors.

    Recommendations and regulations are also updated periodically as more information becomes available. For the most current information, check with the federal agency or organization that provides it. Some regulations and recommendations for arsenic include the following:

    The federal government has taken several steps to protect humans from arsenic. First, EPA has set limits on the amount of arsenic that industrial sources can release into the environment. Second, EPA has restricted or canceled many of the uses of arsenic in pesticides and is considering further restrictions. Third, in January 2001, the EPA lowered the limit for arsenic in drinking water from 50 to 10 ppb. Finally, OSHA has established a permissible exposure limit (PEL), 8-hour time-weighted average, of 10 µg/m3 for airborne arsenic in various workplaces that use inorganic arsenic.

    1.10 Where can I get more information about Arsenic?

    If you have any more questions or concerns, please contact your community or state health or environmental quality department or:

    Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
    Division of Toxicology and Environmental Medicine
    1600 Clifton Road NE, Mailstop F-32
    Atlanta, GA 30333
    Phone: 1-800-CDC-INFO • 888-232-6348 (TTY)
    Email: cdcinfo@cdc.gov

    Information line and technical assistance:

    Phone: 888-422-8737
    FAX: (770)-488-4178

    ATSDR can also tell you the location of occupational and environmental health clinics. These clinics specialize in recognizing, evaluating, and treating illnesses resulting from exposure to hazardous substances.

    To order toxicological profiles, contact:

    National Technical Information Service
    5285 Port Royal Road
    Springfield, VA 22161
    Phone: 800-553-6847 or 703-605-6000

    1.11 Arsenic References

    Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 2005. Toxicological profile for Arsenic (Draft for Public Comment). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service.

    1.12 Arsenic MSDS

    ARSENIC METAL-MBE CHARGES, ARSENIC CHUNK & GRANULE

    Section 1 - Product and Company IdentificationSection 9 - Physical & Chemical Properties
    Section 2 - Compositon/Information on IngredientsSection 10 - Stability & Reactivity Data
    Section 3 - Hazards Identification Including Emergency OverviewSection 11 - Toxicological Information
    Section 4 - First Aid MeasuresSection 12 - Ecological Information
    Section 5 - Fire Fighting MeasuresSection 13 - Disposal Considerations
    Section 6 - Accidental Release MeasuresSection 14 - MSDS Transport Information
    Section 7 - Handling and StorageSection 15 - Regulatory Information
    Section 8 - Exposure Controls & Personal ProtectionSection 16 - Other Information

    The information in this document is compiled from information maintained by the United States Department of Defense (DOD). Anyone using this information is solely reponsible for the accuracy and applicability of this information to a particular use or situation.
    We do not in any way warrant or imply the applicability, accuracy, viability or use of this information to any person or for use in any situation.
    Section 1 - Product and Company Identification
    ARSENIC METAL-MBE CHARGES, ARSENIC CHUNK & GRANULE

    Product Identification: ARSENIC METAL-MBE CHARGES, ARSENIC CHUNK & GRANULE
    Date of MSDS: 08/01/1997Technical Review Date: 09/01/1999
    FSC: 6810 NIIN: LIIN: 00N092040
    Submitter: N NF
    Status Code: A
    MFN: 01
    Article: N
    Kit Part: N

    Manufacturer's Information

    Manufacturer's Name: UNITED MINERAL & CHEMICAL CORP
    Manufacturer's Address1: 1100 VALLEYBROOK AVE
    Manufacturer's Address2: LYNDHURST, NJ

    07071
    Manufacturer's Country: US
    General Information Telephone: 201-507-3300
    Emergency Telephone: (800)424-9300
    Emergency Telephone: (800)424-9300
    Chemtec Telephone: (800)424-9300
    Proprietary: N
    Reviewed: Y
    Published: Y
    CAGE: 87730

    Contractor Information

    Contractor's Name: UNITED MINERAL & CHEMICAL CORP
    Contractor's Address1: 1100 VALLEYBROOK AVE
    Contractor's Address2: LYNDHURST, NJ

    07071
    Contractor's Telephone: 201-507-3300
    Contractor's CAGE: 87730


    Section 2 - Compositon/Information on Ingredients
    ARSENIC METAL-MBE CHARGES, ARSENIC CHUNK & GRANULE

    Ingredient Name: ARSENIC; (ARSENIC METAL)
    Ingredient CAS Number: 7440-38-2 Ingredient CAS Code: T
    RTECS Number: CG0525000 RTECS Code: T
    =WT: 100.=WT Code: M
    =Volume: =Volume Code:
    % Low WT: % Low WT Code:
    % High WT: % High WT Code:
    % Low Volume: % Low Volume Code:
    % High Volume:% High Volume Code:
    % Text:
    % Enviromental Weight:
    Other REC Limits: N/P
    OSHA PEL: N/P OSHA PEL Code:
    OSHA STEL: N/P OSHA STEL Code:
    ACGIH TLV: 0.01 MG/M3 ACGIH TLV Code: T
    ACGIH STEL: NOT ESTABLISHED ACGIH STEL Code: T
    EPA Reporting Quantity: 1 LB
    DOT Reporting Quantity: 1 LB
    Ozone Depleting Chemical: N


    Section 3 - Hazards Identification, Including Emergency Overview
    ARSENIC METAL-MBE CHARGES, ARSENIC CHUNK & GRANULE

    Health Hazards Acute & Chronic: ARSENIC METAL IS NOT AS READILY AVAIL IN THE BODY AS ARSENIC IN THE FORM OF DUST OR VAP OR WHEN PROCESSED INTO ARSENIC CMPDS (ARSENICALS). INORGANIC ARSENICALS ARE MORE TOXIC THAN ORGANIC ARSENICALS. ACUTE EFTS: ARSENIC IS POISON BY SUBCUTANEOUS, INTRAMUSCULAR & INTRAPERITONEAL ROUTES. ACUTE ARSENIC POISONING FROM INGEST RSLTS IN MARKED IRRIT OF STOMACH & INTESTINES W/NAUS, VOMIT & DIARR. IN SEV C ASES STOOLS & VOMIT ARE BLOODY & PATIENT MAY GO INTO COLLAPSE & SHOCK W/WEAK, RAPID PULSE, COLD SWEATS, COMA & DEATH. INHAL MAY CAUSE ULCERATION OF NASAL SEPTUM, RESP IRRIT. SKIN/EYE CNTCT MAY CAUSE DERM, SKIN & EYE (EFTS OF OVEREXP)

    Signs & Symptoms of Overexposure:
    HLTH HAZS: IRRIT. CHRONIC EFTS: ARSENIC IS CONFIRMED HUMAN CARCIN PRODUCING LIVER TUMORS & AN EXPERIMENTAL TERATOGEN (MAY CAUSE DMG TO DEVELOPING FETUS). CHRONIC ARSENIC POISONING MAY INCL ANY/ALL OF FOLLOWING: DIGEST SYS DISTURBS, LOSS OFAPPETITE, CRAMPS, NAUS, CONSTIP, DIARR; LIVER DMG WHICH MAY RSLT IN JAUN; DISTURBS OF BLOOD, KIDNEYS & NERVOUS SYS; SKIN ABNORMS INCL ITCHING, PIGMENTATION & POS S CANCEROUS CHGS. TARGET ORGANS FOR INORGANIC CMPDS AS AS): LIVER, KIDNEYS, SKIN, LUNGS, LYMPHATIC SYS. TLV: 0.01 MG/M3 TWA ARSENIC, ELEMENTAL & INORGANIC CMPDS (EXCEPT ARSINE), AS AS. OSHA PEL: (SUPD AT)

    Medical Conditions Aggravated by Exposure:
    KNOWN EFFECTS ON OTHER ILLNESSES: GASTROINTESTINAL. NERVOUS SYSTEM. SKIN. LIVER & KIDNEY PROBLEMS. AFTER EXPOSURE HAVE URINE TEST.

    LD50 LC50 Mixture: LD50: (ORAL, RAT) 763 MG/M3
    Route of Entry Indicators:
    Inhalation: YES
    Skin: YES
    Ingestion: YES
    Carcenogenicity Indicators
    NTP: YES
    IARC: YES
    OSHA: YES
    Carcinogenicity Explanation: ARSENIC: IARC MONOGRAPHS, SUPPLEMENT, VOL 7, PG 100, 1987: GROUP 1. NTP 8TH ANNUAL REPORT ON CARCINOGENS, 1998: KNOWN TO BE CARCINOGEN. OSHA REGULATED: CFR 29 1910.1018.

    Section 4 - First Aid Measures
    ARSENIC METAL-MBE CHARGES, ARSENIC CHUNK & GRANULE

    First Aid:
    SKIN: FLUSH WITH SOAP AND WATER. AVOID RUBBING INTO SKIN. CONTACT MD IMMEDIATELY. EYES: FLUSH WITH WATER FOR AT LEAST 15 MINUTES. CONTACT PHYSICIAN IMMEDIATELY. INHALATION: REMOVE TO FRESH AIR. PROVID E OXYGEN IF NECESSARY. CONTACT PHYSICIAN IMMEDIATELY. INGESTION: TREATMENT WITH BAS(DIMERCAPTOL) IS OF QUESTIONABLE EFFECTIVENESS IN TRIVALENT ARSENIC COMPOUNDS. INDUCE VOMITING AND DO GASTRIC LAVAGE. GET PERSONNEL TO HOSPITAL IMMEDIATELY. A PHYSICIAN CAN INITIATE AN EXCHANGE TRANSFUSION AND DIALYSIS. ALSO ABSORPTION AND REMOVAL WITH ANIMAL BONE COAL OR FE(OH)*2 SHOULD BE DONE.

    Section 5 - Fire Fighting Measures
    ARSENIC METAL-MBE CHARGES, ARSENIC CHUNK & GRANULE

    Fire Fighting Procedures:
    USE NIOSH APPRVD SCBA & FULL PROT EQUIP (FP N). RESTRICT PERS NOT WEARING PROT EQUIP FROM AREA. TRY TO SNUFF FIRE W/SAND, DRY MEDIA, FOAM OR CO*2. IF NO OTHER OPTIONS AVAILABLE, USE WATER & ALWAYS WEA R NIOSH APPRVD SCBA OR NIOSH TOXIC VAPOR RESP. POISONOUS GASES ARE PRODUCED IN FIRE, INCLUDING ARSENIC OXIDES.
    Unusual Fire or Explosion Hazard:
    ARSENIC, WHEN HEATED OR IN CONTACT W/ACID OR ACID FUMES, CAN PRODUCE HIGHLY TOXIC FUMES. ARSENIC REACTS VIGOROUSLY W/OXIDIZING MATLS. ARSENIC IS FLAMMABLE IN FORM OF DUST WHEN EXPOSED TO HEAT OR FLAME OR BY CHEMICAL RXN W/POWERFUL OXIDIZERS. SLIGHT EXPLOSION HAZ EXISTS IN FORM OF DUST WHEN EXPOSED TO (ECOLOGICAL INFO)
    Extinguishing Media:
    FOAM, CARBON DIOXIDE, DRY CHEMICAL.
    Flash Point: Flash Point Text: NONE
    Autoignition Temperature:
    Autoignition Temperature Text: N/K
    Lower Limit(s): N/A
    Upper Limit(s): N/A

    Section 6 - Accidental Release Measures
    ARSENIC METAL-MBE CHARGES, ARSENIC CHUNK & GRANULE

    Spill Release Procedures:
    RESTRICT PERSONS NOT WEARING PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT FROM AREA UNTIL CLEANUP IS COMPLETE. WEARING NIOSH APPROVED RESPIRATOR, GLOVES, GOGGLES, LAB COAT, GATHER UP CHUNKS, RODS OR GRANULES WITH VACUUM OR U TENSILS RESERVED FOR POISONOUS SOLIDS. AVOID RAISING DUST. VENTILATE THE AREA AFTER CLEANUP IS COMPLETE.

    Section 7 - Handling and Storage
    ARSENIC METAL-MBE CHARGES, ARSENIC CHUNK & GRANULE

    Handling and Storage Precautions:

    Other Precautions:


    Section 8 - Exposure Controls & Personal Protection
    ARSENIC METAL-MBE CHARGES, ARSENIC CHUNK & GRANULE

    Repiratory Protection:
    NIOSH APPROVED, AIR PURIFYING, TOXIC VAPOR RESPIRATOR TO PARTICULATE AND FUME AIR LEVEL. FOR INORGANIC ARSENIC APPLICATIONS, SEE 29 CFR 1910.1018 FOR PROPER RESPIRATOR SELECTION.
    Ventilation:
    LOC EXHST/MECH (GEN) SCRUBBER OR TRAP IF POSS TO MAINTAIN EXPOS TO LESS THAN PERMISSIBLE LIMITS FOR ELEMENTAL ARSENIC & ANY CMPDS BEING GENERATED.
    Protective Gloves:
    NEOPRENE OR PLASTIC.
    Eye Protection: ANSI APPROVED CHEMICAL WORKERS GOGGLES (FP N).
    Other Protective Equipment: ANSI APPROVED EYE WASH AND DELUGE SHOWER (FP N). LAB COAT.
    Work Hygenic Practices: N/P
    Supplemental Health & Safety Information: EFTS OF OVEREXP: 0.01 MG/M3 AS AS & INORGANIC CMPDS; 0.5 AS AS ORGANIC CMPDS. ACGIH TLV: 0.01 MG/M3 TWA ARSENIC, ELEMENTAL & INORGANIC CMPDS (EXCEPT ARSINE), AS AS. ALSO SEE TOXICOLOGICAL INFO. WASTE DISP METH: HAZ DEPENDING ON LEVEL OF TOX CHARACT OF ARSENIC. SEE 40 CFR 261.24 FOR DETERMINATION. (OTHER INFO)

    Section 9 - Physical & Chemical Properties
    ARSENIC METAL-MBE CHARGES, ARSENIC CHUNK & GRANULE

    HCC:
    NRC/State License Number:
    Net Property Weight for Ammo:
    Boiling Point: =612.C, 1133.6F Boiling Point Text: SUBLIMES
    Melting/Freezing Point: =814.C, ######F Melting/Freezing Text: @ 36 ATM. FP:N/A
    Decomposition Point: Decomposition Text: N/P
    Vapor Pressure: 1 MMHG @ 372C Vapor Density: N/A
    Percent Volatile Organic Content:
    Specific Gravity: 5.727
    Volatile Organic Content Pounds per Gallon:
    pH: NONE-0% IN H*2O
    Volatile Organic Content Grams per Liter:
    Viscosity: N/P
    Evaporation Weight and Reference: N/A
    Solubility in Water: INSOLUBLE
    Appearance and Odor: SILVER GRAY CRYSTALLINE CHUNKS, RODS OR GRANULES; NO ODOR AS (ECOLOGICAL INFO)
    Percent Volatiles by Volume: N/A (BY WT)
    Corrosion Rate: N/P

    Section 10 - Stability & Reactivity Data
    ARSENIC METAL-MBE CHARGES, ARSENIC CHUNK & GRANULE

    Stability Indicator: YES
    Materials to Avoid:
    INCOMPATIBLE W/BROMINE AZIDE, DIRUBIDIUM ACETYLIDE, HALOGENS, PALLADIUM ZINC, PLATINUM, NCL*3, AGNO*3, CRO*3, NA*2O*2, HEXAFLUOROISOPROPYLIDENEAMINO LITHIUM. CAN REACT W/ACIDS OR ACID FUMES & POWERFUL OXIDIZERS SUCH AS BROM
    Stability Condition to Avoid:
    AVOID OPEN CONTAINERS AND CONTACT WITH INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS.
    Hazardous Decomposition Products:
    ARSENIC FUMES, ARSINE, OTHER ARSENIC COMPOUNDS.
    Hazardous Polymerization Indicator: NO
    Conditions to Avoid Polymerization:
    N/P

    Section 11 - Toxicological Information
    ARSENIC METAL-MBE CHARGES, ARSENIC CHUNK & GRANULE

    Toxicological Information:
    LD50: TDLO 605 ?G/KG. ORAL-MAN TDLO 7857 MG/KG/55Y SKIN. DERMAL IRRITATION-RABBIT: UNKNOWN; SUBCUTANEOUS IMPLANT RABBIT LTLO 75 MG/KG. EYE IRRITATION-RABBIT: UNKNOWN.

    Section 12 - Ecological Information
    ARSENIC METAL-MBE CHARGES, ARSENIC CHUNK & GRANULE

    Ecological Information:
    N/P. EXPLO HAZ: FLAME. IN EVENT OF A FIRE OR SPILL CONTACT THE STATE DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT & YOUR REGIONAL OFFICE OF THE FEDERAL EPA. PHYSICAL DATA - APPEAR/ODOR: METAL AS COMPOUND, ASH*3, HAS GARLIC ODOR. ODOR THRESHOLD: N/A. MATLS TO AVOID: CHLORATES, IODATES, PEROXIDES, LITHIUM, NACL*3, KMNO*3, RB*2C*2, AGNO*4, NOCL, IF*5, CRO*3, CLF*3, CLO, BRF*3, BRF*5, BRN*3, RBC*3BCH, CSC*3BCH.

    Section 13 - Disposal Considerations
    ARSENIC METAL-MBE CHARGES, ARSENIC CHUNK & GRANULE

    Waste Disposal Methods:
    SOLID WASTES SHOULD BE VITRIFIED, PLACED IN LABELED CNTNR & BURIED IN EPA SUPERVISED FACILITY. ETCHING SOLNS & CUTTING WASTES SHOULD BE PRECIPITATED, CEMENTED/VITRIFIED & PLACED IN METAL/PLASTIC LABEL ED CNTNRS & BURIED IN EPA SUPERVISED FACILITY. PASS GAS THRU POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE, PRECIPITATE & T REAT AS ABOVE. WASTE MAY BE CONSIDERED (SUPDAT)

    Section 14 - MSDS Transport Information
    ARSENIC METAL-MBE CHARGES, ARSENIC CHUNK & GRANULE

    Transport Information:
    DOT REGULATED: YES. RQ: (NA - PIECES ARE LARGER THAN 100 MICROMETERS IN DIAMETER). IF REGULATED, PROPER SHIPPING NAME: ARSENIC. HAZARD CLASS: (6.1). IDENTIFICATION NO: (UN1558). PACKING GROUP: (III). LABEL REQUIRED: (POISON). INLAND B/L: ARSENIC, 6.1, UN1558, PACKING GROUP II, POISON. EMERGENCY RESPONSE GUIDE NO: (152).

    Section 15 - Regulatory Information
    ARSENIC METAL-MBE CHARGES, ARSENIC CHUNK & GRANULE

    SARA Title III Information:
    SARA TITLE III, SECT 313: LISTED.
    Federal Regulatory Information:
    TSCA: WE CERTIFY THAT ALL COMPONENTS OF THIS PRODUCT ARE REGISTERED UNDER THE REGULATIONS OF THE TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT. HMIS: HEALTH (4); FLAMMABILITY (0); REACTIVITY (1).
    State Regulatory Information:


    Section 16 - Other Information
    ARSENIC METAL-MBE CHARGES, ARSENIC CHUNK & GRANULE

    Other Information:
    WASTE DISP METH: HAZARDOUS DEPENDING ON LEVEL OF TOXICITY CHARACTERISTIC OF ARSENIC. SEE 40 CFR 261.24 FOR DETERMINATION. RCRA HAZARDOUS WASTE: YES RCRA @: D004; IF TESTED POSITIVE AS CHARACT OF TOXIC ITY FOR ARSENIC. CERCLA: YES. RQ (1 LB RQ IS APPLICABLE ONLY IF DIAMETER OF PIECES OF SOLID METAL RELEASED IS LESS THAN 100 MICROMETERS OR 0.004 INCH. THIS PROD FORM IS LARGER THAN 100 MICROMETERS & H AS NO RQ IN ITS CURRENT FORM. IF AS HAZ WASTE CHARACT OF ARSENIC, THEN RQ=1LB. FOLLOW ALL LOCAL, STATE AND FEDERAL INFO & REGULATIONS.
    HAZCOM Label Information
    Product Identification: ARSENIC METAL-MBE CHARGES, ARSENIC CHUNK & GRANULE
    CAGE: 87730
    Assigned Individual: N
    Company Name: UNITED MINERAL & CHEMICAL CORP
    Company PO Box:
    Company Street Address1: 1100 VALLEYBROOK AVE
    Company Street Address2: LYNDHURST,NJ 07071 US
    Health Emergency Telephone: (800)424-9300
    Label Required Indicator: Y
    Date Label Reviewed: 09/01/1999
    Status Code: A
    Manufacturer's Label Number:
    Date of Label:
    Year Procured: N/K
    Organization Code: F
    Chronic Hazard Indicator: Y
    Eye Protection Indicator: YES
    Skin Protection Indicator: YES
    Respiratory Protection Indicator: YES
    Signal Word: DANGER
    Health Hazard: Severe
    Contact Hazard: Severe
    Fire Hazard: None
    Reactivity Hazard: Slight


    1.13 Complete Toxicological Information for Arsenic

    ARSENIC

        Human Health Effects
          Evidence for Carcinogenicity
          Human Toxicity Excerpts
          Medical Surveillance
          Probable Routes of Human Exposure
          Minimum Fatal Dose Level
      Emergency Medical Treatment
          Emergency Medical Treatment
      Animal Toxicity Studies
          Evidence for Carcinogenicity
          Non-Human Toxicity Excerpts
          Non-Human Toxicity Values
      Metabolism/Pharmacokinetics
          Absorption, Distribution & Excretion
          Interactions
      Pharmacology
          Interactions
          Minimum Fatal Dose Level
      Environmental Fate & Exposure
          Probable Routes of Human Exposure
          Natural Pollution Sources
          Environmental Fate
      Environmental Standards & Regulations
          FIFRA Requirements
          CERCLA Reportable Quantities
          RCRA Requirements
          Atmospheric Standards
          Clean Water Act Requirements
          Federal Drinking Water Standards
          State Drinking Water Guidelines
          FDA Requirements
          Allowable Tolerances
      Chemical/Physical Properties
          Molecular Formula
          Molecular Weight
          Color/Form
          Odor
          Taste
          Critical Temperature & Pressure
          Density/Specific Gravity
          Heat of Vaporization
          Solubilities
          Vapor Pressure
          Other Chemical/Physical Properties
      Chemical Safety & Handling
          DOT Emergency Guidelines
          Fire Potential
          Fire Fighting Procedures
          Toxic Combustion Products
          Explosive Limits & Potential
          Hazardous Reactivities & Incompatibilities
          Hazardous Decomposition
          Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health
          Protective Equipment & Clothing
          Preventive Measures
          Stability/Shelf Life
          Shipment Methods and Regulations
          Cleanup Methods
          Disposal Methods
      Occupational Exposure Standards
          OSHA Standards
          Threshold Limit Values
          NIOSH Recommendations
          Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health
          Other Occupational Permissible Levels
      Manufacturing/Use Information
          Major Uses
          Methods of Manufacturing
          General Manufacturing Information
          Formulations/Preparations
          Consumption Patterns
          U. S. Production
          U. S. Imports
          U. S. Exports
      Synonyms and Identifiers
          Related HSDB Records
          Synonyms
          Formulations/Preparations
          Shipping Name/ Number DOT/UN/NA/IMO
          Standard Transportation Number
          EPA Hazardous Waste Number
    top

    ARSENIC, ELEMENTAL
    CASRN: 7440-38-2
    This record contains information for arsenic in its zero valence state only. For general toxicity and environmental fate of arsenic ions and arsenic compounds, refer to the ARSENIC COMPOUNDS record; for compound specific information, refer to the appropriate individual records, e.g., arsenic trichloride, diethyl arsine, etc.
    For other data, click on the Table of Contents

    Human Health Effects:

    Evidence for Carcinogenicity:

    CLASSIFICATION: A; human carcinogen. BASIS FOR CLASSIFICATION: Based on sufficient evidence from human data. An increased lung cancer mortality was observed in multiple human populations exposed primarily through inhalation. Also, increased mortality from multiple internal organ cancers (liver, kidney, lung, and bladder) and an increased incidence of skin cancer were observed in populations consuming drinking water high in inorganic arsenic. HUMAN CARCINOGENICITY DATA: Sufficient. ANIMAL CARCINOGENICITY DATA: Inadequate.
    [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) on Arsenic, inorganic (7440-38-2) Available from: http://www.epa.gov/ngispgm3/iris on the Substance File List as of March 15, 2000]**PEER REVIEWED**

    A1: Confirmed human carcinogen. /Arsenic and inorganic cmpd, as As/
    [ American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists TLVs and BEIs. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. Cincinnati, OH, 2005, p. 12]**QC REVIEWED**
    For more information see the Arsenic MSDS above.

    Human Toxicity Excerpts:

    Among smelter workers exposed to a mixture of metals including arsenic, the frequency of congenital malformations did not differ from non-exposed populations. However, mean birth wt were reported to be decr in offspring of female employees of the smelter.
    [Friberg, L., Nordberg, G.F., Kessler, E. and Vouk, V.B. (eds). Handbook of the Toxicology of Metals. 2nd ed. Vols I, II.: Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., 1986., p. V1 414]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The low toxicity of elemental arsenic is attributed to its virtual insolubility in water or in body fluids.
    [USEPA; Ambient Water Quality Criteria Doc: Arsenic p.A-1 (1980) EPA 440/5-80-021]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Medical Surveillance:

    The urinary excretion, in mg/L, of elements that are freely eliminated by this route, such as ... arsenic, is at most 2.5-5 times the occupation exposure in mg/cu m of air /SRP: for an 8 hour day/. It is apparent that biological monitoring for arsenic by urinalysis would be of limited value in determining whether or not the NIOSH recommended standard ... was being met or exceeded.
    [American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I, II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991., p. 83]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Probable Routes of Human Exposure:

    Ceramic artists can be exposed to many hazardous materials, generally related to dry clays, glazes and kiln use. Glazes can contain lead, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, boron, chromium, cobalt, cadmium, copper, vanadium and other materials. ...
    [Hart C; J Environ Health 49 (5): 282-6 (1987)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, antimony, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, manganese, and mercury ... used as color pigments in paints can be ingested by contamination of hands, fingernails, food, cups, cigarettes and by holding paint brushes in the mouth.
    [Hart C; J Environ Health 49 (5): 282 (1987)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Minimum Fatal Dose Level:

    Fatal human dose 70-180 mg depending on weight. Estimated lethal dose for a 70 kg human as As (III).
    [NIH/EPA; OHM/TADS (1985)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Emergency Medical Treatment:

    Emergency Medical Treatment:

    Animal Toxicity Studies:

    Evidence for Carcinogenicity:

    CLASSIFICATION: A; human carcinogen. BASIS FOR CLASSIFICATION: Based on sufficient evidence from human data. An increased lung cancer mortality was observed in multiple human populations exposed primarily through inhalation. Also, increased mortality from multiple internal organ cancers (liver, kidney, lung, and bladder) and an increased incidence of skin cancer were observed in populations consuming drinking water high in inorganic arsenic. HUMAN CARCINOGENICITY DATA: Sufficient. ANIMAL CARCINOGENICITY DATA: Inadequate.
    [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) on Arsenic, inorganic (7440-38-2) Available from: http://www.epa.gov/ngispgm3/iris on the Substance File List as of March 15, 2000]**PEER REVIEWED**

    A1: Confirmed human carcinogen. /Arsenic and inorganic cmpd, as As/
    [ American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists TLVs and BEIs. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. Cincinnati, OH, 2005, p. 12]**QC REVIEWED**

    Non-Human Toxicity Excerpts:

    Metallic arsenic in lanolin was injected into the femur marrow of 25 male rats & 6 rabbits. The doses were 0.43 mg & 0.65 mg, respectively. Only 4 rats survived 18 mo & one of these developed a spindle cell sarcoma at the site of injection. None of the rabbits showed any metaplastic reactions. No tumors were produced at the site of injection in 25 rats injected intrapleurally once a mo for 6 mo resulting in a total dose of 0.65 mg of arsenic. Similar results were obtained after nasal sinus injection of 0.65 mg of arsenic in 20 rats.
    [Hueper WC; JNCI 15: 113-24 (1954) as cited in WHO; Environ Health Criteria: Arsenic p.126 (1981)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The mineralization of glucose in sediments was less at pH 4 & 5 than at pH 7, & was less at 0 deg than at 20 deg C. Most of the bacteria isolated from the sediments incubated at 0 & 20 deg C were psychrophilic & most of them were resistant to lead (Pb) & selenium (Se); a smaller proportion was resistant to mercury (Hg) & arsenic (As). Many of the bacteria were resistant to >1 of the elements. Pb & Hg were more toxic to bacterial growth at pH 4.5 than at 7.5, but Se & As were slightly more toxic at the higher pH.
    [Baker MD et al; Water Res 17 (8): 925-30 (1983)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The toxicity of 3 doses of a mixture of 10 heavy metals arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, mercury, nickel, selenium, and zinc at 0.5, 1, or 2 fold the maximum recommended concn to size fractionated natural phytoplankton from the North American Great Lakes was determined.
    [Munawar M et al; Ergeb Limnol 25: 123-39 (1987)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Non-Human Toxicity Values:

    LD50 Rat oral 763 mg/kg
    [Lewis, R.J. Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 9th ed. Volumes 1-3. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1996., p. 271]**PEER REVIEWED**

    LD50 Rat ip 13,390 ug/kg
    [Lewis, R.J. Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 9th ed. Volumes 1-3. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1996., p. 271]**PEER REVIEWED**

    LD50 Mouse oral 145 mg/kg
    [Lewis, R.J. Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 9th ed. Volumes 1-3. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1996., p. 271]**PEER REVIEWED**

    LD50 Mouse ip 46,200 ug/kg
    [Lewis, R.J. Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 9th ed. Volumes 1-3. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1996., p. 271]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Metabolism/Pharmacokinetics:

    Absorption, Distribution & Excretion:

    Normal values of arsenic in urine, ... vary from 0.013-0.046 mg/L, to 0.13 mg/L, to 0.25 mg/L. The urinary excretion, in mg/L, of elements that are freely eliminated by this route, such as ... arsenic, is at most 2.5-5 times the occupation exposure in mg/cu m of air. It is apparent that biological monitoring for arsenic by urinalysis would be of limited value in determining whether or not the NIOSH recommended standard ... was being met or exceeded.
    [American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I, II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991., p. 83]**PEER REVIEWED**
    For more information see the Arsenic MSDS above.

    Interactions:

    When selenium is injected almost simultaneously with arsenic into test animals biliary excretion of both elements is enhanced seven to tenfold.
    [Nat'l Research Council Canada; Effect of Arsenic in the Canadian Environment p.215 (1978) NRCC No.15391]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The effects of selenium and arsenic on tumor size and tumor number were examined in mice using the urethane pulmonary adenoma model. Female Swiss cross mice were administered the metals in drinking water at levels of 3 ug/ml selenium and 80 ug/ml arsenic on alternate days for 15 weeks. The urethane was administered after 3 weeks of the metal treatment, and the incidence and size of pulmonary adenomas were determined 12 weeks later. Weight gain was diminished in mice exposed to arsenic but not selenium. No other clinical signs were pesent due to metal exposure. Urethane induced sleeping times were significantly reduced in animals given both metals relative to those administered either arsenic or selenium. Both arsenic and selenium administered alone reduced tumor size; the efect of arsenic was greater than that of selenium and arsenic treatment also resulted in a decreased number of tumors per animal. No interactive effects between the metals were determined with regard to tumor production. Both arsenic and selenium alter urethane induced adenoma formation.
    [Blakely BR; Drug-Nutrient Interactions 5 (2): 97-102 (1987)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Pharmacology:

    Interactions:

    When selenium is injected almost simultaneously with arsenic into test animals biliary excretion of both elements is enhanced seven to tenfold.
    [Nat'l Research Council Canada; Effect of Arsenic in the Canadian Environment p.215 (1978) NRCC No.15391]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The effects of selenium and arsenic on tumor size and tumor number were examined in mice using the urethane pulmonary adenoma model. Female Swiss cross mice were administered the metals in drinking water at levels of 3 ug/ml selenium and 80 ug/ml arsenic on alternate days for 15 weeks. The urethane was administered after 3 weeks of the metal treatment, and the incidence and size of pulmonary adenomas were determined 12 weeks later. Weight gain was diminished in mice exposed to arsenic but not selenium. No other clinical signs were pesent due to metal exposure. Urethane induced sleeping times were significantly reduced in animals given both metals relative to those administered either arsenic or selenium. Both arsenic and selenium administered alone reduced tumor size; the efect of arsenic was greater than that of selenium and arsenic treatment also resulted in a decreased number of tumors per animal. No interactive effects between the metals were determined with regard to tumor production. Both arsenic and selenium alter urethane induced adenoma formation.
    [Blakely BR; Drug-Nutrient Interactions 5 (2): 97-102 (1987)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Minimum Fatal Dose Level:

    Fatal human dose 70-180 mg depending on weight. Estimated lethal dose for a 70 kg human as As (III).
    [NIH/EPA; OHM/TADS (1985)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Environmental Fate & Exposure:

    Probable Routes of Human Exposure:

    Ceramic artists can be exposed to many hazardous materials, generally related to dry clays, glazes and kiln use. Glazes can contain lead, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, boron, chromium, cobalt, cadmium, copper, vanadium and other materials. ...
    [Hart C; J Environ Health 49 (5): 282-6 (1987)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, antimony, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, manganese, and mercury ... used as color pigments in paints can be ingested by contamination of hands, fingernails, food, cups, cigarettes and by holding paint brushes in the mouth.
    [Hart C; J Environ Health 49 (5): 282 (1987)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Natural Pollution Sources:

    Aquatic Fate: Arsenic as a free element (0-oxidation state) is rarely encountered in natural waters.
    [USEPA; Ambient Water Quality Criteria Doc: Arsenic p.A-1 (1980) EPA 440/5-80-021]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Environmental Fate:

    Aquatic Fate: Arsenic as a free element (0-oxidation state) is rarely encountered in natural waters. Soluble inorganic arsenate (+5-oxidation state) predominates under normal conditions since it is thermodynamically more stable in water than arsenite (+3 oxidation state).
    [USEPA; Ambient Water Quality Criteria Doc: Arsenic p.A-1 (1980) EPA 440/5-80-021]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Environmental Standards & Regulations:

    FIFRA Requirements:

    Tolerances for total residues of combined arsenic (calculated as As) in food are established as follows: (a) In edible tissues & in eggs of chickens & turkeys: 0.5 ppm in uncooked muscle tissue; 2 ppm in uncooked edible by-products; & 0.5 ppm in eggs. (b) In edible tissues of swine: 2 ppm in uncooked liver & kidney; 0.5 ppm in uncooked muscle tissue & by-products other than liver & kidney. /Arsenic/
    [21 CFR 556.60 (4/1/2001)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    If material involved in fire: Extinguish fire using agent suitable for type of surrounding fire. (Material itself does not burn or burns with difficulty.) Use water in flooding quantities as fog. Use foam, dry chemical, or carbon dioxide. /Arsenical cmpd, solid, NOS/
    [Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1994., p. 105]**PEER REVIEWED**

    CERCLA Reportable Quantities:

    Persons in charge of vessels or facilities are required to notify the National Response Center (NRC) immediately, when there is a release of this designated hazardous substance, in an amount equal to or greater than its reportable quantity of 1 lb or 0.454 kg. The toll free number of the NRC is (800) 424-8802; In the Washington D.C. metropolitan area (202) 426-2675. The rule for determining when notification is required is stated in 40 CFR 302.4 (section IV. D.3.b). No reporting of releases of this hazardous substance is required if the diameter of the pieces of the solid metal released is equal to or exceedes 100 micrometers (0.004 inches).
    [40 CFR 302.4 (7/1/2000)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    RCRA Requirements:

    D004; A solid waste containing arsenic may or may not become characterized as a hazardous waste when subjected to the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure listed in 40 CFR 261.24, and if so characterized, must be managed as a hazardous waste.
    [40 CFR 261.24 (7/1/2001)]**PEER REVIEWED**
    For more information see the Arsenic MSDS above.

    Atmospheric Standards:

    Inorganic arsenic has been designated as a hazardous air pollutant under section 112 of the Clean Air Act. /Inorganic Arsenic/
    [40 CFR 61.01 (7/1/2001)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    (a) The owner or operator of an existing glass melting furnace subject to the provisions of this subpart shall comply with either paragraph (a)(1) or (a)(2) of this section ... (1) Uncontrolled total arsenic emissions from the glass melting furnace shall be less than 2.5 Mg (2.7 ton) per year, or ... (2) Total arsenic emissions from glass melting furnace shall be conveyed to a control device and reduced by at least 85%. /Total arsenic/
    [40 CFR 61.162(a) (7/1/2001)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    (b) The owner or operator of a new or modified glass melting furnace subject to the provisions of this subpart shall comply with either paragraph (b)(1) or (b)(2) of this section ... (1) Uncontrolled total arsenic emissions from the glass melting furnace shall be less than 0.4 Mg (0.44 ton) per year, or ... (2) Total arsenic emissions from glass melting furnace shall be conveyed to a control device and reduced by at least 85%. /Total arsenic/
    [40 CFR 61.162(b) (7/1/2001)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The owner or operator of each copper converter subject to the provisions of this subpart shall reduce inorganic arsenic emissions to the atmosphere by meeting the following design, equipment, work practice, and operational requirements: (1) Install, operate, and maintain a secondary hood system on each copper converter. Each secondary hood system shall consist of a hood enclosure, air curtain fan(s), exhaust system fan(s), and ductwork that conveys the captured emission to a control device ... (2) Optimize the capture of secondary inorganic arsenic emission by operating the copper converter and secondary hood systems at all times ... . /Inorganic arsenic/
    [40 CFR 61.172(b) (7/1/2001)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    National Emission Standards for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities. (a) Within 30 dyas after the effective date of this subpart, the owner or operator of each source to which this subpart applies shall identify and submit to the Administrator a list of potential sources (equipment and operations) of inorganic arsenic emissions. /Inorganic arsenic/
    [40 CFR 61.182(a) (7/1/2001)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    National Emission Standards for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities. (b) The owner or operator shall submit a description of an inspection, maintenance, and housekeeping plan for control of inorganic arsenic emissions ... (c) The owner or operator shall implement the plan ... (d) At all times ... the owner or operator ... shall operate and maintain the source incl associated air pollution control equipment in a manner consistent with good air pollution control practice for minimizing emissions of inorganic arsenic to the atmosphere to the maximum extent possible ... . /Inorganic Arsenic/
    [40 CFR 61.182(b) (7/1/2001)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Listed as a hazardous air pollutant (HAP) generally known or suspected to cause serious health problems. The Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990, directs EPA to set standards requiring major sources to sharply reduce routine emissions of toxic pollutants. EPA is required to establish and phase in specific performance based standards for all air emission sources that emit one or more of the listed pollutants. Arsenic is included on this list.
    [Clean Air Act as amended in 1990, Sect. 112 (b) (1) Public Law 101-549 Nov. 15, 1990]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Clean Water Act Requirements:

    For the maximum protection of human health from the potential carcinogenic effects due to exposure of arsenic through ingestion of contaminated water & contaminated aquatic organisms, the ambient water concn should be zero based on the nonthreshold assumption for this chemical. However, zero level may not be attainable at the present time. Therefore, the levels which may result in incremental increase of cancer risk over the lifetime are estimated at 1X10-5, 1X10-6, & 1X10-7. The corresponding criteria are 22 ng/l, 2.2 ng/l, & .22 ng/l, respectively .... For consumption of aquatic organisms only, excluding consumption of water, the levels are 175 ng/ml, 17.5 ng/l, & 1.75 ng/l, respectively. /Arsenic/
    [USEPA; Quality Criteria for Water 1986: Arsenic: Human Health Criteria (May 1, 1986) EPA 440/5-86-001]**QC REVIEWED**

    Toxic pollutant designated pursuant to section 307(a)(1) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act and is subject to effluent limitations. /Arsenic & cmpd/
    [40 CFR 401.15 (7/1/2001)]**QC REVIEWED**

    D004; A solid waste containing arsenic may or may not become characterized as a hazardous waste when subjected to the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure listed in 40 CFR 261.24, and if so characterized, must be managed as a hazardous waste.
    [40 CFR 261.24 (7/1/2001)]**QC REVIEWED**

    Federal Drinking Water Standards:

    10 ug/l
    [USEPA/Office of Water; Federal-State Toxicology and Risk Analysis Committee (FSTRAC). Summary of State and Federal Drinking Water Standards and Guidelines (11/93), p. ]**QC REVIEWED**

    State Drinking Water Guidelines:

    (CT) CONNECTICUT 10 ug/l
    [USEPA/Office of Water; Federal-State Toxicology and Risk Analysis Committee (FSTRAC). Summary of State and Federal Drinking Water Standards and Guidelines (11/93), p. ]**QC REVIEWED**

    FDA Requirements:

    Tolerances for total residues of combined arsenic (calculated as As) in food are established as follows: (a) In edible tissues & in eggs of chickens & turkeys: 0.5 ppm in uncooked muscle tissue; 2 ppm in uncooked edible by-products; & 0.5 ppm in eggs. (b) In edible tissues of swine: 2 ppm in uncooked liver & kidney; 0.5 ppm in uncooked muscle tissue & by-products other than liver & kidney. /Arsenic/
    [21 CFR 556.60 (4/1/2001)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Allowable Tolerances:

    Tolerances for total residues of combined arsenic (calculated as As) in food are established as follows: (a) In edible tissues & in eggs of chickens & turkeys: 0.5 ppm in uncooked muscle tissue; 2 ppm in uncooked edible by-products; & 0.5 ppm in eggs. (b) In edible tissues of swine: 2 ppm in uncooked liver & kidney; 0.5 ppm in uncooked muscle tissue & by-products other than liver & kidney. /Arsenic/
    [21 CFR 556.60 (4/1/2001)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Chemical/Physical Properties:

    Molecular Formula:

    As
    **PEER REVIEWED**

    Molecular Weight:

    74.9216
    [Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 134]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Color/Form:

    IT EXISTS IN THREE ALLOTROPIC FORMS, THE YELLOW (ALPHA), BLACK (BETA) AND GREY (GAMMA) FORMS
    [International Labour Office. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. Volumes I and II. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1971., p. 115]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Silver-gray or tin-white, brittle ... solid.
    [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997., p. 20]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Allotropic forms: alpha-form, metallic, steel-grey, shiny, brittle, rhombohedral crystal structure; beta-form, dark gray, amorphous solid
    [Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 135]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Yellow, and gray or metallic
    [Lide, DR (ed.). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 81st Edition. CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton: FL 2000, p. 4-4]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Odor:

    ... Odorless ...
    [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997., p. 20]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Taste:

    NEARLY TASTELESS
    [Gosselin, R.E., R.P. Smith, H.C. Hodge. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1984., p. III-42]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Critical Temperature & Pressure:

    Critical temperature: 1673 deg K
    [Weast, R.C. (ed.) Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 68th ed. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press Inc., 1987-1988., p. F-64]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Critical pressure: 22.3 MPa
    [Lide, DR (ed.). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 81st Edition. CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton: FL 2000, p. 6-48]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Density/Specific Gravity:

    5.778 @ 25 deg C
    [Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 135]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Heat of Vaporization:

    11.2 kcal/g-atom
    [Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 135]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Solubilities:

    Insol in caustic and nonoxidizing acids
    [Lewis, R.J., Sr (Ed.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 13th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1997., p. 93]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Insoluble in water
    [Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 135]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Vapor Pressure:

    7.5X10-3 mm Hg @ 280 deg C; 7.5X10-2 @ 323 deg C; 0.75 mm Hg @ 373 deg C; 7.5 mm Hg @ 433 deg C; 75 mm Hg @ 508 deg C; 750 mm Hg @ 601 deg C
    [Lide, DR (ed.). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 81st Edition. CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton: FL 2000, p. 6-65]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Other Chemical/Physical Properties:

    A yellow modification which has no metallic properties is obtained by sudden cooling of arsenic-vapor. This yellow arsenic is converted back to the gray modification upon very short exposure to ultraviolet light.
    [Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 135]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Vaporization becomes apparent at 100 deg C and is already rapid at 450 deg C; Brinell hardness: 147; Mohs' scale: 3.5; heat of sublimation: 30.5 kcal/g-atom; 7.63 kcal/g-atom; specific heat: 0.0822 for 0 deg C to 100 deg C; heat of fusion: 22.4 kcal/g-atom; 6.620 kcal/g-atom; not attacked by cold sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid; converted by HNO3 or hot H2SO4 into arsenous or arsenic acid; dielectric constant: 10.23 @ 20 deg C and 60 cycles
    [Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 135]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Triple point: 817 deg C; sublimes at 614 deg C; specific gravity: 1.97 (yellow modification), 5.73 (gray or metallic modification)
    [Lide, DR (ed.). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 81st Edition. CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton: FL 2000, p. 4-4]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Chemical Safety & Handling:

    DOT Emergency Guidelines:

    /GUIDE 152: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC (COMBUSTIBLE)/ Health: Highly toxic, may be fatal if inhaled, swallowed or absorbed through skin. Contact with molten substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Avoid any skin contact. Effects of contact or inhalation may be delayed. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may be corrosive and/or toxic and cause pollution.
    [U.S. Department of Transportation. 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook. A Guide book for First Responders During the Initial Phase of a Dangerous Goods/Hazardous Materials Incident. Washington, D.C. 2004G-152]**QC REVIEWED**

    /GUIDE 152: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC (COMBUSTIBLE)/ Fire or Explosion: Combustible material: may burn but does not ignite readily. Containers may explode when heated. Runoff may pollute waterways. Substance may be transported in a molten form.
    [U.S. Department of Transportation. 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook. A Guide book for First Responders During the Initial Phase of a Dangerous Goods/Hazardous Materials Incident. Washington, D.C. 2004G-152]**QC REVIEWED**

    /GUIDE 152: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC (COMBUSTIBLE)/ Public Safety: CALL Emergency Response Telephone Number ... . As an immediate precautionary measure, isolate spill or leak area in all directions for at least 50 meters (150 feet) for liquids and at least 25 meters (75 feet) for solids. Keep unauthorized personnel away. Stay upwind. Keep out of low areas.
    [U.S. Department of Transportation. 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook. A Guide book for First Responders During the Initial Phase of a Dangerous Goods/Hazardous Materials Incident. Washington, D.C. 2004G-152]**QC REVIEWED**

    /GUIDE 152: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC (COMBUSTIBLE)/ Protective Clothing: Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Wear chemical protective clothing that is specifically recommended by the manufacturer. It may provide little or no thermal protection. Structural firefighters' protective clothing provides limited protection in fire situations ONLY; it is not effective in spill situations where direct contact with the substance is possible.
    [U.S. Department of Transportation. 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook. A Guide book for First Responders During the Initial Phase of a Dangerous Goods/Hazardous Materials Incident. Washington, D.C. 2004G-152]**QC REVIEWED**

    /GUIDE 152: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC (COMBUSTIBLE)/ Evacuation: ... Fire: If tank, rail car or tank truck is involved in a fire, ISOLATE for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions; also, consider initial evacuation for 800 meters (1/2 mile) in all directions.
    [U.S. Department of Transportation. 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook. A Guide book for First Responders During the Initial Phase of a Dangerous Goods/Hazardous Materials Incident. Washington, D.C. 2004G-152]**QC REVIEWED**

    /GUIDE 152: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC (COMBUSTIBLE)/ Fire: Small fires: Dry chemical, CO2 or water spray. Large fires: Water spray, fog or regular foam. Move containers from fire area if you can do it without risk. Dike fire control water for later disposal; do not scatter the material. Use water spray; do not use straight streams. Fire involving tanks or car/trailer loads: Fight fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Do not get water inside containers. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. ALWAYS stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. For massive fire, use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles; if this is impossible, withdraw from area and let fire burn.
    [U.S. Department of Transportation. 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook. A Guide book for First Responders During the Initial Phase of a Dangerous Goods/Hazardous Materials Incident. Washington, D.C. 2004G-152]**QC REVIEWED**

    /GUIDE 152: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC (COMBUSTIBLE)/ Spill or Leak: ELIMINATE all ignition sources (no smoking, flares, sparks or flames in immediate area). Do not touch damaged containers or spilled material unless wearing appropriate protective clothing. Stop leak if you can do it without risk. Prevent entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas. Cover with plastic sheet to prevent spreading . Absorb or cover with dry earth, sand or other non-combustible material and transfer to containers. DO NOT GET WATER INSIDE CONTAINERS.
    [U.S. Department of Transportation. 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook. A Guide book for First Responders During the Initial Phase of a Dangerous Goods/Hazardous Materials Incident. Washington, D.C. 2004G-152]**QC REVIEWED**

    /GUIDE 152: SUBSTANCES - TOXIC (COMBUSTIBLE)/ First Aid: Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Give artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Do not use mouth-to-mouth method if victim ingested or inhaled the substance; give artificial respiration with the aid of a pocket mask equipped with a one-way valve or other proper respiratory medical device. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. In case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. For minor skin contact, avoid spreading material on unaffected skin. Keep victim warm and quiet. Effects of exposure (inhalation, ingestion or skin contact) to substance may be delayed. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved and take precautions to protect themselves.
    [U.S. Department of Transportation. 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook. A Guide book for First Responders During the Initial Phase of a Dangerous Goods/Hazardous Materials Incident. Washington, D.C. 2004G-152]**QC REVIEWED**
    For more information see the Arsenic MSDS above.

    Fire Potential:

    CAN BE HEATED TO BURN IN AIR WITH BLUISH FLAME, GIVING OFF AN ODOR OF GARLIC AND DENSE WHITE FUMES OF ARSENIC TRIOXIDE (AS2O3).
    [The Merck Index. 10th ed. Rahway, New Jersey: Merck Co., Inc., 1983., p. 116]**PEER REVIEWED**

    FIRE HAZARD: MODERATE IN FORM OF DUST WHEN EXPOSED TO HEAT OR FLAME OR BY CHEMICAL REACTION WITH POWERFUL OXIDIZERS ... .
    [Lewis, R.J. Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 9th ed. Volumes 1-3. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1996., p. 271]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Fire Fighting Procedures:

    If material involved in fire: Extinguish fire using agent suitable for type of surrounding fire. (Material itself does not burn or burns with difficulty.) Use water in flooding quantities as fog. Use foam, dry chemical, or carbon dioxide. /Arsenical cmpd, liquid, NOS/
    [Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1994., p. 104]**PEER REVIEWED**

    If material involved in fire: Extinguish fire using agent suitable for type of surrounding fire. (Material itself does not burn or burns with difficulty.) Use water in flooding quantities as fog. Use foam, dry chemical, or carbon dioxide. /Arsenical cmpd, solid, NOS/
    [Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1994., p. 105]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Personnel protection: ... Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus when fighting fires involving this material. /Arsenical cmpd, solid, NOS/
    [Association of American Railroads. Emergency Handling of Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation. Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, Bureau of Explosives, 1994., p. 105]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Toxic Combustion Products:

    Fire may produce poisonous or irritating gases.
    [Kayser, R., D. Sterling, D. Viviani (eds.). Intermedia Priority Pollutant Guidance Documents. Washington, DC: U.S.Environmental Protection Agency, July 1982., p. 8-1]**PEER REVIEWED**

    When arsenic is heated in air it will burn and form a white smoke consisting of arsenic trioxide (As2O3).
    [International Labour Office. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. Vols. I&II. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office, 1983., p. 179]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Explosive Limits & Potential:

    SLIGHTLY EXPLOSIVE IN THE FORM OF DUST WHEN EXPOSED TO FLAME.
    [Lewis, R.J. Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 9th ed. Volumes 1-3. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1996., p. 271]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Hazardous Reactivities & Incompatibilities:

    Arsine is formed when any inorganic arsenic bearing material is brought in contact with zinc and sulfuric acid.
    [Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 3rd ed., Volumes 1-26. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, 1978-1984., p. 3(78) 252]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Arsine may be accidentally formed by the reaction of arsenic impurities in commercial acids stored in metal tanks. ...
    [Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 3rd ed., Volumes 1-26. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, 1978-1984., p. 3(78) 252]**PEER REVIEWED**

    ... The /bromine azide/ liquid explodes on contact with arsenic. ...
    [Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990, p. 50]**PEER REVIEWED**

    ... /Rubidium acetylide/ ignites with arsenic. ...
    [Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990, p. 328]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Incandescence is caused by contact with ... arsenic /and bromine trifluoride/.
    [Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990, p. 91]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The finely powdered element /arsenic/ inflames in gaseous chlorine or liquid chlorine.
    [Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990, p. 50]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Bromine pentafluoride ... /contact/ with ... /arsenic/ at ambient or slightly elevated temperatures is violent, ignition often occurring. ...
    [Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990, p. 92]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Chlorine trifluoride is a hypergolic oxidizer with recognized fuels, and contact with arsenic at ambient or slightly elevated temperatures is violent, ignition often occurring.
    [Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990, p. 944]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Palladium or zinc & arsenic react on heating with evolution of heat & light, & platinum with vivid incandescence.
    [Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990, p. 50]**PEER REVIEWED**

    ... /Arsenic/ will initiate the violent and often explosive decomposition of nitrogen trichloride.
    [Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990, p. 1041]**PEER REVIEWED**

    A finely divided mixture with excess nitrate ignited when shaken out on to paper.
    [Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990, p. 12]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The heat sensitivity of dichlorine oxide may explain the explosions which occur on contact of arsenic with this powerful oxidant.
    [Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990, p. 1023]**PEER REVIEWED**

    ... Readily oxidizable materials (arsenic) form explosive mixtures /with sodium peroxide/.
    [Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990, p. 1383]**PEER REVIEWED**

    An explosive variety (or cmpd) of arsenic was produced as surface layer on exposed iron surface of corroded lead-lined vessel which contained 35% sulfuric acid with high arsenic content.
    [Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990, p. 50]**PEER REVIEWED**

    ... /Arsenic/ explodes on grinding in a mortar with the solid /potassium permanganate/. ...
    [Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 4th ed. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1990, p. 1296]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Flammable in the form of dust when exposed to heat or flame or by chemical reaction with powerful oxidizers such as bromates, chlorates, iodates, peroxides, lithium, NCl3, KNO3, KMnO4, Rb2C2, AgNO4, NOCl, IF5, CrO3, CIF3, ClO, BrF3, BrF5, BrN3, RbC3BCH, CsC3BCH. Slightly explosive in the form of dust when exposed to flame. When heated or on contact with acid or acid fumes, it emits highly toxic fumes; can react vigorously on contact with oxidizing materials. Incompatible with bromine azide, dirubidium acetylide, halogens, palladium, zinc, platinum, NCl3, AgNO3, CrO3 Na2O2, hexafluoroisopropylideneamino lithium.
    [Lewis, R.J. Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 9th ed. Volumes 1-3. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1996., p. 271]**PEER REVIEWED**

    ... WHEN WATER SOLN OF ARSENICALS ARE IN CONTACT WITH ACTIVE METALS SUCH AS ARSENIC, IRON, ALUMINUM, ZINC, ... HIGHLY TOXIC FUMES OF ARSENIC /INCLUDING ARSINE ARE RELEASED/. /ARSENIC CMPD/
    [Lewis, R.J. Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 9th ed. Volumes 1-3. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1996., p. 275]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Strong oxidizers, bromide azide [Note: Hydrogen gas can react with inorganic arsenic to form the highly toxic gas arsine.] /Arsenic (inorganic compounds, as As)/
    [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997., p. 20]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Hazardous Decomposition:

    When arsenic is heated in air it will burn and form a white smoke consisting of arsenic trioxide (As2O3).
    [International Labour Office. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. Vols. I&II. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office, 1983., p. 179]**PEER REVIEWED**

    DANGEROUS WHEN HEATED TO DECOMP ... IT EMITS TOXIC FUMES OF ARSENIC /SRP: INCLUDING ARSINE/. /ARSENIC CMPD/
    [Lewis, R.J. Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 9th ed. Volumes 1-3. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1996., p. 275]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health:

    5 mg/cu m (as AS); NIOSH considers arsenic (inorganic cmpd, as As) to be a potential occupational carcinogen. /Arsenic (inorganic cmpd, as As)/
    [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997., p. 20]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Protective Equipment & Clothing:

    Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent skin contact.
    [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997., p. 21]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact.
    [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997., p. 21]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Eyewash fountains should be provided in areas where there is any possibility that workers could be exposed to the substance; this is irrespective of the recommendation involving the wearing of eye protection.
    [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997., p. 21]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Facilities for quickly drenching the body should be provided within the immediate work area for emergency use where there is a possibility of exposure. [Note: It is intended that these facilities provide a sufficient quantity or flow of water to quickly remove the substance from any body areas likely to be exposed. The actual determination of what constitutes an adequate quick drench facility depends on the specific circumstances. In certain instances, a deluge shower should be readily available, whereas in others, the availability of water from a sink or hose could be considered adequate.]
    [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997., p. 21]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Recommendations for respirator selection. Condition: At concentrations above the NIOSH REL, or where there is no REL, at any detectable concentration. Respirator Class(es): Any self-contained breathing apparatus that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive pressure mode. Any supplied-air respirator that has a full facepiece and is operated in pressure-demand or other positive pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self-contained breathing apparatus operated in pressure-demand or other positive pressure mode.
    [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997., p. 21]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Recommendations for respirator selection. Condition: Escape from suddenly occurring respiratory hazards: Respirator Class(es): Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator (gas mask) with a chin-style, front- or back-mounted acid gas canister having a high-efficiency particulate filter. Any appropriate escape-type, self-contained breathing apparatus.
    [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997., p. 21]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Wear mechanical filter respirator with hard rubber frame and surgical sheet wadding over nose and cheeks, ... boots, and long-sleeved coveralls. /Arsenic/
    [ITII. Toxic and Hazarous Industrial Chemicals Safety Manual. Tokyo, Japan: The International Technical Information Institute, 1982., p. 51]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Preventive Measures:

    SRP: Contaminated protective clothing should be segregated in such a manner so that there is no direct personal contact by personnel who handle, dispose, or clean the clothing. Quality assurance to ascertain the completeness of the cleaning procedures should be implemented before the decontaminated protective clothing is returned for reuse by the workers. All contaminated clothing should not be taken home at end of shift, but should remain at employee's place of work for cleaning.
    **PEER REVIEWED**

    Engineering controls are recommended to maintain arsenic concn below the occupational environment limit. Compliance should not be achieved by the use of respirators except during the time period necessary to install or test the required engineering controls, for nonroutine operations (such as a brief exposure to concn in excess of the limit as a result of maintenance or repair activities), or during emergencies when air concn of arsenic exceed the limit.
    [NIOSH; Current Intelligence Bulletin Inorganic Arsenic-Respiratory Protection #14 p.2 (1976)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Shower baths shall be cleaned following use after each work shift. /Inorganic arsenic/
    [NIOSH; Criteria Document: Inorganic Arsenic p.9 (1975) DHEW Pub. NIOSH 75-149]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Arsine may be accidentally formed by the reaction of arsenic impurities in commercial acids stored in metal tanks, so that a test should be made for arsine before entry is made into such vessels.
    [Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 3rd ed., Volumes 1-26. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, 1978-1984., p. 3(78) 252]**PEER REVIEWED**

    SRP: The scientific literature for the use of contact lenses in industry is conflicting. The benefit or detrimental effects of wearing contact lenses depend not only upon the substance, but also on factors including the form of the substance, characteristics and duration of the exposure, the uses of other eye protection equipment, and the hygiene of the lenses. However, there may be individual substances whose irritating or corrosive properties are such that the wearing of contact lenses would be harmful to the eye. In those specific cases, contact lenses should not be worn. In any event, the usual eye protection equipment should be worn even when contact lenses are in place.
    **PEER REVIEWED**

    IN PLANTS WITH ARSENIC HAZARD, FLOORS ... SHOULD BE ... IMPERMEABLE ... TO PREVENT ABSORPTION & ... FLUSHED DOWN FREQUENTLY WITH WATER. WORKROOM SHOULD BE WELL VENTILATED & ALL POISONOUS FUMES SHOULD BE CONDENSED & DUST CONTENT REMOVED. ... EXHAUST HOODS ... WORKTABLES ... EQUIPPED WITH DOWN DRAFT ... VENTILATION.
    [International Labour Office. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. Volumes I and II. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1971., p. 117]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The worker should immediately wash the skin when it becomes contaminated.
    [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997., p. 21]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The worker should wash daily at the end of each work shift.
    [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997., p. 21]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Work clothing that becomes wet or significantly contaminated should be removed and replaced.
    [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997., p. 21]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Workers whose clothing may have become contaminated should change into uncontaminated clothing before leaving the work premises.
    [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997., p. 21]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Contact lenses should not be worn when working with this chemical.
    [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997., p. 21]**PEER REVIEWED**

    IN ... /FACTORIES/ WITH ARSENIC HAZARD, FLOORS ... SHOULD BE ... IMPERMEABLE ... TO PREVENT ABSORPTION & ... FLUSHED DOWN FREQUENTLY WITH WATER. /ARSENIC CMPD/
    [Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs and Biologicals. Rahway, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1989., p. 117]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Lockers should be provided with separate compartments for work & personal clothes, & adjacent sanitary facilities of a high standard should be made available. Smoking, eating, & drinking at the workplace should not be allowed. /Arsenic & cmpd/
    [International Labour Office. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. Vols. I&II. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office, 1983., p. 182]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Clean work clothes should be supplied daily and the workers should shower prior to changing to street clothes. /Arsenic and arsenic cmpd/
    [Sittig, M. Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, 1985. 2nd ed. Park Ridge, NJ: Noyes Data Corporation, 1985., p. 89]**PEER REVIEWED**

    SRP: Contaminated protective clothing should be segregated in such a manner so that there is no direct personal contact by personnel who handle, dispose, or clean the clothing. Quality assurance to ascertain the completeness of the cleaning procedures should be implemented before the decontaminated protective clothing is returned for reuse by the workers. Contaminated clothing should not be taken home at end of shift, but should remain at employee's place of work for cleaning.
    **PEER REVIEWED**

    Stability/Shelf Life:

    LOSES ITS LUSTER ON EXPOSURE TO AIR, FORMING A BLACK MODIFICATION + AS2O3
    [The Merck Index. 10th ed. Rahway, New Jersey: Merck Co., Inc., 1983., p. 116]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Shipment Methods and Regulations:

    No person may /transport,/ offer or accept a hazardous material for transportation in commerce unless that person is registered in conformance ... and the hazardous material is properly classed, described, packaged, marked, labeled, and in condition for shipment as required or authorized by ... /the hazardous materials regulations (49 CFR 171-177)./
    [49 CFR 171.2; U.S. National Archives and Records Administration's Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Available from: http://www.gpoaccess.gov/ecfr/ as of February 15, 2006 ]**QC REVIEWED**

    The International Air Transport Association (IATA) Dangerous Goods Regulations are published by the IATA Dangerous Goods Board pursuant to IATA Resolutions 618 and 619 and constitute a manual of industry carrier regulations to be followed by all IATA Member airlines when transporting hazardous materials.
    [International Air Transport Association. Dangerous Goods Regulations. 47th Edition. Montreal, Quebec Canada. 2006., p. 144]**QC REVIEWED**

    The International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code lays down basic principles for transporting hazardous chemicals. Detailed recommendations for individual substances and a number of recommendations for good practice are included in the classes dealing with such substances. A general index of technical names has also been compiled. This index should always be consulted when attempting to locate the appropriate procedures to be used when shipping any substance or article.
    [International Maritime Organization. International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code. London, UK. 2004., p. 73]**QC REVIEWED**

    Cleanup Methods:

    Solvent extraction with high molecular weight amines and quaternary ammonium compounds may be a promising technique for the removal of toxic elements like ... arsenic ... from industrial effluents.
    [De AK et al; Indian J Chem Sect A Inorg Phys Theor Anal 23 (2): 140-2 (1984)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Prompt cleanup and removal are necessary. Control runoff and isolate discharged material for proper disposal.
    [Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials. 12 ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 1997., p. 49-23]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Disposal Methods:

    SRP: At the time of review, criteria for land treatment or burial (sanitary landfill) disposal practices are subject to significant revision. Prior to implementing land disposal of waste residue (including waste sludge), consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices.
    **PEER REVIEWED**

    Arsenic elemental arsenic wastes should be placed in long term storage or returned to suppliers or manufacturers for reprocessing.
    [Sittig, M. Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, 1985. 2nd ed. Park Ridge, NJ: Noyes Data Corporation, 1985., p. 89]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Arsenic bearing sludges from the purification process in the production of antimony oxide are poor candidates for incineration.
    [USEPA; Engineering Handbook for Hazardous Waste Incineration p.3-19 (1981) EPA 68-03-3025]**PEER REVIEWED**

    An analysis of the health hazards associated with the operation of municipal sludge incinerators was done on the multiple hearth incinerator design, which comprises approximately 80 percent of the total number of sludge incinerators in the USA. Parameters discussed included sludge contaminant concentration, source characteristics, emission rate estimates, dispersion parameters, and health risk values. Estimates of environmental contamination by cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc due to emission loss from the incinerator were calculated. In addition, the human cancer risk (calculated as the effect index) associated with inhalation of incinerator emissions was calculated. The index values were greater than unity for arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, mercury, nickel, and lead.
    [Fradkin L et al; J Air Pollution Control Assoc 37 (4): 395-9 (1987)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The following wastewater treatment technology has been investigated for arsenic: Concentration process: Activated Carbon. /Arsenic/
    [USEPA; Management of Hazardous Waste Leachate, EPA Contract No.68-03-2766 p.E-162 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The following wastewater treatment technology has been investigated for arsenic: Concentration process: Miscellaneous Sorbents. /Arsenic/
    [USEPA; Management of Hazardous Waste Leachate, EPA Contract No.68-03-2766 p.E-202 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Dissolve in a minimum amt of concentrated hydrochloric acid. Add to water until the appearance of white precipitate. Add 6M-HCl just to dissolve again. Saturate with hydrogen sulfide. After filtration, wash the precipitate, dry, package and return to suppliers. /Arsenic/
    [ITII. Toxic and Hazarous Industrial Chemicals Safety Manual. Tokyo, Japan: The International Technical Information Institute, 1982., p. 51]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Generators of waste (equal to or greater than 100 kg/mo) containing this contaminant, EPA hazardous waste number D004, must conform with USEPA regulations in storage, transportation, treatment and disposal of waste. /Arsenic/
    [40 CFR 240-280, 300-306, 702-799 (7/1/2000)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    The following wastewater treatment technology has been investigated for arsenic: Concentration process: Chemical Precipitation. /Arsenic/
    [USEPA; Management of Hazardous Waste Leachate, EPA Contract No.68-03-2766 p.E-68 (1982)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Occupational Exposure Standards:

    OSHA Standards:

    8 hr Time-Weighted avg: 10 ug/cu m./Arsenic, inorganic cmpd (as As)/
    [29 CFR 1910.1018 (7/1/2001)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Threshold Limit Values:

    8 hr Time weighted Avg (TWA) 0.01 mg/cu m /Arsenic and inorganic cmpd, as As/
    [ American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists TLVs and BEIs. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. Cincinnati, OH, 2005, p. 12]

    BEI (Biological Exposure Index): Determinant: Inorganic arsenic plus methylated metabolites in urine; Sampling Time: end of workweek; BEI: 35 ug As/L. The determinant may be present in biological specimens collected from subjects who have not been occupationally exposed, at a concentration which could affect interpretation of the result. Such background concentrations are incorporated in the BEI value. /Arsenic, elemental and soluble inorganic cmpd/
    [ American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists TLVs and BEIs. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. Cincinnati, OH, 2005, p. 90]**QC REVIEWED**

    Excursion Limit Recommendation: Excursions in worker exposure levels may exceed three times the TLV-TWA for no more than a total of 30 min during a work day, and under no circumstances should they exceed five times the TLV-TWA, provided that the TLV-TWA is not exceeded. /Arsenic and inorganic compounds, as As/
    [ American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists TLVs and BEIs. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. Cincinnati, OH, 2005, p. 5]

    A1: Confirmed human carcinogen. /Arsenic and inorganic cmpd, as As/
    [ American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists TLVs and BEIs. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. Cincinnati, OH, 2005, p. 12]

    NIOSH Recommendations:

    5 mg/cu m (as As); NIOSH considers arsenic (inorganic cmpd, as As) to be a potential occupational carcinogen. /Arsenic (inorganic cmpd, as As)/
    [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997., p. 20]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Recommended Exposure Limit: 15 Ceiling Limit: (0.002 mg/cu m). /Arsenic (inorganic cmpd, as As)/
    [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997., p. 20]**PEER REVIEWED**

    NIOSH usually recommends that occupational exposures to carcinogens be limited to the lowest feasible concentration. /Arsenic (inorganic compounds, as As)/
    [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997., p. 20]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health:

    5 mg/cu m (as AS); NIOSH considers arsenic (inorganic cmpd, as As) to be a potential occupational carcinogen. /Arsenic (inorganic cmpd, as As)/
    [NIOSH. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-140. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997., p. 20]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Other Occupational Permissible Levels:

    ... The following countries had adopted the ... TLV of 0.5 mg/cu m: Austria, Belgium, Finland, Japan, and Holland. Czechoslavakia, East Germany, Hungary and Poland ... USSR ... 0.3 mg/cu m; Romania and Switzerland, 0.2 mg/cu m; Sweden 0.05 mg/cu m; and Italy 0.25 mg/cu m. /Arsenic and sol cmpd/
    [American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 5th ed. Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 1986., p. 37]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Manufacturing/Use Information:

    Major Uses:

    ALLOYING CONSTITUENT
    **PEER REVIEWED**

    COMPONENT OF ALLOYS; COMPONENT OF ELECTRICAL DEVICES
    **PEER REVIEWED**

    In metallurgy for hardening copper, lead, nonferrous alloys; automotive body solder; in semiconductor materials; in the manufacture of low-melting glass
    [Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 116]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Wood preservative
    [Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 135]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Herbicide, pesticide /Former use/
    [Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1996., p. 135]**PEER REVIEWED**

    To make gallium arsenide for dipoles and other electronic devices; doping agnet in germanium and silicon solid state products; special solders; medicine.
    [Lewis, R.J., Sr (Ed.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 13th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1997., p. 93]**PEER REVIEWED**

    (76)As radioactive tracer in toxicology
    [The Merck Index. 10th ed. Rahway, New Jersey: Merck Co., Inc., 1983., p. 116]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Used as a catalyst in the manufacture of ethylene oxide.
    [Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 3rd ed., Volumes 1-26. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, 1978-1984., p. V9 (1980) 455]**PEER REVIEWED**

    In the manufacture of chemicals; in the manufacture of photoreceptor arsenic-selenium alloys for xerographic plain paper copiers; in III-V compounds, such as InAs, GaAs, AlAs, etc.
    [Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present., p. V3 (1992) 628]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Used in semiconductor devices
    [IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work)., p. V23 49 (1980)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    MEDICATION
    **PEER REVIEWED**

    MEDICATION (VET)
    **PEER REVIEWED**

    Methods of Manufacturing:

    Arsenic "metal" is produced either by roasting the sulfide to form the oxide and then reducing the oxide with carbon or by heating arsenopyrite in the absence of air. When arsenic containing ores are smelted the arsenic becomes gaseous and burns in air to arsenic trioxide. This is trapped by electrostatic precipitators as a crude dust, which is roasted so as to drive off arsenic trioxide. The purified arsenic trioxide is collected in a cooling chamber.
    [International Labour Office. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. Vols. I&II. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office, 1983., p. 179]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Flue dust of copper and lead smelters, from which it is obtained as white arsenic (arsenic trioxide) in varying degrees of purity. This is reduced with charcoal. Commercial grade is not made in the US.
    [Lewis, R.J., Sr (Ed.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 13th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1997., p. 93]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Metallic arsenic can be obtained by the direct smelting of the minerals arsenopyrite or loellingite. The arsenic vapor is sublimed when these minerals are heated to about 650-700 deg C in the absence of air. The metal can also be prepared commercially by the reduction of arsenic trioxide with charcoal. The oxide and charcoal are mixed and placed into a horizontal steel retort jacketed with firebrick which is then gas-fired. The reduced arsenic vapor is collected in a water-cooled condenser. In a process by Boliden Aktuebolag, the steel retort, heated to 700-800 deg C in an electric furnace, is equipped with a demountable air-cooled condenser.
    [Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present., p. V3 (1992) 626]**PEER REVIEWED**

    General Manufacturing Information:

    Production of arsenic trioxide and metal at the Tacoma, WA, copper smelter were terminated by the end of 1985.
    [Bureau of Mines, Mineral Commodity Summaries p.13 (1987)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    China accounts for nearly all the world's production of commercial grade arsenic metal.
    [USGS; Mineral Commodity Summaries - Arsenic (1999). Available at database query page at http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/arsenic/160499.pdf as of June 15, 2001.]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Since the closure of the last domestic producer of arsenic in 1985, all arsenic has been derived from imported sources.
    [USDI; The Materials Flow of Arsenic in the United States. Washington, DC: Department of the Interior (1994). Available at http://greenwood.cr.usgs.gov/pub/min-info-pubs/usbm-ic/ic-9382/arsenic.pdf as of June 15, 2001.]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Formulations/Preparations:

    Grades: technical; crude (90-95%); refined (99%); semiconductor grade 99.999%; single crystals.
    [Lewis, R.J., Sr (Ed.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 13th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1997., p. 93]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Commercial arsenic metal is sold at a typical purity of 99% in fragment or lump (5-7.5 cm) form; in high purity (ranging from 99.99% to in excess of 99.999%+) forms for semiconductor applications; high purity forms are normally packaged in fragmented form in evacuated and sealed glass ampules to prevent oxidation.
    [Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present., p. V3 (1992) 628]**PEER REVIEWED**

    -6 mm to -325 mesh particles size, 99 to 99.999% purity grade; lumps 99.9999% grade
    [Kuney, J.H. and J.N. Nullican (eds.) Chemcyclopedia. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society, 1988., p. 174]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Consumption Patterns:

    90% AS AN ALLOYING ADDITIVE; 7% IN ELECTRONIC DEVICES (LEAD-BASE BATTERY GRIDS AND CABLE SHEATHING); 3% AS AN INTERMEDIATE FOR ARSENICALS USED IN VETERINARY MEDICINE (1971)
    **PEER REVIEWED**

    Approximately 10 tons of high-purity arsenic metal was used /in 1986/ in the electronics industry for the production of semiconductor materials.
    [BUREAU OF MINES. MINERAL COMMODITY SUMMARIES 1987 p.12]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Demand for arsenic metal is limited
    [Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present., p. V3 (1992) 628]**PEER REVIEWED**

    U. S. Production:

    (1986) No domestic production of arsenic or arsenic trioxide.
    [Bureau of Mines, Mineral Commodity Summaries p.12 (1987)]**PEER REVIEWED**

    U. S. Imports:

    (1973) 4.87X10+8 GRAMS (METAL)
    **PEER REVIEWED**

    In 1990, the U.S. requirement for metallic arsenic was supplied by the People's Republic of China.
    [Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present., p. V3 (1992) 628]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Import sources in 1996-99: China, 87%; Hong Kong, 5%; Japan, 3%; and other, 5%.
    [USGS; Mineral Commodity Summaries - Arsenic (7440-38-2). January 2001. Available from the Database Query page at http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/arsenic/160301.pdf as of April 5, 2001.]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Imports for consumption: (1996) 252 metric tons; (1997) 909 metric tons; (1998) 997 metric tons; (1999) 1,300 metric tons; (2000) 1,000 metric tons.
    [USGS; Mineral Commodity Summaries - Arsenic (7440-38-2). January 2001. Available from the Database Query page at http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/arsenic/160301.pdf as of April 5, 2001.]**PEER REVIEWED**

    U. S. Exports:

    (1996) 36 metric tons; (1997) 61 metric tons; (1998) 177 metric tons; (1999) 1,350 metric tons; (2000) 40 metric tons.
    [USGS; Mineral Commodity Summaries - Arsenic (7440-38-2). January 2001. Available from the Database Query page at http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/arsenic/160301.pdf as of April 5, 2001.]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Laboratory Methods:

    Special References:

    Synonyms and Identifiers:

    Related HSDB Records:

    6994 [ARSENIC COMPOUNDS]

    Synonyms:

    ARSEN
    **PEER REVIEWED**

    ARSENIC-75
    **PEER REVIEWED**

    ARSENIC BLACK
    **PEER REVIEWED**

    COLLOIDAL ARSENIC
    **PEER REVIEWED**

    Gray arsenic
    **PEER REVIEWED**

    Metallic arsenic
    **PEER REVIEWED**

    Formulations/Preparations:

    Grades: technical; crude (90-95%); refined (99%); semiconductor grade 99.999%; single crystals.
    [Lewis, R.J., Sr (Ed.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 13th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1997., p. 93]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Commercial arsenic metal is sold at a typical purity of 99% in fragment or lump (5-7.5 cm) form; in high purity (ranging from 99.99% to in excess of 99.999%+) forms for semiconductor applications; high purity forms are normally packaged in fragmented form in evacuated and sealed glass ampules to prevent oxidation.
    [Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present., p. V3 (1992) 628]**PEER REVIEWED**

    -6 mm to -325 mesh particles size, 99 to 99.999% purity grade; lumps 99.9999% grade
    [Kuney, J.H. and J.N. Nullican (eds.) Chemcyclopedia. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society, 1988., p. 174]**PEER REVIEWED**

    Shipping Name/ Number DOT/UN/NA/IMO:

    UN 1558; Arsenic

    IMO 6.1; Arsenic

    Standard Transportation Number:

    49 232 07; Arsenic, solid (arsenic metallic)

    EPA Hazardous Waste Number:

    D004; A waste containing arsenic may or may not be characterized as a hazardous waste following testing by the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure as prescribed by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations. /Arsenic/
    For more toxicological information see the Arsenic MSDS above.




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